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that he crossed the Indus, and obtained by marriage Arachoeia, Gedrosia, and the Pnropzunisadae, from b'cleucus. (Strab. xv. p. 724; Appinn, 891'. 55.) It was to his court that Megasthenes (as we have before stated) was sent. Snndrocottus was succeeded by Amitrochates (Sansc.Amitraghdta-v), which is almost certainly the true form of the name, though Strabo calls him Allitrochades. He was the contemporary of Antiochus Soter. (Athen. xiv. 67.) It is clear, from Athenleua (I. c.),that the same friendship was maintained between the two descendants as between the two fathers. Daimachus was sent an ambassador to Pnlibothra. (Strab. ii. p. 70.) Then came the wars between the Parthians and Bactn'ans, and the more complete establishment of the Graeco-Bactrinn kingdom, under Menander, Apollodotus, Eucratides, and their successors, to which we cannot here do more than allude. The efi‘ect, however, of these wars was to interrupt communication between the East and the West; hence the meagre nature of the historical records of the period. The expedition of Antiochus the Great to India brought to light the name of another king, Sophagasenus (Polyb. xi. 32), who was, in all probability, king of the Prasii. The Scythians finally put an end to the Buctrinn empire about n.c. 136. (De Guignes, Ma'm. da Hood. d. lmcr. xxv. p. 17.) This event is noticed in the Periplus (p. 22), where, however, Parthi must be taken to mean Scythi. (See also I’eriplua, p. 24 ; Dionys. Perieg.vv. 1087 —IUSS.) Eustathius adds, in his commentary on Dionysius t—Oi Kai ’IvBuaxriOar u'wfle'rros Ae'yopbrot. Minnagara was their chief town, a name, as appears from Isid. Char. ( p. 9), which was partly Scythian and partly Sunscrit. (Cf. also De Guignes, I. c.)

The Scythians were in their turn driven out of India by Vicramadilya, about )3. c. 56 (Colebrooke, 1nd. Algebra, Lond. 1817, p. 43), who established his seat of empire at (bfiayim'). At the time when the I’eriplus was compiled, the capital had been again changed, as we there read, ’Ogi’ivn, in final 1“: BamAcIa 'l'pd'repov by.

It is remarkable that no allusion has been found in any of the early literature of the Hindtis to Alexander the Great; but the effect of the later expeditions of the Bactrian kings is apparently indicated under the name of the I'avana. In the astronomical Works, the Yavana are burbarianswho understood astronomy, whence it has been conjectured by Colebrooke that the Alexandriami are referred to. (Ind. Algebra, p. 80.) Generally, there can be no doubt that the .l'ammr man nations to the W. of India. Thus, in the Mahabharata, they make war on the Indians, in conjunction with the Priradi (i. e. Pnrthi), and the Snare or Scythinns. (Lassen, Pentap. p. 60.) In the Drama. of the Mudra-Rixasn, which refers to the war between Chandragupta and another Indian King, it is stated that Cusumapun. (i. e. Palibothra) was surrounded by the Cirratae, Yavani,Cambogi, Persac, Bactrilns, and the other forces of Chandraguptn, and the king of the Mountain Regions. Lassen thinks, with much reason, that this refers to Scleucus, who, in his war with Chandragupta, reached, as we know, Palibothra. (Plin. vi. [7.)

With regard to the commerce of ancient India, which we have every reason to suppose was very extensive, it is impossible in this place to do more than to indicate a few of the principal facts. Indeed, the commerce of India, including the northern and the southern districts, may be considered as an epitome of the commerce of the world, there being few pro

voL II.


ductions of any other country which may not be found somewhere within its vast area.

The principal directions in which the commerce of ancient India flowed were, between Wcstcm India and Africa, between the interior of the Deccan and the outports of the southern and western coast of the Indian Ocean, between Ceylon and the ports of the Coromandel coast, between the Coromandel coast and the Auren Chersonesus, and, in the N., along the Ganges and into Titary and the territory of the Sinne. There appears also to have been a remarkable trade with the opposite coast of Africa, along the district now called Zanguebar, in sesamum, rice, cotton goods, cane-honey (sugar), which was regularly sent from the interior of Ariaca (Cancun) to Bnrygnza (Ber-ouch), and thence westward. (Perr'pl. p. 8.) Arab sailors are mentioned who lived at Muza (Mocha), and who traded with Barygnza. (Peripl. p. 12.) Bunions of India had established themsele on the N. side of Socotra, called the island of Dioecoridee (Peripl. p. 17): while, even so early as Agatharchidee, there was evidently an active commerce between Western India and Yemen. (Agntharch. p. 66, ed. Hudson.) Again, the rapidity with which Alexander got his fleet together seems to show that there must have been a considerable commerce by boats upon the Indus. At the time of the Periplus there was a chain of ports along the western coast, — Barygua (Beroaclz), Muziris in Limyrica (Mangalore), Nelkynda (Neliceram), Pattala (once supposed to be Tatta, but much more probably Hydrab-id), and Calliene, now Gallinn (Peripl. p. 30): while there were three principal emporia for merchandise, —- Ozone (Oujer'n), the chief mart of foreign commerce, (vide an interesting account of its ruins, Au'at. Ru. vol. vi. p. 36), and for the transmission of the goods to Barygazu; 'l'agara, in the interior of the Deccan (almost certainly Deoglu'r or Devanagan' near Ellom), whence the goods were conveyed over difficult roads to Barycuzn nnd Pluthana or Plithana, a place the exact position of which cannot now be determined, but, from the character of the products of the place, must have been somewhere in the Gluits.

Along the Regio Parnlia to the S., and on the Coromandel coast, were several ports of consequence; and extensive pearl fisheries in the kingdom of king I’andion. near Colchi, and near the island of Epicdorus, where the mwurdu (n silky thread spun from the Pinna~fish) was procured. (Peripl. p. 33). Further to the N. were, —Mnsnlia (Masulipatam), famous for its cotton goods (Pa-i111. p. 35); and Gauge, a great mart for muslin, betel, pearls, &c., somewhere near the mouth of the Ganges, its exact locality, however, not being new determinable. (Pen'pl. p 36.) The commerce of Ceylmr (Selumlib, i. e. Sinltahr-dwipa) was in pearls of the best class, and precious stones of all kinds, especially the ruby and the emerald. The notices in Ptolemy and I'liny shew that. its shores were “ell furnished with cornmercial towns (Ptol. vii. 4. 3, 4, 5), while we know from the narrative of Cosmos Indicupleustes (up. Montfaucon, Coll. Nova Bibi. Petr. vol. ii.) that it was, in the sixth century A.D., the centre of Hindu commerce. Besides these places, we learn that there was an emporium upon the Commanch coast, whence the merchant ships crossed over to Chryse (in all probability Malacca), in the Aurea Chersonesus; the name of it, however, is not specified.

It is probable, however, that the greatest line of commerce was from the N. and W. along the


Ganges, commencing with Taxila near tho Indus, or Lahore on that. river, and passing thence to Palibothra. This w'tm called the Royal Road. It is remarkable that the Ramayana describes a road from Aycxlhiya (Owls), over the Gauges and the Jumna, to Ilastirmpiira and Lahore, which must be nearly identical with that mentioned in the Greek grocrapliers. The commerce, which appears to have existed between the interior of Asia, India, and the land of the Sinac and Serica, is very remarkablev It is stated that from Thina (the capital of tlte Sinae) fine cottons and silk were sent on foot to Bactra, and thence down the Ganges to Limyrica. (Peripl. p. 36.) The I’eriplus speaks of a sort of annual fair which was held within the territory of the Thinae,tn which malabathron (betel) was imported from India. It is not easy to make out whereabouts Thina itself was situated, and none of the modem attempts at identification appear to us at all satisfactory: it is clearly, however, a northcm town, in the direction of Ladakll in Thibet, and not, as Ptolemy placed it, at Malacca in Tevwssen'm, or, as Vincent (Voyage of Neureltus, volv ii. p. 735) conjectured, at Arraozm. It is curious that silk should be so constantly mentioned as an article of import from other countries, especially Sericn, as there is every reason to suppose that it was indigenous in India; the name for silk throughout the whole of the Indian Archipelago being the Sanscrit word eulm. (Colebrooke, Asiat. Res. vol. v. p. 61.)

It is implausible to give in this work any details as to the knowledge of ancient India exhibited in the remains of native poems or histories. The whole of this subject has been examined with great ability by Lassen in his Indisclte AlterlhumsIrumle; and to his pages, to which we are indebted for most of the Sanscrit names which we have from time to time inserted, we molt refer our readers. From the careful comparison which has been made by Lassen and other orientalists (among whom Pott deserves cspccial mention) of the Indian names preserved by the Greek writers, at great amount of evidence has been adduced in favour of the general faithfulness of those who recorded what they saw or heard. In many instances, as may be seen by the names we have already quoted, the Greek writers have been content with a simple adaptation of the sounds which they heard to those best suited for their own pronunciation. When we consider the barbarous words which have come to Europe in modern times as the European representations of the names of places and peoples existing at the present time, we have reason to be surprised at the accuracy with which Greek cars appreciated, and the Greek language preserved, names which must have appeared to Greeks for more barbarous than they would have seemed to the modern conquerors of the country. The attention of modern scholars has detected many words of genuine Indian origin in a Greek dress; and an able essay by Prof. Tychsen on such words in the fragments of thsias will repay the perusal of those who are interested in such subjects. (See Ht-eten, Asiatic Nations, vol. ii. Append. 4, ed. Lond. 1846.)

The generic name of the inhabitants of the whole country to the E. of Persia and S. of the IIima'Iayn mountains (with the cxeeption of the Sores) was, in ancient times, Is'm ('1v60l),or Indians. It is true that the appellation referred to a much wider or much less extensive range of country, at difl'erent periods of history. There can, however, be no doubt, that


when the ancient writers speak of the him, they mean the inhabitants of a vast territory in the SE. part of Asia. The extension of the meaning of the name depended on the extension of the knowledge of India, and may be traced, though less completely, in the same manner as we have traced the gradual pmgress of knowledge relative to the land itself. The Indi are mentioned in more than one. of the fragments of I-Iecatacus (Hecat. Frag/m. I75, I78), and are stated by Aeschylus to have been a people in the neighbourhood of the Acthiopians. who made use of camels. (Suppl. 284—287.) Herodotus is the first ancient author who may be said to give any real description of them; and he is led to refer to them, only because a portion of this country. which adjoincd the territory of Dareius, was included in one of the satrapies of his vast empitc, and, therefore, paid him tribute. Some part of his narrative (iii. 94—106, iv. 44, vii. 65) may be doubted, as clearly from hearsay evidence; some is certainly fabulous. The snni of it is, that the Indians were the most. populous and richest nation which he knew of (iii. 94), and that they consisted of many ditferent tribes, speaking different. languages. Some of them, he states, dwelt in the immediate neighbourhood of the Aethiopians, and were, like them, black in colour (iii. 98. 101); some, in the marshes and desert. land still further E. The manners of these tribes, whom he calls I’adaei, and Callatiae or Calantiae, were in the lowest grade of civilisation,—a wandering race, living on raw flesh and raw fish, and of cannibal habits (Cf. Strnb. xv. p. 710, from which )lannert, v. I. p.3, infers that the Padaci were not after all genuine Indians, but Taitars.) Others (and these were the most warlike) occupied the more northern districts in the neighbourhood of Caspatyrus (Cashmt'r) in the Ref/in I’nctyicc. Herodotus places that part of India which was subject to Dareius iu the 20th satrapy, and states thattho annual tribute from it amounted to 360 talents (iii. 94). Xenophon speaks of the Indians as a great nation. and one worthy of alliance with Cyaxarcs and the Modes (i. 5. § 3, iii. 2. § 25, vi. 2. § 1), though he does not sptcily to what part of India he refcts. That, however. it was nearly the same as that which Herodotus describes, no ono can doubt.

From the writers subsequent to Alexander, the following particulars relative to the people and their manners may be gathered. The ancients considered that they were divided into seven castes :—I. Priests, the royal counsellors, and nearly connected with,if not the some as, the Bpaxpivls or Brahmins. (Strab. xv. pp. 7l2—716 ; Arrian, Ind. 11.) With these Strabo (1.0.) makes another class, whom he calls I‘aput'ives. These, as Grosskurd (iii. p. 153) has suggested, would seem, from the description of their habits, to have been fukirs, or penitents, and the same as the Gymnosophistae so often mentioned by Strabo and Arrian. This caste was exempted from taxes and service in war. 2. Ilusbandmen, who were free from war-service. They were the most numerous of the seven castes. (Stmb. xv. p. 704.) The land itself was held to belong to the king, who farmed it out, leaving to the cultivator one-fourth of the produce as his share. 8. Hunters and shepherds, who lead a wandering life, their office being to rear cattle and beasts of burden: the horse and the elephant were held to be for the kings only. (Strab. l. c) 4. Artima and handicrqflsmm, of all kinds. (Sn-ob. xv. p. 707.) 5. Il'arrio'rr. (Strab. l. c.) 6. Political qfiicera (é'tpopot, Stral. 1. a), who looked after affairs in the towns, &c., and reported secretly to the king. 7. The Royal CM sellers, who presided over the administration of justice (Stiab. l. c.), and kept the archives of the realm.

It was not pennitted for intermarriages to take place between any of these classes, nor for any one to ls‘rform the office allotted to another, except in the case of the first. caste (called also that of the thMaotpol), to which class a man might be raised from any of the other classes. (Strab. 1.0.; Arrian, Ind. c. 12; Diod. ii. 41; l’lin. vi. 19. s. 22.) We may remark that the modem writers on India recognise only four castes, called respectively Brahmas, Ksltatryas, Vaisyas, and Sudan, — a division which Heeren has suggested (we think without sufiicient evidence) to indicate the remains of distinct races. (Aciat. Nat. vol. ii. p. 220.)

The lowest of the people (now called Pariahs), as belonging to none of the above castes, are nowhere distinctly mentioned by ancient writers (but cf. Strab. xv. p. 709; Diod. ii. 29; Ari-ion, Ind. c. 10).

The general description of the Indians, drawn from Mcgasthenes and others who had lived with them, is very pleasing. Theft is said to have been unknown, so that houses could be left unfastened. (Strsb. xv. p. 709.) No Indian was known to speak falsehood. (Sn-ah. l. c.; Arr-ion, Ind. c. 12.) They were extremely temperate, abstaining wholly from wine (Strab. l. c.),—their hatred of drunkenness being so great that any girl of the harem, who should see the king drunk, was at liberty to‘kill him. (Stmb. xv. p. 710.) No class eat meat (Herod. iii. 100), their chief sustenance being rice, which afforded them also a strong drink, i.c. arrak. (Strab. xv. p. 694.) Hence an especial freedom from diseases, and long lira; though maturity was early developed, especially in the female sex, girls of seven years old being deemed marriageable. (Strab. xv. pp. 701-— 706; Arrian, Ind. 9.) The women are said to have been remarkable for their chastity, it being impossible to tempt them with any smaller gifts than that of an elephant (Arr-inn, Ind. c. 17), which was not considered discreditable by their countrymen; and the usual custom of marriage was for the father to take his daughters and to give them in marriage to the youths who had distinguished themselves most in gymnastic exercises. (Arriau, l. c.; Strab. xv. p. 717.) To strangers they ever showed the utmost hospitality. (Diod. ii. 42.) As warriors they were notorious (Arrian, Ind. c. 9; ELI-pod. Alex. v. 4; Plut. Alex. c. 59, 63): the weapons of the footsoldiers being bows and arrows, and a great twohandcd sword ; and of the cavalry, a juvelin and a round shield (Arrian. Ind. c. 16; Strab. xv. p. 717; Curt. viii. 9.) In the Ponjdb, it is said that the Macedonians encountered poisoned arrows. (Diod. xvii. 103.) Manly exercises of all kinds were in vogue among them. The chase was the peculiar privilege of royalty (Strab. xv. pp. 709—712 ; ths. Ind. 14; Curt. viii. 9, scq.); gymntstics, music, and dancing, of the rest of the people (Strab. xv. p. 709; Arrian, Exp. Alex. vi. 3); and juggling and slight of hand were then, as now, among their chief arousements. (Aclian, viii. 7; Juven. vi. 582.) Their usual dress befitted their hot climate, and was of White linen (Philost. Vil. Apoll. ii. 9) or of cottonstuff (Strab. xv. p. 719; Arritm, 1nd. 0. 16); their heads and shoulders partially covered (Arrian, l. c.; Curt. viii. 9, 15) or shaded from the sun by umbrellas (Arrian, l.c.); with shoes of white leather, with very thick and many-coloured soles. (Arriun, Le.) Gold and ivory rings and ear-rings were in


common use; and they were wont to dye their beards, not; only black and white, but: also red and green. (Arrian, I. c.) In general form of body, they were thin and elegantly made, with grout lithcncss (Arriun, Ind. o. 17; Strab. ii. p. 103, xv. p. 605), but were larger than other Asiatics. (Ari-ian, E-rpcd. Alex. v. 4; Plin. vii. 2.)

Some peculiar customs they had,which have lasted to thepresent day, such as self-immolation by water or fire, and throwing themselves front precipices (Strub. xv. pp. 716, 718; Curt. viii. 9; Art-inn, limped. Alex. vii. 5; Lucun. iii.42; Plin.vi. 19. s. 20), and the burning of the widow (mtlee); not, indeed, agreeably to any fixed law, but rather according to custom. (Strobxv. pp. 699—714; Diod. xvii. 91, xix. 38; Cic. Tm. Disp. v. 27.) For writing materials they used the bark of trees (Strab. xv. p. 717: Curt. ix. l5), probably much as the modern Cinghalcse use the leaf of the palm. Their houses were generally built of wood or of the bamboo-cane; but in the cold mountain districts, of clay. (Arrian, 1nd. c. 10.) It: is a remarkable proof of the extent to which civilisation had been carried in ancient India, that there were, throughout great part of the country, high roads, with stones set up (answering to our milestones), on which were inscribed the name of the place and the distance to the next station. (Strab. xv. pp. 689—708; Arrian, Ind. c. 3.) [V.]

lN'DICUS OCEANUS (6 'IvSmbx dmeavdr, Agath. ii. 14; Th 'lvBurhv n‘Aa'yor, Ptol. vii. 1. § 5). The Indian Ocean of the ancients may be considered generally as that great sea which washed the whole of the southern portion of India, extending from the parallel of longitude of the mouths of the Indus to the shores of the Chemonesus Aurea. It seems, indeed, to have been held by them as part, however, of a yet greater extent of water, the limits of which were undefined, at least to the southwards, and to which they gave the generic name of the Southern Sea. Thus Herodotus speaks of 1‘] yo-ri'q Salmon in this sense (iv. 37), as does also Strabo (ii. p. 121); Diodorus calls it 1‘7 xu-n‘z peonquiav o’mecwér (iii 38), while the Erythrnean sea, taken in its most extended meaning, doubtless conveyed the same sense. (Herod. ii. 102, iv. 37; compared with Strab. i. p.33.) Ptolemy gives the distances across this sea as stated by seafaring men; at the some time he guards against their over-statements, by recording his opinion in favour of no more than one-third of their measurements: this space he calls 8670 studio (i. 13. § 7). The distance along its shom, following the indentations of the coast-line, he estimates, on the same authority, at 19,000 stadia. it is evident, however, that Ptolemy himself hnd no clear idea. of the real form of the lndian Ocean, and that he inclined to the opinion of Hipparchus, l’olybius, and Marinas of Tyre, that it was a vast inland sea, the southern portion of it being bounded by the shores of an unknown land which he supposed to connect Cab tigara in the Chersonesus Aurea with the promontory of Prasum (now Cape Delgado) in Africa (comp. iv. 9. 1, 3, vii. 3. 1, 3, 6). The origin ofthis error it is not easy now to ascertain, but it seems to have been connected with one which is found in the historians of Alexander's expedition, according to which there was a connection between thelndus and the Nile, so that the sources of the Acesines (Chemibhwro confounded with those of the Nile. (Arman, vi. 1.) Strabo, indeed, appears to have had some leaning to a similar view, in that be connected the Erythraeau with the Atlantic sea p. 130); which was also

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Asia, and the boundary westward of India. It is mentioned first in ancient authors by Hecataeus of Miletus (F rrlgm. I44, ed. Klausen), and subsequently by Herodotus (iv. 44), who, however, only notices it in connection with various tribes who, he states, lived upon its banks. As in the case of India itself, so in that of the Indus, the first real description which the ancients obtained of this river was from the historians of Alexander the Great's marches. Arrian states that its sources were in the lower spurs of the Paropamisus, or Indian Caucasus (Himlri-Krisk); wherein Ire agrees with Mela (iii. 7. § 6), Strobe (xv. p. 690), Curtius (viii. 9. §3), and other writers. It. was, in Arrian's opinion, a vast stream, even from its first sourcw, the largest river in the world except the Ganges, and the recipient of many tributaries, themselves larger than any other known stream. It has been conjectured, from the descriptions of the Indus which Arnan has preserved, that the writers from whom he has condensed his narrative must have seen it at the time when its waters were at their highest, in August and Sep— tember. Quoting fromCtesias (v. 4, l I), and with the authority of the other writers (v. 20), Arrian gives 40 stadia for the mean breadth of the river, and I5 studio where it was most contracted; below the confluence of the principal tributaries he considers its breadth may be 100 stadia, and even more than this when much flooded (vi. l4). Pliny, on the other hand, considers that it is nowhere more than 50 stadia brood (vi. 20. s. 23); which is clearly the same opinion as that of Strabo, who states, that though those who had not measured the breadth put it down at 100 stadia, those, on the other hand, who had measured it, asserted that 50 stadia was its greatest, and 7 studio its least breadth (xv. p. 700). Its depth, according to Pliny (L 0.), was nowhere less than 15 t'athorns. According to Diodorus, it was the greatest river in the world after the Nile (ii. 35). Curtius states that its waters were cold, and of the colour of the sea (viii. 9. § 4). Its current is held by some to have been slow (as by Mela, iii. 7. § 6); by others, rapid (as by Eustath. in Dionye. Perieg. v. 1088). Its course towards the sea,ufter leaving the mountains, was nearly SW. (Plin. vi. 20. s. 23); on its way it received, according to Strabo (xv. p. 700) and Arrian (v. 6), 15, according to Pliny, 19 other tributary rivers (1.0.). About 2000 stadia from the Indian Ocean, it was divided into two principal arms (Strsb. xv. p. 701), forming thereby n Delta, like that of the Nile, though not so large, called Pattalene, from its chief town Pattala (which Arrian asserts meant. in the Indian tongue, Delta (v. 4); though this statement may be questioned). (Cf. also Arrian, Ind. 2; Dionys. Perieg. v. 1088.) The flat land at the mouths of rivers which flow from high mountain-ranges with a mpid strcnm, is ever changing: hence, probably, the difi'ercnt accounts which we receive of the mouths of the Indus from those who recorded the history of Alexander, and from the Works of later geographers. The former (as we have stated), with Strnbo, gave the Indus only two principal outlets into the Indian Ocean,—at a distance, the one from the other, ac-cording to Aristohulus (up. Strab. xv. p. 690), of 1000 stndin, but, according to Nearchus (L 0.), of 1800 stadia. The latter mention more than two months: Mela (iii. 7. § 6) speaking of “ plura. ostia," and Ptolemy giving the names of seven (vii. I. § 28), itr which he is confirmed by the author of the Periplus Maris Erythraci (p. 22). The names of these mouths, in a direction from W. to R, are:— few miles below Chicano, but on the right bank of 1. 247mm flat“; (the Pitli or Lohm-i), not impro- the river, where excavations have brought to light bany in the arm of the stream by which Alexander's numerous coins and objects of ancient art, some of

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ija or Kori). For the conjectural identifications of these mouths, most of which are now closed, except in high floods, see Lassen‘s Map of Ancient India. The principal streams which flowed into the Indus arm—on the right orwestern bank of the river, the Choaspcs, called by Arrian the Guraeus, and by Ptolemy the Suustus (the Attok); and the Cophen (Cdbul river), with its own smaller tributary the Choes (the Kow); and, on the left or eastern bank, the greater rivers, -—- which give its name to the Panjdb (or the country of the Five Rivers),—theAcesines (Cltmlib), the Hydaspes or Bidaspes (Jelum), thc llydmotcs (Ravi); and the Hypanis~ or Hyphasis (the Sulledge). [See these rivers under their respcctivo namch As in the case of the Ganges, so in that of the Indus, it has been left to modern researches to determine accurately the real sources of the river: it is now well known that the Indus rises at a considerable distance on the NE. side of the Hima'layn, in what was considered by the Hindus their most sacred land, and which was also the district in which, on opposite sides of the mountains, the Brahmapidra, the Ganges, and the Jumna, have their several sources. From its source, the Indus flows NW. to [shat-do, and thence W. and S\V., till it bursts through the mountain barriers, and descends into the plain of the Panjdb, passing along the western edge of Cashmlr. (Ititter, Erdlcunde, vol. v. p. 216; Itloorcroft, Travels in Ludakh and Casbmz'r, 1841.) The native name Sindhu has been preserved with remarkable accuracy, both in the Greek writers and in modern times. Thus, in the Periplus, we find zweé; (p. 23); in Ptolemy, Elvewv (vii. 1. § 2), from which, by the softening of the Ionic pronunciation, the Greeks obtained their form 'deas. (Cf. I’lin. vi. 20; Cosmos, Indie. p. 337.) The present name is Sind or Sindhu. (Ritter, vol. v. pp. 29. 171.) V.] IXDL’S, a river of the south-east of Caria, near the town of Cibyra. On its banks was situated, according to Livy (xxxviii. 14), the fort of Thabusiun. l'liny (v. 29) states that sixty other rivers, and upwards "of a hundred mountain torrents, emptied themselves into it. This river, which is said to have received its name from some Indian who had been thrown into it from an elephant, is probably no other than the river Calbis (defir, Stmb. xiv. p. 651; Pm]. v. 2. § 11; Pump. Mela, i. 16), at present called Quingi, or T (was, which has its sources on Mount Cudmus, above Cibyra, and passing through Caria empties itself into the sea near Caunus, opposite to the island of Rhodes. [L. 8.] INDU’STRIA, a town of Liguria, situated on the right bank of the l’adua, about 20 miles below Turin. It is mentioned only by Pliny, who tells us that its ancient name was BOUINCOMAGUS, which he connects with Bodincus, the native name of the I’adus [Farms], and adds that it was at this point that river first attained a considerable depth. (Plin iii. 16. s. 20.) Its site (which was erroneously fixed by earlier writers at Casale) has been established beyond question at a place called Mantel: 110' 1'0, :1


them of great beauty, as well as several inscriptions, which leave no doubt that the remains thus discovered are those of Industria. They also prove that it enjoyed municipal rank under the Roman empire. (Ricolvi e Rivautella, II n'to dell’ entice cidd. d'Induslria, ¢j~c.,'1‘orino, 1745, Mo; Millin, V03]. en Ple'mont, vol. i. pp. 308—311.) [15. H. 13.]




INGAUNI CITYGUVOL), a Lignrian tribe, who inhabited the sea~coast and adjoining mountains, at the foot of the Maritime Alps, on the W. side of the Gulqu Genoa. Their position is clearly identified by that of their capital or chief town, Albium Ingaunum, still called Albenga. They appear to have been in early times one of the most. powerful and warlike of the Ligurian tribes, and bmr a prominent part in the long-continued wars of the R0mans with that people. Their name is first mentioned in B. c. 205, on occasion of the landing of Mago, the brother of Hannibal, in Lignria. They were at that time engaged in hostilities with the Epanterii, a neighbouring tribe who appear to have dwelt further inland: the Carthaginian general concluded an alliance with them, and supported them against the mountaineers of the interior; he subsequently returned to their capital after his defeat. by the Romans in Cisalpine Gaul, and it was from thence that he took his final departure for Africa, 1;. c. 203. (Liv. xxviii. 46. m. 19.) After the close of the Second Panic War, a. c. 201, a treaty was concluded with the Ingauni by the Roman consul, C. Aelius (Id. xxxi. 2); but. sixteen years later (in n. c. 185) we find them at war with the Romans, when their territory was invaded by the consul Appius Claudius, who defeated them in several battles, and took six of their towns. (Id. xxxix. 32.) But four years afterwards, 13.0. 181, they were still in arms, and were attacked for the second time by the procunsul Aemilius I’aullus. This general was at first involved in great perils,> the Ingauni having surprised and besieged him in his camp; but he ultimately obtained a great and decisive victory, in which 15,000 of the enemy were killed and 2500 taken prisoners. This victory procured to Acmilius the honour of a triumph, and was followed by the submission of the whole people of the Ingauni (“ Ligurum Ingaunorum omne nomen "), while all the other Ligurians sent to Rome to sue for peace. (Liv. x1. 25—28,84.) From this time we hear nothing more of the Ingauni in history, probahly on account of the loss of the later books of Livy; for that they did not long remain at peace with Home, and that hostilities were repeatedly renewed before they were finally reduced to submis¢ sion and settled down into the condition of Itoman subjects, is clearly proved by the fact stated by Pliny, that their territory was assigned to them, and its boundaries fixed or altered, no less than thirty times. (“Liguribus Ingaunis agro triciea date," Plin. iii. 5. s. 6.) They appear to have been much addicted, in common with other maritime Ligurian tribes, to habits of piracy, a tendency which they retained down to a late period. (Liv. it]. 28, 41; Vopisc. Procul. 12.) We find them still existing

_and recognised as a separate tribe in the days of

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