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Strabo and Pliny; but we have no means of fixing the extent or limits of their territory, which evidently comprised a considerable portion of the sencoast on each side of their capital city, and probably extended on the W. till it met that of the lntemelii. It must have included several miner towns, but their capital, of which the name is variously written Albium Ingaunum end Albingaunum, is the only town expressly assigned to them by ancient Writers. [Anewu Inosunum] (Strab. iv. p. ‘ 02 ; l’lin. iii. 5. s. 6.) [1%. H. 13.] l’NGENA. [Asuch-run]

INI’UERUM, a town in Lower Psnnonia, in the neighbourhood of which there was a practorium. or place of rest for the emperors when they travelled in those parts. (Itin. Ant. pp. 260, 265.) Some identify it with the modern Pouega. [L. 5.]

INO'PUS. [Draws]

INSA'NI MONTHS ('rh Mumhuve 6pm Ptol. iii. 3. § 7), a range of mountains in Sardinia, mentioned by Livy (xxx. 39) in a manner which seems to imply that they were in the NE. part of the island; and this is confirmed by Cluudian, who speaks of them as rendering the northern part of Sardinia rugged and savage, and the adjoining seas stormy and dangerous to navigators. (Claudian, B. Gild. 513.) Hence, it is evident that the name was applied to the lofty and rugged rangu of mountains in the N. and NE. part of the island: and was, doubtless, given to them by Roman navigators, on account of the sudden and frequent storms to which they gave rise. (Liv. 1.0.). Ptolemy also places the Mawdpevn flpn—a name which is obviously translated from the Latin one—in the interior of the island, and though he would seem to consider them as nearer the W. than the E. coast, the position which he assigns them may still be referred to the same range or muss of mountains, which extends from the neighbourhood of Olbin (Terra Noon) on the E. coast, to that of Cornus on the W. [SARms'uj [15. 11.13.]

l'Xb'UBRES, a people both in Gallia Transnlpina and Gullltt. Cisalpina D'Anville, on the authority of Livy (v. 34), places the Insubres of Galliu Transalpina in that port of the territory of the Acdui where there was 1 town Mediolannm, between Forum Segusiunorum [Forum Ssovsmsouuu] and Lugdunum (Lyon). This is the only ground that there is for supposing that there existed a. people or a pngus in Gallis. Tn-nsalpina named Insubres. Of the Insubrcs in Gallia Cisalpina, an account is given elsewhere [VoL I. p. 936]. [G. L.]

I’NSULA, or I’NSULA ALLO’BROGUM, in Gallia Narbonensis. Livy (xxi. 31), after describing Han— nibal‘s passage of the Rhone, says that he directed his march on the wt side towards the inland parts of Gulliu. At his fourth encampment he came to the Insula, “ where the rivers Arsr and the Rhodanus, flowing down from the Alps by two different directions, comprise between them some tract of country, and then unite: it is the level country between thetn which is called the Insula. The Allobruges dwell near.“ One might easily see that there must be some error in the word Arar; for Hannibal could not have reached the latitude of Lugdunnm (Lyon) in four days from the place where he crossed the Rhone; and this is certain, though we do not know the exact place where he did cross the Rhone. Nor, if he had got to the junction of the Arar and Rhodnnus, could Livy say that he reached a place near which the Allobroges dwell; for, if he had

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marched from the learn (hére) to the junction of the Swine and Rhone, he would have passed through the country of the Allobrogcs. [Anmenocns] Nor does the Arar (Swine) flow from the Alps, though the learn does. Besides this, if Hannibal had gone so far north as the part between the Sm'rw and Rhone, he would have gone much further north than was necessary for his purpose, as Livy describes it. It is therefore certain, if we look to the context only, that we must read “ Isen" for " Ann” and there is a reading of one MS, cited by Gronovius, which shows that Isara may have once been in the text, and that it has been corrupted. (\Valckenaer, Geog. (10. vol. i. p. 135.) Livy in this pmsngo copied l’olybius, in whose M55. (iii. 49) the name of the river is Scorns 0r Scaras; a name which the editors ought to have kept, instead of changing it into lsuras ('Io'aipm), us Bukker and others before him have done, though the lsars or Iaére is certainly the river. In the latest editions of Ptolemy (ii. 10. § 6) the learn appears in the form Isar (loop); but it is certain that there nre great variations in the hiss. of Ptolemy, and in the editions. Wnlckenaer (vol. i. p. 134) says that the edition of L'lm of 1482 has hicnrns, and that there is “Sicnros" in the Stmssburg editions of 1513, 1520, 1522. The editio princeps of 1475 has “Cisar;" and others have “ Tisar" and “ 'l‘isara." The probable conclusion is, that “ Isc-nr" is one of the forms of the name, which is as genuine a Celtic form as “ Is~ar" or “ Isara," the form in Cicero (ad Fam. x. 15, &c.). “ Isc-nra" may be compared with the British forms “ Isaca" (the Ere). Isea,nnd lschalis; and Is-ara. with the names of the Italian rivers Ausar and Aesis.

l’olybius compares the country in the angle between the Rhone and the [sore (Isére) to the Delta of Egypt in extent and form, except that in the Delta the sea unites the one side and the channels of the streams which form the two other sides; but. here mountains almost inaccessible form the third side of this Insulu. He describes it as populous, and a corn country. The junction of the leer, us Strabo calls the river (p. 185), and the Rhone, was, according to him,opposite the place where the Ce't'ermes approach near to the banks of the Rhone.

The lei-re, one of the chief branches of the Rhone, rises in the high Pennine Alps, and flows through the valleys of the Alpine region by u very winding course past St. Maurice, Moutiers, Con/fans, Montmeilt'an, where it begins to be navigable, Grenoble, the Roman Culnro or Gratianopolis, and joins the Rhone a few miles north of Valentin (Valence). Its whole course is estimated at about 160 miles. Ham nibal, after staying a short time in the country about the junction of the Rhone and the Isc're, commenced his march over the Alps. It is not material to decide whether his whole army crossed over into the Insula or not, or whether he did himself, though the words of Polyhius imply that he did. It is certain that he marched up the valley of the Isére towards the Alps; and the way to find out where he crossed the Alps is by following the valley of the Isére. [G. L.]

INSURA. [MYLAEJ

INTELE'NE ('lv-r-nA-nw'y), one of the five provinces \V. of the Tigris, ceded, in A.D. 297, by Nurses to Galerius and the Romans. (I‘etr. Petr. Fr. 14, Fragm. Hist. Grace. ed. Miiller; Gibbon, c. xiii.) St. Martin, in his note to Le Beau (Bus Empire, rel. i. p. 380), would read for lntelene, Ingilene (‘Iwrkfiv-rl), the name of a small province of Armenia near the sources of the Tigris mentioned by lipiphanius ([laeres. LX. vol. i. p. 505, ed Valcsius; comp. St. thrtiu,1IIEm. cur I’Armem'e, vol. i. pp. 28, 97.) [E. B. J.]

INTEME'LII (’IthiMor), a maritime people of Liguria, situated to the W. of the Ingauni, at the foot of the Maritime Alps. They are but little known in history, being only once mentioned by Livy, in conjunction with their neighbours, the Ingauni, as addicted to piratical habits, to repress which their coast was visited by a Roman squadron in B. c. 180. (Liv. rtl. 41.) Strabo speaks of them as astill existing tribe (Strab. iv. p. 202); and their capital, called Albium Intemelium or Albintemelium, now corrupted into Vt'nlimiglia, was in his time a considerable city. [ALBIUM INTENELIUMJ We have no means of determining the extent or limits of their territory; but it seems to have bordered on that of the Ingauni on the E., and the Vediantii on the W.: at least, these are the only tribes mentioned as existing in this part of Liguria by writers of the Roman Empire. It, probably comprised also the whole valley of the RUTUBA or Roja, one of the most considerable of the rivers, or rather mountain torrents, of Liguria, which rises at the foot of the Col di Teada, and falls into the sea at Vinlimr'glah. [11). II. 15.]

INTERAMNA ('lv-re'papvn: Eth. Interamnas, -atis). was the name of several cities in difi'erent parts of Italy. Its obvious etymology, already pointed out by Yarn) and Festus, indicates their position at the confluence of two streams (“inter amnes," Varr. L. L. v.28, Fest. 0. Armies, p. 17, Miill.); which is,however, but partially borne out by their actual situation. The form Inn-man.va (’Iv-repa’vav), and the ethnic form Interamnis, are also found, but more rarely.

1. A Roman colony on the banks of the Liris, thence called, for distinction‘s sake, Inn-manna Ltmxas. It was situated on the left or northern bank of the Liris, near the junction of the little river which flows by Aquinum (confounded by Strabo with the Melpis, a much more considerable stream), and was distant 6 miles from the latter city, and 7 from Casinum. Its territory, which was included in Latium, according to the more extended use of that name, must have originally belonged to the Volscians, but we have no mention of Interamna as a Volscian city, nor indeed any evidence of its existence previous to the establishment of the Roman colony there, in n. c. 312. This took place at the same time with that at the neighbouring town of Casinum, the object of both being obviously to secure the fertile valley of the Liris from the attacks of the Samnites. (Liv. ix. 28; Diod. xix. 105; Vell. Pat. i. 14.) Hence we find, in u. c. 294, the territory of Interamna ravaged by the Samnitcs, who did not, however, venture to attack the city itself; and, at the opening of the following campaign. it was from Interamna that the consul Sp. Carvilius commenced his operations against Samnium. (Liv. x. 36, 39.) Its territory was at a later period laid waste by Hannibal during his march by the Via Latina from Cnpua upon Rome, is. c. 212 (Liv. xxvi. 9): and shortly afterwards the name of Interamna appears among the twelve refractory colonies which declared themselves unable to furnish any further nupplies, and were subsequently (a. c. 204) loaded with heavier burdens in consequence (ld. xxvii. 9, xxix. 15). After the Social War it passed, in comtnon with the other Latin colonies, into the state of

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a mnnicipium; and we find repeated mention of it as a municipal town, apparently of some consequence. (Cic. Plril. ii. 41, pro Mil. l7; Strab. v. p. 237; Plin. iii. 5. a. 9.) It received a colony under the Second Triumvirate, but does not appear to have onjoyed colonial rank, several inscriptions of imperial times giving it only the title of a municipiurn. (Lib. Col. p. 234; Orell. laser. 2357, 3828.) Its Inhition at some distance from the line of the Via Latina was probably unfavourable to its prosperity in later times: from the same cause its name is not found in the Itineraries, and we have no means of tracing its existence after the fall of the Roman Empire. The period at which it was ruined or deserted is unknown; but mention is found in documents of the middle agm of a “Castrum Terame," and the site of the ancient city, though now entirely uninhabited, is still called T erame. It presents extensive remains of ancient buildings, with vestiges of the walls, streets, and aqueducts; and numerous inscriptions and other objects of antiquity have been discovered there, which are preserved in the neighbouring villages. (Romanelli, vol. iii. p. 384; Cluver, Ital. p. 1039. The inscriptions are given by Mommsen, Inscr. ltegn. Neap. pp. 221, 222.)

I’liny calls the citizens of this Interamna “ Interamnates Succasini, qui et Lirinates vocantur." The former appellation was evidently bestowed from their situation in the neighbourhood of Cosinum, but is not adopted by any other author. T hey are called in inscriptions “ Interamnates Lirinates,“ and sometimes “ Lirinatm" alone: hence it is probable that we should read “ Lirinatnm " for “ Larinatum " in Silius Italicus (viii. 402), where he is enumerating Volscirm cities, and hence the mention of Larinuin would be wholly out of place.

2. (T arm), a city of Umbria, situated on the river Nor, a little below its confluence with the Velinus, and about 8 miles E. from Narnia. It was surrounded by a branch of the river, so as to be in fact situated on an island, whence it derived its name. The inhabitants are termed by Pliny “ Interunmates cognomiuo Nartes," to distinguish them from those of the other towns of the name; and We find them designated in inscriptions as Internmnatmi Nartcs and Nahartes; but we do not find this epithet applied to the city itself. No mention is found of lnteramna in history previous to its passing under the Roman yoke; but there is no doubt that it was an ancient Umbrian city, and an inscription of the time of Tiberius has preserved to us the local tradition that it was founded in B. c. 672, or rather more than 80 years after Rome. (Orell. Imcr. 689.) When we first hear of Interamna in history it appears as a flourishing municipal town, deriving grtatt wealth from the fertility of its territory, which was irrigated by the river Nar. Hence it is said to have been, as early as the civil wars of Marina and b'ulla, one of the “florentissima Italiae municipia" (Florus, iii. 21); and though it suffered a severe blow upon that occasion, its lands being confiscated by Sulla and portioned out among his soldiers, we still find it mentioned by Cicero in a manner that proves it to have been a place of importance (Cic ad Alt. iv. 15). Its inhabitants were frequently engaged in litigation and disputes with their neighbours of Route, on account of the regulation of the waters of the \'elinus, which joins the Nar a few mila above Interamna; and under the reign of Tiberius they were obliged to enter an energetic protest against a project that had been started for turning aside the course of the Nov, so that it should no longer flow into the Tiber. (Tnc. A no. i. 79.) In the civil war between Vitelliue and Vespasian it was occupied by the troops of the former while their head-quarters were at Narnia, but was taken with little resistance by An'ius Vurus. (Id. Hist. iii. GI, 63.) Inscriptions sufliciently attest the continued municipal importance of Interamna under the Roman empire; and, though its position was some miles to the right of the great F laminian highway, which proceeded from Narnia direct to Mevania (Strub. v. p. 227: Tee. Hist. ii. 64), a branch line of road was carried from Narnia by Interamna and Spoletium to Forum Flaminii, where it rejoined the main highroad. This line, which followed very nearly that of the present highroad from Rome to Pemgia, appears to have latterly become the more important of the two, and is given in the Antonius and Jerusalem Itineraries to the exclusion of the true Via Flaminia. (ltin. Ant. p. 125; Itin. flier. p. 613; Tab. Pout.) The great richness of the meadows belonging to Interamna on the banks of the Nar is celebrated by Pliny, who tells us that they were cut for hay no less than four times in the year (Pliu. xviii. 28. s. 67); and ' ‘acitus also represents the same district as among the most fertile in Italy (Tao. Ann. i. 79). That great historian himself is generally considered as a native of Interamna, but without any distinct authority: it appears, however, to have been subsequently the patrimonial residence, and probably the birthplace, of his descendants, the two emperors T m citus and Florianua. (Vop'isc. Florian. 2.) In A. n. 193, it was at Interenma that a deputation from the senate met the emperor Septimius Severus, when on his march to the capital (Spartian. Sever. 6); and at a later period (A. D. 253) it was there that the two emperors, Trebonianus Gallus and his son Volusianus, who were on their march to oppose Aeniilianus in Mocsin, were put to death by their own soldiers. (Eutrop. ix. 5; Vict. 0088. SI, Epit.3l.)

Interamnn became the see of a bishop in very early times, and has subsisted without interruption through the middle ages on its praent site; the name being gradually corrupted into its modern form of Tcrni. It is still a flourishing,' city, and rctains various relics of its ancient importance, including the remains of an amphitheatre, of two temples supposed to have been dedicated to the sun and to Hercules, and some portions of the ancient Thermae. None of these ruins are, however, of much importance or interest. Many inscriptions have also been discovered on the site, and are preserved in the Palazzo Publico.

About 3 miles above Term' is the celebrated cascade of the Velinus, which owes its origin to the Roman M'. Curius; it is more fully noticed under the article \‘nuxus.

3. (Teramo), a city of Picenum, in the territory of the Praetutii, and probably the chief place in the district of that people. The name is omitted by Pliny, but is found in Ptolemy, who distinctly assigns it. to the Praetutii; and it is mentioned also in the Liber Coloniarum among the “ Civitstes Piceni.” It there bears the epithet of “Palestine.” or, as the name is elsewhere written, “ Paletina;” the origin and meaning of which are wholly unknown. (I’tol. iii. 1. § 58; Lib. Col. pp. 226, 259.) In the genuine fragments of Frontinus, on the other hand, the citizens are correctly designated as “ Interamnatea Praetntiani.” (Frontin. i. p. 18, ed. Lachm.) Being situated in the interior of the country, at a distance from the highroads, the name is not found in the

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Itineraries, but we know that it was an episcopal see and a place of some importance under the R0mnn empire. The name is already corrupted in our MSS. of the Liber Coloniarum into Terarnne, whence its modern form of Teramo. But in the middle ages it appears to have been known also by the name of Aprutium, supposed to be a corruption of Praetutium, or rather of the name of the people Praetulii, applied (as was so often the case in Gaul) to their chief city. Thus we find the name of Abrutium among the cities of Picenuin enumerated by the Geographer of Raveuna (iv. 81); and under the Lombards we find mention of a “comes Aprutii." The name has been retained in that of Abruuo. now given to the two northernmost provinces of the kingdom of Naples, of one of which, called Abruuo Ulteriore, the city of Temmo is still the capital. Vestiges of the ancient theatre, of baths and other buildings of Roman date, as well as statues, altars, and other ancient remains, have been discovered on the site: numerous inscriptions have been also found, in one of which the citizens are designated as “ lnteramnites Praetutiani." (Rmnanelli, vol iii. pp. 297—301; Mommsen, I. R. N. pp. 329—331.)

There is no foundation for the existence of a fourth city of the name of Interamna among the F rentani, as assumed by Roma-nelli, and,from him, by Cramer, on the authority of a very apocryplnil inscription. [FRENTANL] [1-]. H. 3.]

lN‘l‘ERAMNE’SIA (Phlegon. do Longaev. l: Eth. lnteranmienses, Pliu. iv. 21. a. 35), a stipendiary town of Lusitania, named in the inscription of Alcantara, and supposed by Ukert to have been situated between the Cod and Tourou, near Cartel Rodrigo and Almeida. (Ukert, vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 393.) [P. s]

INTERAMNIUM. [As'runns]

INTERCA'TIA. [VACCAEL]

INTERCISA or AD INTERCISA, is the name given in the Itineraries to a station on the Via Flalninia, which evidently derives this name from its being situated at the remarkable tunnel or gallery hewn through the rock, now known as the Pusan del Furlo. (Ilia. flier. p. 614; Tab. Pent.) This passage, which is still traversed by the modern highway from Rome to Fano, is a work of the emperor Vespaaian, as an inscription cut in the rock informs us, and was constructed in the seventh year of his reign, A. D. 75. (Inscr. ap. Clover, Ital. p. 619.) It is also noticed among the public works of that emperor by Aurelius Victor, who calls it I’etra Pertusu; and the same name (l'lérpa weproi'ioa) is given to it by I’rocopius, who has left us a detailed and accurate description of the locality. (Vict. Caes. 9, Elm. 9; Procop. B. G. ii. II.)

The valley of the Cantiano, a tributary of the Metaurus, which is here followed by the Flainiuian Way, is at this point so narrow that it is only by cutting the road out of the solid rock that it can be carried along the face of the precipice, and, in addi. tiou to this, the rock itself is in one place pierced by an arched gallery or tunnel, which gave rise to the name of Petra Pcrtusa. The actual tunnel is only 126 feet long, but the whole length of the pass is about half a mile. Claudiau alludes to this remarkable work in terms which prove the admiration that it excited. (Cloud. do VI. Com. Hon. 502.) At a later period the pass was guarded by a fort, which, from its completely commanding the Flaminian Way, became a. military post of importance, and is repeatedly mentioned during the wars of the Goths

with the generals of Justinian. (Proeop. B. G. ii. 11, iii. 6, iv. 28, 34.) The Jerusalem Itinerary places the station of Intercisa 9 M. P. from Calles (Cogli), and the same distance from Forum Sempmnii (Fouombrone), both of which distances are just about correct. (D’Anville, Analyse de I'Italie,

155.) [11 H. 13.]

lNTl-IRNUM MARE, the great inland or Mediterranean Sea, which washes the coasts of Southern Europe, Northern Africa, and Asia Minor.

1. Name—In the Hebrew Scriptures, this sea, on the W. of Palestine, and therefore behind a person fut-in; the E., is called the “ Hinder Scn"(1)eut. xi. 24; Joel, ii. 20), and also the " Sea of the Philistines "(52:04. xxii. 81), because that people occupied the largust portion of its shores. l’re-eminently it was “the Great Sex ” (Nam. xxxiv. 6, 7; Josh. i. 4. ix. 1, xv. 47; Each. xlvii. 10, 15, 20), or simply "the Set" (1 Kings, v. 9; comp. 1 Mace. xiv. 34. xv. 11). In the same way, the Homeric poems, llesind, the Cyclic poets, Aeschylns, and Pindar, call it emphatically “ the Sea." The logogmpher llccataens speaks of itus “ the Great Sea" (FT. 349, cd. Klaus-en). Nor did the historians and systematic geographers mark it 011' by any peculiar denomination. The Roman writers call it MARE I's'renxtm (Pomp. Mela, i. 1. § 4; Plin. iii. 3) or INTESTINUM (Sail. Jay. 17; Flor. iv. 2; i; in) admin-u, Polyb. iii. 39; 5| mt; 311')», Strub ii. p. 121, iii. p. 139; 1‘1 two,'Hpaleuw rrrnArSv Sal, Arist. diet. ii. 1), or more fo-quently, MAM: Nosritui (Sall. Jug. 17, 18; Coos. B. G. v. 1 ; Liv. xxvi. 42; Pomp. Mela, i. 5.§ 1; 1'7 xdd‘ hp?" 3%, b‘trnb. ii. p. 121). The epithet “Mediterranean” is not used in the classical writers, and was first employed for this sea by Solinus (c. 22; comp. laid. Orig. xiii. 16). The Greeks of the present day ml] it the “ White Sea"(‘Ao'a’1pt Shauna), to distinguish it from the Black Sea. Throughout Europe it is known as the Mediterranean.

2. Extent, Shape, and Admensuremenls.—The Mediterranean Sea extends from 13° W. to 36° E. of Grtenwich, while the extreme limits of its latitude are from 30° to 46° N.; and, in round numbers, its length, from Gibraltar to its furthest extremity in Syria, is about 2000 miles, with a breadth varying from 80 to 500 miles, and, including the Euxine, with a line of shore of 4500 leagues. The ancients, who considered this sea to be a very large portion of the globe, though in reality it is only equal to one-seventeenth part of the Pacific, assigned to it a much greater length. As they possessed no means for critically measuring horizontal angles, and were unaided by the compass and chronometer, correctness in great distances was unattainable. On this account, while the E. shores of the Mediterranean approached a tolerable degree of correctness, the relative positions and forms of the W. coasts are erroneous. Strubo, a philosophical rather than a scientific geographer, set himself to rectify the errors of Eratosthenes (ii. pp. 105, 106), but made more mistakes: though he drew a much better “ contour” of the Mediterranean, yet he distorted the W. parts, by placing Massilia 131° to the S. of Byzantium, instead of 2P to the N. of that city. Ptolemy also fell into great errors, such as the flattening-in of the N. coast of Africa, to the amount of 41° to the S., in the latitude of Cartlutge, while Byzantium was placed 2° to the N. of it! true position; thus increasing the breadth in the very part where the greatest accuracy might be expected. Nor was this all; for the extreme length of the Internal Sea was carried to upwards of 20°

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beyond its true limits. The maps of Agathodaemon which accompany the Geography of Ptolemy, though indifi'ercntly dmwn, preserve a much better outline of this sea than is expressed in the Theodosian or Pentingerian Table, where the Mediterranean is so reduced in breadth as to resemble a canal, and the site, form, and dimensions of its islands are displaced and disfigured.

The latitudes were estimated by the ancient observers in studio reckoned from the equator, and are not so discordant us might be expected from such a. method. The length between the equinoctial line and Syracuse, or rather the place whit-h they called the “Strait of Sicily," is given as follows:—

Studio Eratosthenes - - - - 25.450 Hipparchus - - - - 25.600 Strubo - - - - - - 26,400 Murinus of Tyre - - - 26,075 Ptolemy - - - - - 26,833

Their longitudes run rather wild, and are reckoned from the “Sacrum Promontorium" (Cape St. Vincent), and the numbers given are as the are from thence to Syracuse:—

Studio
Eratosthencs - - - - 1 1,800
Hipparchus - - - - 16,300
Strabo - - - - - - 14,000
Marinus of Tyre - - - 18,583
Ptolemy - - - - - 29,000

In Admiral Smyth's work (The Mediterranean,

p. 375) will be found a tubular view of the aboveineutioncd admeasurements of the elder geographers, along with the determination resulting from his own observations; assuming, for a reduction of the numbers, 700 stadia to a degree of latitude, for a plane projection in the 86° parallel, and 555 for the corresponding degree of longitude. (Comp. Gossclin, Geographic du Greer, 1 vol. Paris, 1780; Geographie des Anciem, 3 vols. Paris, 1813; Manna Itinémires, 1 vol. Paris, 1813.)

3. Physical Geography.—A more richly-varied and broken outline gives to the N. shores of the Mediterranean an advantage over the S. or Libyan coast, which was remarked by Eratosthenes. (Snub. ii. p. 109.) The three great peninsulus,— the Iberian, the Italic, and the Hellenic,-—-with their sinuous and deeply indented shores, form, in combination with the neighbouring islands and opposite coasts, many straits and isthmuses. Exclusive of the Euxine (which, however, must be considered as part of it), this sheet of water is naturally divided into two vast basins; the barrier at the entrance of the straits marks the commencement of the W. basin, which descends to an abysmal depth, and extends as far as the central part of the sea, where it flows over another barrier (the subaqueons Atlvenlure Bank, discovered by Admiral Smyth), and again falls into.the yet unfathomcd Levant basin.

Strabo (ii. pp. 122—127) marked 03' this expanse by three smelter closed basins. The westernmost, or Tyrrhenian basin, comprehended the space between the Pillars of Hercules and Sicily, including the Iberian, Ligurian, and Snrdinian scrh' ; the waters to the W. of holy were also called, in reference to the Adriatic, the“ Lower Sea," as that gulf bore the name of the “ Upper Sea." The second was the Syrtic basin, E. of Sicily, including the Ausouiun or Siculiun, the Ionian, and the Libyan seas: on the N. this basin ions up into the Adriatic, on the S. the gulf of Libya penetrates deeply into

the African continent. The E. part of this basin is interrupted by Cyprus alone, and was divided into the Carpathian, l'arnphylian, Cilician, and Syrian

seas.

The third or Aegean portion is bounded to the S. by a curved line, which, commencing at the coast of Carin in Asia Minor, is formed by the islands of Rhodes, Crete, and Cytheru, joining the Peloponnesus not far from Cape Malea, with its subdivisions, the Thracian, Myrtoan, lcarian, and Cretan seas.

From the Aegean, the “ White Sea" of the Turks, the channel of the Hellespont leads into the Propontis, connected by the Thracisn Bosporus with the Euxine: to the NE. of that sheet of water lies the Pains Macotis, with the strait of the (Jimrnerian Bosporus. The configuration of the continents and of the islands (the latter either severed from the main or Volcanically elevated in lines. as if over long fissures) led in very early times to cosmological views respecting eruptions, terrestrial rcvoln~ tions, and overpourings of the swollen higher seas into those which were lower. The Euxine, the Hellespont, the straits of Gades, and the Internal Sea, with its many islands, were well fitted to originate such theories. Not to speak of the floods of Ogygee and Dcucalion, or the legendary cleaving of the pillars of Hercules by that hero. the Samothracian traditions recounted that the Euxine, once an inland lake, swollen by the rivers that flowed into it, had broken first through the Bosporus and afterwards the Hellespout. (Diod. v. 47.) A reflex of these Samothracian traditions appears in the “Sluice Theory” of Straton of anpsacus (Strab. i. pp. 49, 50), according to which, the swullings of the waters of the i'quinc first opened the passage of the Hellespont, and afterwards caused the outlet through the Pillars of Hercules. This theory of Strntou led Eratosthenes of Cyrene to examine the problem of the equality of level of all external seas, or seas surrounding the continents. (Strnb. 1.0.; comp. ii. p. 104.) Strabo (i. pp. 51, 54) rejectul the theory of Straton, as insuflicient to account for all the phenomena,and proposed one of his own, the profoundness of which modern geologists are only now beginning to appreciate. “ It is not," he says (L 0.), “ because the lands covered by seats were originally at different altitudes, that the waters have risen, or subsided, or receded from some parts and inundated others. But the reason is, that the same land is sometimes raised up and sometimes depressed, so that it either overflows or returns into its own place again. We must therefore ascribe the cause to the ground, either to that ground which is under the sea, or to that which becomes flooded by it; but rather to that which lies beneath the sea, for this is more rnoveable. and, on account of its wettress. can be altered with greater quickness." (Lyell, Geology, p. 17; Humboldt, Cosmos, vol. ii. p. [18, trans., Aspects of Nature, vol. ii. pp. 73-83, trans.)

The fluvial system of the Internal Sea, including the rivers that fall into the Enxine, consists, besides runny sccondary streams, of the Nile, Danube, Borysthenes, Tannis, Po, Rhone, Ebro, and Tyras. The general physics of this sea, and their connection with ancient speculations, do not full within the scope of this article; it will be sufficient to say that the theory of the tides was first studied on the coast of this, which can only in poetical language be called “ a tidelcss sea." The mariner of old had his charts and sailing directories, was acquainted

[graphic]

with the bewildering currents and counter-currentsof this sca,-—the “Typhon” (-rugbe'w), and the “Prester” (Ipnir'nip), the destroyer of those at. sea, of which Lucr-tins (vi. 422—445) has givcn so terrific s dcscription,—snd hailed in the hour of danger, as the " Dioscuri " who played about the mast-head of his vessel (l’lin. ii. 437; Sen. Not. Qlkrut. ii.)I the fire of St. Elmo, “sacred to tho seamen." Much valuable information upon the winds, climate, and other atmospheric phenomena, as recorded by the ancients, and compared with modern investigations, is to he found in Smyth (Mediterranean, pp. 210-302). Forbiger‘s section upon Physical Geography (vol. i. pp. 576— 655) is useful for the references to the Latin and Greek authors. Some papers, which appeared in Fraser's Magazine for the years 1852 and 1853, upon the fish known to the ancients, throw considerable light upon the iclrthyology of this sea. Recent inquiry has confirmed the truth of many instructive and interesting facts relating to the fish of the Mediterranean which have been handed down by Aristotle, Pliny, Archcstratus, Aelian, Ovid, Oppian, Athenaeus, and Ausorrius.

4. Historical Geography.—To trace the progress of discovery on the waters and shores of this son. would be to give the history of civilisation,—“ nullnm sine nornine saxum." lts geographical pmition has eminently tended towards the intercourse of natiom, and the extension of the knowledge of the world. The three pcninsulas—tlre Iberian, Italic, and Hellenic—run out to meet that of Asia Minor projecting from the E. coast, wirilc the islands of the Aegean have served as stepping stones for the passage of the peoples from one continent to the other; and the great Indian Ocean advances by the fissure between Arabia, Acgypt, and Abyssinia,under the name of the Red Sea, so as only to be divided by a narrow isthmus from the Delta of the Nile valley and the SE. coast of the Mediterranean.

“ We," says Pluto in the Phaedo (p. 109, b.), “ who dwell from the I’hasis to the Pillars of Hercules, inhabit only a small portion of the earth in which we have settled round the (Interior) sea, like nuts or frogs round a marsh." And yet. the margin of this contracted basin has been the site where civilisation was first developed, and the theatre of the greatest events in the early history of the world. Religion, intellectual culture, law, arts, and marrners—nearly everything that lifts as above the savage, have come from these coasts. '

Tire earliest civilisation on these shores was to the S., but the national character of the Aegyptians was opposed to intercourse with other nations, and their navigation, such as it was, was mainly eonfined to the Nile and Arabian gulf. Tire Phoenicinns were the first great agents in promoting the communion of peoples, and their flag waved in every part of the waters of the Internal Sea. Carthage and Etrnria, though of less importance than Phoenicia in connecting nations and extending the geographical lrorizon, exercised great influence on commercial intercourse with the W. coast of Africa and the N. of Europe. The progressive movement propagated itself more widely and endurineg through the Greeks and Romans, especially after the latter had broken the Phoenieo-Carthaginian power.

In the Hellenic peninsula the broken configuration of the coast-line invited early navigation and commercial intercourse, and the expeditions of the fimians (Herod. iv. 162) and l’hocaeans (Herod.

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