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i. 163) laid open the W. coast of this sea. During the period of the Roman Universal Empire, the Mediterranean was the lake of the imperial city. Soon after the conclusion of the First Mithridntic. War, piracy, which has always existed from the earlie>t periods of history to the present day in the Grecian waters, was carried on systematically by large armies and fleets, the strongholds of which were Cilicia and Crete. From these stations the pirates directed their expeditions over the greater part of the Mediterranean. (Appiun, Bell. Milkr. 92: Plut. Pump. 2-1.) Piracy, crushed by Pompeius, was never afterwards carried on so extensively as to merit a place in history, but was not entirely cxtirpated even by the fleet which the Roman emperors maintained in the East, and that cases still occurred is proved by inscriptions. (Biickh, Corp. Inst-r. Grace. no. 2335, 2347.) The Romans despised all trade, and the Greeks, from the time of Hadrian, their great patron, till the extinction of the Roman power in the East, possessed the largest share of the commerce of the Mediteiranean. I-lven alter the Moslem conquests, the Arabs, in spite of the various expeditions which they titted out to attack Constantinople, never succeeded in forming a maritime power; and their naval strength declined with the numbers and wealth of their Christian subjects, until it dwindled into a few piratical squadrons. The emperors of Constantinople really remained masters of the see. On all points connected with this sea, see Admiral Smyth, The Mediterranean, London, 1854. B. J.] IXTEROCREA ('Iwcptmpt'a, Strab.), a small town or village of the Sabines, between Amiternum and Heate. It was placed on the Via Salaria, at the junction of its two branches, one of which led eastwards to Amitemnm. the other, and principal one, up the valley of the Vclinus, to Asculum. It is now called Antrodoco, and is a position of great military importance, from its commanding the entrance to the two passes just mentioned, which must in all ages have formed two of the principal lines of communication across the Apennines. It seems, however, to have been in ancient times but a small place : Stiebo calls it a village; and its name is otherwise found only in the Itineraries, which place it at 14 M. I’. from Reate, a distance that coincides with the position of Antrodoco. (Strab. v. p. 228; [timAnL p. 307; Tab. Peal.) Its ancient name is evidently derived from its position in a deep valley between rugged mountains; for we learn from Festus (p. 181, ed. Milll.) that Ocris was an ancient word for a mountain: and it. is interesting to find this form still prc~crred in the name of the filontayne Iii Ovra, a lofty and rugged group of the Apennines. near Aquila. (Zannoni, Carta dcl Regno di Napoli, 3. fol.) H. B.] INTERPROMIUM, a village of the Marrucini, forming a station on the Via Claudia Valeria between Corfinium and Tcate. It is repeatedly mentioned in the Itineraries, but the distances are variously given. (Itin.Ant. pp. 102,310; Tab. Peal.) The line of the ancient highroad is, however, well ascertained, and the position of Interpromium is fixed by ancient remains, as well as mediueval records, at a place on the right bank of the Aternus, just below the narrow gorge through which that river flows below Popoll'. The site is now marked only by a tavern called the Osteri'a di S. Valentino, from the little town of that name on the hill above; it is distant 12 Roman miles from Corfinium (S. Pelh'no),

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and 13 from Teate (Chieti), or 21 from Pascaru. at the mouth of the Aternus. (Holsten. Not. all Cluv. p. 143;'D'Anville, Analyse de l Italic. p. 178; Romenelli, vol. iii. p. 117.) An inscription also mentions Interpromium under the name of Pague Interprominus (Orell. Inscr. 144; Romanelli. l. 0.); it is called “ Interprominm ricus" in the Itinerary of Antoninus (p. 102), and was evidently a mere village. probably a dependency of Teate. [El-1.15.] INTI’BILI. 1. [EDETANL] 2. A town of Hispania Baetica, near llliturgis, the scene of a battle gained by the Romans over the Carthaginians in the Second Punic War. (Liv. xxiii. 49; Frontin. Strata. iii. 3.) LP. 5.] lNUl CASTRUM. [CASTRL'M Inna] INYCUM or INYCUS ('varov, Steph. 11., but 'il'vatos, Herod.: It'tlt. 'vaci'vos), a town of Sicily, situated in the SW. of the island, on the river Hypsae. It is principally known from its connection with the mythical legends concerning Minos and Daedalus; the capital of the Sicanisn prince Cocalus, who atforded a shelter to the fugitive Daedalus against. the Cretan monarch, being placed by some writers at Inycum, and by others at Camicus. (Pans. vii. 4. § 6; Char-ax, up. Slepll. B. u. Kapmos.) lt is mentioned in historical times by Herodotus as the place of confinement to which Seythes. the ruler of Zuncle, was sent by Hippocrates, who had taken him prisoner. (Herod. vi. 23, 24.) Aelian, who copies the narrative of Herodotus, represents Scythes as a native of Inycum; but this is probably a mistake. (Ael. V. H. viii. 17.) Plate speaks of Inycum as still in existence in his time, but quite a small place (xupiov mire crympdu) ; notwithstandingr which he makes the sophist Hippias boast that he had derived from it a sum of ‘20 minae. (Plat. Ilipp. III. p. 282, e.) It is evident that it always continued to be an inconsideruble place, and was probably a mere dependency of Selinus. Hence we never again meet with its name, though Stephanus tells us that this was still preserved on account of the excellence of its wine. (Steph. B. a. v. 'lvvxov; Hesyeh. .r. v.) Vibius Sequestcr is the only author that afi'ords any clue to its position, by telling us that the river Hypsas (the modern Belici) flowed by it (Vih. Sequest. p. 12, according to Cluver’s emen dation); but further than this its site cannot be determined. [15. H. 13.] IOBACCHI. [MARMARICA.] 10L, afterwards CAESARE’A (’libA Kuwdpsia, Ptol. ii 4. §5; 1') Kaio'tlpeia, Strah., 810.), originally an obscure Phoenician settlement on the N. coast of Africa, became afterwards famous as the capital of Bocchus and of Juba 11. [MAURETANIAJ The latter king enlarged and adorned the city, and gave it the name of Caesarea, in honour of his patron Augustus. Under the Romans it gave its name to the province of Mauretania Caesariensis, of which it was the capital. It was made a colony by the emperor Claudius. Under Valens it was burnt by the Moors; but it was again restored; and in the 6th century it was a populous and flourishing city. It occupied a favourable position midway between Carthage and the Straits, and was conveniently situated with refe.ence to Spain, the Balearic lshmds, and Sardinia; and it had a natural harbour, protected by a small island. To the E. of the city stood the royal mausoleum. (Strah. xvii. p. 831; Dion Cass. ix. 9; Mela, i. 6. § 1; Phil. v. 2. s. 1; Eutmp. vii. 5 ; Ilin. Ant. pp. 5, I5, 25, 31; Oman vii. 33; Ammian. xxix. 5; l'rocop. B. l’anrl. ii. 5.)

Caesarca is now identified, beyond all doubt, with the magnificent ruins at Zershell on the coast of Algier, in a little more than 2° E. long. The Arabic name is simply an abbreviation of Caesarea Ial ; a fact clear to the intuitive sagacity of Shaw, and which, in connection with the statements of the ancients, led that incomparable traveller to the truth. Unfortunately, however, nearly all sub sequent writers preferred to follow the thick-headed Manner’t, who was misled by an error in the Antonina Itinerary, whereby all the places along this coast, for a considerable distance, are thrown too far to the W.; until the researches which followed the French conquest of the country revealed inscriptions which set the question at rest for ever. There exist few stronger examples of that golden rule of criticism :— “Ponderanda snnt testimonia, non numeranda." (Shaw, Travels, vol. i. pt. 1. c. 3; Barth, Wanderuagen, p. 56 ; Pellissier, in the quoration Scienti de l'AIge'rie, vol. vi. p. 349.) [R

IOLAI or IOLAENSES ('ldltaot, Pans; '10Minor, Diod.; 'loAacir, Strab. v. p. 225), a people of Sardinia, who appear to have been one of the indigenous or native tribes of the island. According to Strabo, they were the same people who were called in his day Diagesbians or Diagebriaus (ALGwspeis or Aia'moéeis), a name otherwise unknown: and he adds that they were a Tyrrheninn people, a statement in itself not. improbable. The commonly received tradition, however, represented them as a Greek race, composed of emigrants from Attica and Thespiae, who had settled in the island under the command of Iolaus, the nephew of Hercules. (Pans. x. 17. §5; Diod. iv. 80, v. 15.) It is evident that. this legend was derived from the resemblance of the name (in tho form which it assumed according to the Greek pronunciation) to that of Iolaus: what the native form of the name was, we know not; and it is not mentioned by any Latin author, though both Pau>anias and Diodorus afiirm that it was still retained by the part of the island which had been inhabited by the Iolai. Hence, modem writers have assumed that the name is in reality the same with that of the llienses, which would seem probable enough; but Pausanins, the only writer who mentions them both, expressly distinguishcs the two. That author speaks of Olbia, in the NE. part of the island, as one of their chief towns. Diodorus represents them, on the contrary, as occupying the plains and most fertile portions of the island, while the district adjoining Olbia is one of the most rugged and mountainous in Sardinia. H. 8.]

IOLCUS ('lulucds, Ep. 'Imkkdr, Dor. 'lands: Eth. ’lalAmov, fern. 'Iwitm'r, ’Ilias), an ancient city of Magnesia in Thessaly, situated at the head of the Pagsssean gulf and at the foot of Mt. Pelion (Pind. Nem. iv. 88), and celebrated in the heroic ages as the residence of Jason, and the place where the Argonauts assembled. [See Diet. of Biogr. artt. Jason and Arrooxauram] It is mentioned by Homer, who gives it the epithets 0f éflx'n/se'w'n and ebprixopos (ll. ii. 712, 0d. xi. 256). It is said to have been founded by Crethens (Apollod. i. 9.§ 11), and to have been colonised by ltlinyans from Orchomenos. (Strab. ix. p. 414.) Iolcus is rarely mentioned in historical times. It was given by the Thessalians to Hippias, upon his expulsion from Athens. (Herod. v. 94.) The town afterwards suffered from the dissensions of its inhabitants, but it was finally ruined by the foundation of Demetrius in

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n. c. 290, when the inhabitants of Iolcos and of other' adjoining towns were removed to this place. (Stntb. ix. p. 436.) It seems to have been no longer in ex~ istence in the time of Strabo, since he speaks of the place where Iolcos stood (d 11‘]! 'ImMoi; rda'or, is. p. 438).

The position of Iolcos is indicated by Strabo, who says that it was on the road from Boebe to Demetrias, and at the distance of 7 stadia from the latter (ix. p. 438). In another passage he says that Iolcos is situated above the sea at the distance of 7 stadia from Demetrius (ix. p. 436). Pindar also, as we have already seen, places Iolcos at the foot of Mt. Pelion, consequently a little inland. From these descriptions there is little doubt that Leake is right in placing Iolcos on the steep height between the southernmost houses of V010 and Vlakho-makltald, upon which stands a church called Episkopz'. There are at present no ancient remains at this place; but some large squared blocks of stone are said to have formerly existed at the foot of the height, and to have been carried away for the construction of buildings elsewhere. Moreover, it is the only spot in the neighbourhood which has any appearance of being an ancient site. It might indeed appear, from Livy (xliv. 12, 13), that lolcus was situated upon the coast; but in this passage, as well as in Strabo (ix. p. 436), the name of lolcos seems to have been given to this part of the coast as well as to the city itself. (Leaks, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 379; lllézi‘ercs, Mémoire M be I’elion e2 TOssa, p. 11.)

JOMANES (Plin. vi. l7. s. 21), the most important of the aflluents of the Ganges, into which it flows near the city of Allahabad (I’ratishtht’tnn). There can he no doubt that Arriau means the same river when he speaks of lobares (Ind. c. 8); and Ptolemy expresses nearly the same sound, when he names the Diamuna (vii. 1. § 29). it is now calied the Jamzina or Junma. The Jam rises in the highest part of the Ilhmilqr/a, at no great distance from the sources of the Sulledge and Ganges, respectively, in the neighbourhood of Iamunét'atdri (Jumnotri), which is probably the most sacred spot of Hindu worship. It enters the Indian plain country at Fyzabad, and on its way to join the Ganges it passes the important citi of Dehlu' (1ndraprastha) and Agra (Crishmapura), and recein several large tributaries. These aflluents, in order from W. to E., are the Sambus (Arrian, Ind. c. 4), (probably the Cnrmanvati or Cambal), the Betwa (or Vetravati), and the Cuinas (Arrian, 1.0.; Plin. vi. 19. s. 21: now Ca'yana or Ce'na). The last has been already mentioned as one of the tributaries of the Ganges.

IOMNIUM. [llhuasnnra.]

ION ('va), a river of Tymphaea in Thessaly, rising in the Cambuniau mountains, and flowing into the Pcneins: now river of Kra'tzova. (Strab. vii. 'p. 327; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv p. 546.)

10N MONS. [LraYa.]

IONES. [IONLL]

IO'NIA ('Iowia), also called Ionis, the country of Asia Minor inhabited by Ionian Greeks, and comprising tho western coast from Phocaea in the north to llliletua in the south. (Herod. i. 142; Strab. xiv. init.; Plin. v. 31.) Its length from north to south, in a straight line, amounted to 800 stadia, while the length of its much indented coast amounted to 3430; and the distance from Ephesus to Smyrna, in a straight line, was only 320 stadia, while along the coast it reached the large number of 2200. (Strah. xiv. pp. 632, 665.) Towards the inland, or the east, lonia extended only a few miles, the towns of Magnesia, Larissa, Tralles, Alnbnnda, and others, not belonging to it. Ptolemy (r. 2) assigns much narrower limits to Ionia than his predecessors, for, according to him, it extended only from the Hermus in Lydia to the Maeander in Carin; so that Phocaea and Miletus would not belong to Ionirr. According to a generally received tradition, the lonian colonies on the west coast of Asia were founded after the death of Codrus, the last king of Attica, about 1:. c. 1044, or, according to others, as early as n. c. 1060, about 60 years utter the conquest of Peloponnesus by the Dorians. The sons of Codrrrs, Neleus and Androclus, it is said, being dissatisfied with the abolition of royalty and the appointment of their eldest brother Medon to the archonship, emigrated, with large numbers of Attic Ionians and bands from other parts of Greece, into Asia lilinor. (Strab. xiv. p. 633, ML; Pans. vii. 2.) Here, in one of the most bmutiful and fertile parts of the earth, they founded a number of towns,-—partly expelling and partly subduing the ancient inhabitants, who consisted mainly of Maconians, Curious, and Pelasgians. (Herod. i. 142; Prrus. vii. 2; Pherecyd. Fragm. 26; Dionys. Per. 822, &c.) As a. great many of the original inhabitants remained in the country as subjects of the conquerors, and as the latter had gone to Asia as warriors, without women, the new colonies were not pure Greek; but still the subdued nations were not so completely different as to render an amalgamation into one nation impossible, or even very difficult. This amalgamation with difi‘erent tribes also accounts for the fact that four different dialects were spoken by the lorrinns. (Herod. l. c.) The towns founded by the Ionians — which, though independent of one another, yet formed a kind of confederac for common purposes—amorde to twelve (606m ROMS), a number which must not be regarded as accidental. These towns, of which accounts are given in separate articles, were: PHOcan, Enr'rrrnm, Curzosrmurn, T nos, Luannos, Common, Ernzsus, Peruse, Mrrus, Mrurrcs, and SAMOS and Cmos in the neighbouring islands. (Strub. xiv. p. 633; Aelian, V. H. viii. 5.) Subsequently, about B. C. 700, Smyrna, which until then had belonged to Aeolis, became by treachery a member of the Ionian confederacy, which henceforth consisted of thirteen cities. (Herod. i. I49; Pans. .5: Strab. l. 0.) These Ionian colonies soon rose to a high degree of prosperity, and in many respects outstripped the mother-country; for poets, philosopliers, historians, and artists flourished in the Ionian cities long before the mother-country attained to any eminence in these intellectual pursuits. All the cities of lonia formed independent republics, with dernocmtical constitutions; but their common afiirirs were discussed at regular meetings held at l’nniorriuru (Havroimov), the common centre of all the Ionian cities, on the northern slope of Mount lilycnle, near Prime, and about three stadia from the coast. (Herod. i. 141, MS; Strab. xiv. p. 639; Mela, j. l7; l’lin. v. 29.) These meetings at Panionium appear to have given rise to a permanent town, with a Prytaneurn, in which the meetings were held. (Staph. B. no.) The political bond which held the Ionian cities together appears to have been rather loose, and the principal objects of the meetings, at least in later times, were religious worship and the celebration of games. The cities continued to enjoy their increasing prosperity and their independence

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until the establishment of the Lydian monarchy. The attacks upon the Ionian colonies begun even in the reign of Gyges, so that one city utter another was conquered, until,in the reign of Croesus, all of them became subject to the Lydians. When Lydia became the prey ot' the Persian conqueror Cyrus, in B. c. 557, Ionia also was obliged to acknowledge the supremacy of Persia; but the new rulers scarcely interfered with the internal afl‘airs of the cities and their confederacy; all they had to do was to pay tribute, to send their coutingcnts to the Persian armies, and to submit. to satraps and tyrants, the latter of whom were Greek usurpers who set themselves up in their native cities, and were backed by the Persian monarchs. But the Ionians, accustomed to liberty, were unable to bear eyen this gentle yoke for any length of time, and in B.C. 500 a general insurrection broke out against Persia, in which the Athenians and Eretrians also took part. The revolt had been planned and organised by Histiaens, tyrant of Miletus, and Aristagoras, his son-in-law. The lonians burned and destroyed Sardes, the residence of the Persian satraps, but. were then routed and defeated in a bloody battle near Ephesus. In 3.0. 496 all the lonians were again reduced, and compelled to assist the Persians with ruerr and ships in the war against Greece. In the battle of llycale, n. c. 479, the [onions deserted from the ranks of the Persians and joined their kinsnrcn, and thus took the first step to recover their independence, which ten years later was fully secured by the brittle on the Euryruedon. They then entered into a relation with the Athenians, who were to protect them against any further aggression from the Persians; but in consequence of this they became more or less dependent upon their protectors. In the unfortunate peace of Antalcidas, the lonians, with the other Asiatic Greeks, were again made over to Persia, B.c. 387; and when the PL‘l‘alNl monarchy was destroyed by Alexander, they became a part of the Macedonian empire, and finally fell into the hands of the Romans. The highest prosperity of Ionia belongs to the period of the Lydian supremacy; under the rule of Macedonia it somewhat recovered from its previous sufl‘erings. Under the Romans the Ionian cities still retained their importance as commercial places, and as seats of art and literature; but they lost their political life, and sank down to the condition of mere provincial towns. The last traces of their prosperity were destroyed under the barbarous rule of the Turks in the middle ages. During the period of their greatest prosperity and independence, the Ionian cities sent out numerous colonies to the shores of the Black sea and to the western coasts and islands of the Mediterranean. (Comp. Thirlwall, Hist. qur-eece, vol. ii. chap. 12, pp. 94, 115, 120, &c.; Grote, Hill. of Greece, vol. ii. pp. 229—253.) [L. s] IO’NIUM MARE ('ldvrov we'An'yos, Ptol.), was the name given by geographers to the sea which bathed the western shores of Greece, and separated them from those of Sicily and Southern Italy. T he appellation would seem to date from a very early period, when the [onions still inhabited the shores of the Corinthian gulf, and the part of the Peloponrrerrs subsequently known as Achaia; but we have no evidence of its employment in early times. The legends invented by later writers, which derived it from a hero of the name of Ionius or Ion, or from the wanderings of lo(Aesch. From. 840; Tzetz.ad Lycoplrr. Alex. 630; Staph. B. s. m; Eustath. ad Dionyr. Per. 92), are obviously more etymological fimcies. No trace of the name is found in the Homeric poems; and it occurs for the first time in Aeschy’lns, though, from the poetic diction of that writer, it is not clear in what precise sense he employs the term mirror: ,uuxbr ’ltivros. (Aesch. l. c.) Herodotus evidently employs the name ’Io'vms KM-rros, the Ionian gulf, as synonymous with the Adriatic; and 'l‘hucydides likewise uses the term in the same sense. as is evident from his expression, that “ Epidnmnns is a city on the right hand as you sail into the Ionian gulf" (i. 24). He also repeatedly uses the term 6 ’Iémos (with Kdmros understood) in speaking of the passage from Corcyrn. to the Inpygian promontory (vi. 30, 34, vii. 33); but in all these cases he refers only to the narrow sea, which might- be considered as part of the same gulf or inlet with the entrance of the Adriatic. St-ylax also, and even Scymnus Chins, employ the name of the Ionian gulf in the same sense. as synonymous with the Adriatic, or at least with the southern part of it (Scyl. 14, 27; Scymn. Ch. 133, 361) [Annu'rrcuar Mann]; while the name of the Ionian sea, in the more extended sense given to it by later geographers, as indicated at the com

mencement of this article, is not found in any early»

Greek writer. Polybius is the first extant author who uses the term in this sense, and gives the name of 161/10: 16pm- to the sea which extended from the entrance of the Adriatic along the coast of Italy as far as the promontory of Corinthus, which be considers as its southern limit. (1’01. ii. 14, v. 110.) liven here the peculiar expression of the Ionian strait sufficiently shows that this was a mere ex~ tension of the name from the narrow sea or strait at. the entrance of the'Adriatic to the more open sea to the S. of it. Hence we have no proof that the name was ever one in common use among the Greeks until it came to be established by the geographers; and even Strabo, who on these points often follows earlier authors, gives the name only of the Ionian gulf to the part of the sea near the entrance of the Adriatic, while he extends the appellation of the Sicilian sea (memo 'n-éAa'yox) from the eastern shores of Sicily to those of the Peloponnese. lie, as well as l’olybius and Scymnus Chins, fixes the Acrocerannian promontory as the limit between the Ionian and the Adriatic seas. (Strab. ii. p. 123, vii. pp. 316,317.) Pliny uses the name of Ioninm Mare very widely, or rather very vaguely; including under that appellation the More Siculum and Creticum of the Greeks, as well as apparently the lower part of the Adriatic (Plin. iii. 8. s. 14. 26. s. 29, 30, iv. 11. s. 18), and this appears to have been the usage common in his day, and which is followed by the Latin poets. (Virg. Am. iii. 211, 671; Ovid,1"ast. iv. 565, 8:0.) Mela distinguishes the Ionian sea from the Sicilian, and applies the former name, in the sense now generally adopted by geographers, as that. portion of the broad sea between the shores of Greece and those of Sicily, which lay nearest to the former. (Mel. ii. 4. § 1.) But all these names, given merely to portions of the Mediterranean which had no natural limits, were evidently used very vaguely and indefinitely; and the great extension given at a later period to the name of the Adriatic swallowed up altogether those of the Ionian and Sicilian seas [Aroma-neon Mann], or led to the employment of the former name in a vague and general sense, wholly difi'erent from that in which it was originally applied. Thus Servius, commenting on the expression of Virgil, “ InsnIa/a Ionio in magno," where the

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trno Ionium More is meant by the poet, says:— “ Sciendum, Ioniurn sinum esse immensnm, ab Ionia usque ad Siciliam, et hujns parts one Adriaticnm, Achaicum et Epiroticnm." (Serv. ad Am. iii. 21].) ()n the other hand, the name of the Ionian gnlt' (6 ’Iévms Khmer) was still given in late times (at least by geographers), in a very limited sense, to that portion of the Adriatic immediately within the strait at its entrance. (Enstath. ad Dionys. Per. 92, 389.) Ptolemy even applies the name of the Ionian sea ('Iéwwv ire'Ac'yor, iii. 1. 14, 15) in the same restricted manner.

From the name of the Ionian sea has been derived that of the Ionian islands, now given to the group of seven principal islands (besides several smaller ones) which constitute an independent republic under the protectorate of Great Britain: but there is no ancient authority for this appellation. [111. H. 11.]

JOPI’A (’16m,LXX.; Strab. xvi. p. 759; l‘tol. v. 16. 2. The form’ 161m, Steph. 13.; Dionys. v. 910; Joseph. Antiq. ix. 10. 2-, Solin. 34., better suits the Phoenician original, which signifies “ an eminence;" comp. Mover‘s P/tiim'zier. pt. ii. p. 177; lIitzig. Die Philistlier, pp. 131—134: 15th. '10iri-rm, ’Imrei'rm, 'Ioiriria, 'lonia, ’Ioneos, 'Iarrfr. The Hebrew name Jar-no is still preserved in the Arabic l'rifir or Jajfa). A seaport town and haven on the coast of Palestine, situated on an eminence. The ancients asserted that it had existed before the Deluge (l’omp. Mela, i. 11. § 3; Plin. v. 14), and according to legend it was on this shore that Andromeda was rescued by l’erseus (Strab. I. 0.; Plin. l. 0.; comp. Hicron. in Jon. i.) from the monster, whose skeleton was exhibited at Rome by M. Aemilins Scanrus during his famous cnrule aedileship (I‘lin. ix. 4). When the Israelites invaded Canaan it is mentioned as lying on the border of the tribe of Dan (Josh. xix. 40), and was the only port possessed by the Jewish people, till Herod made the harbour at Caesarea. The timber from Lebanon intended for both the first and second temples was landed here (1 Kings, v. 9; 2 Chron. ii. 16; Ezra, iii. 7); and Jonah went to Joppa to find a ship going to anshish (Jon. i. 3). Judas Maccabaens set the shipping on fire, because of the inhabitants having drowned 200 Jews (2 fllacc. xii. 3—7). The town was afterwards taken by Jonathan (I diam. x. 74—76), but was not long retained, as it was again captured by Simon (xii. 34), and was strongly fortified by him (xiv. 5, xv. 28). It was annexed by Pontpcins to the Roman province of Syria, along with other towns which the Jews had held by grants from the predecessors of Antiochus (Joseph. Antiq. xiv. 4. § 4, comp. xiii. 9. § ‘2), and was afterwards given to Herod by Julius Caesar (xv. 7. §3), and remained part of the dominions of Archelaus (xvii. 11. § 4).

In the New Testament J oppa is mentioned in connection with the Apostle l‘cter (Acts, in 36—43, x. 5, 18. xi. 5). During the Jewish war, this place, which had become a receptacle for pirates (Strab. xvi. p. 759), was taken by Cestius, and 8400 of the inhabitants were put to the sword. (Joseph. B. J. ii. 18. § 10.) Vespasian afterwards utterly demolished the ruins of Joppa, to which great numbers of persons had fled, and taken to piracy for subsistence. (B.J. iii. 9. 2—5.) In the time of Constantine Joppa was the seat of a bishop. as well as when taken by the Arabians under Omar, A.l). 636; the name of a bishop occurs in the council held at Jerusalem .\.D. 536. At the period

of the Crusades, Joppa, which had already taken the name of Jafla ('ldtPa, Anna Comn. Alex. xi. p. 328), was alternately in the hands of the Christians and Moslems. After its capture by Snladin (Willa-n, Die Kreuzz, vol. iv. pp. 537, 539) it fell into the hands of our own Richard (p. 545), was then sacked by Malek-al-Adel (vol. v. p. 25), was rebuilt by Frederick 11. (vol. vi. p. 471) and Louis 1X. (vol. vii. p. 316), when it was taken by Sultan Bibars (vol. vii. p. 517). As the landingplace for pilgrims to Jerusalem, from the first Crusade to our own day, it occurs in all the Itineraries and books of travels, which describe the locality and natural unfitness of Jojo for a haven, in terms very similar to those employed by the ancients. For coins of Joppa see Eckhel, vol. iii. p. 433. (Roland, PaIoesl. p. 864; Von Raumer, Palestiml, p. 201 ; \Yincr, Realwérterbuc/l, s. 11.; Robinson, Researches, vol. iii. p. 31; Bitter, Erd/dee, vol. xvi. pt. i. pp. 574—580, Berlin, 1852.) B. J.]

JORDANES. [Panama-mm]

10$ (’10:: Elk. ’Ifi'r-qs, ’lé-ms), an island in the Aegaean sea, one of the Sporades, and falsely called by Stephanus one of the Cyclades, lay north of T hem and south of Fame and Naxos. According to Pliny, it was 25 miles in length, and was distant 18 miles from Xaxos and 25 from There. (Plin. iv. 12. s. 23.) Both Pliny and Stephanus state that it was originally called Phoenice. It possessed a town of the same name (Ptol. iii. 15. § 28), situated upon a height on the western side of the island. It has an ancient harbour, of a circular form, like the Peiraeeus: its mouth faces the south-west, and is opI~>>lle the island of Sicinus. The island is now called Nio (iv '14:); and when Ross visited it, in 1836, it contained 505 families or 2500 souls. The modern town is built upon the site of the ancient one, of which there are still remains.

Inc was celebrated in antiquity as the burialplacc of Homer, who is said to have died here on his voyage from Smyrna to Athens. Long afterwards, when the fame of the poet had filled the world, the inhabitants of 105 are reported to have erected the following inscription upon his tomb-—

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(Pseudo-Herod. Vit. Homer. 34, 36; comp. Scylax, p. 22; Strab. x. p. 484; Pans. x. 24. § 2; l’lin., Staph. 1!. cc.) It was also stated that Clymenc, the mother of Homer, was a native of 105, and that she was buried in the island (Pans, Steph. B., ll.cc.); and, according to Gcllius (iii. 11), Aristotle related that Homer himself was born in Ice. In 1771 a Dutch nobleman, Grat‘ Pasch van Krienen, asserted that he had discovered the tomb of Homer in the northern part of the island; and in 1773 he published an account of his discovery, with some inscriptions relating to Homer which he said he had found upon the tomb. Of this discovery a detailed

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