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much to their efl'cct. Dante speaks of the environs of P015, as in his time remarkable for the numemus sarcophagi and ancient tombs with which they were almost wholly occupied. These have now disappeared. (Dante, Inf. ix. 13.)

The antiquities of Pola have been repeatedly described, and illustrated with figures; among others, in the fourth Volume of Stuart and Revett's Athem. fol. Loud. 18l6, and in the Voyage Pittorelque dc l'lstrie at de la lmlmalie, fol. Paris. 1802: also in Alluson's Antiquities ofPolu, fol., Loud. 18l9.

The harbour of Pole is completely landlocked, so as to have the appearance of a small basin-shaped lake, communicating by a narrow channel with the sea. Otl' its entrance lies a group of small islands called the hole Brioni, which are probably those called by Pliny Cissa and Pullsria. (Plin. iii. 26. s. 30.) The southernmost promontory of Istria, about 10 miles distant from Pols, derived from it the name of Polaticum Promontorinm. It is now called Capo Promontore. H. 8.]

POLEMU'NlUM (“OASMIdVLOV), a town on the coast of Pontus, at the mouth of the small river Sidenns, lO stadia from Phadisane, and 180 from Cape Iasonium. (Arrian, Peripl. p. [6 ; Anonym. Peripl. p. 11, &c.; Ptol. v. 6. 4; Steph. B. s. o.) l’liny (vi. 4) places the town l20 Roman miles from Amisns, which seems to be too great a distance. (Comp. Alum. Marc. xxii. 8; liierocl. p. 702, where it is erroneously called ToAspdev; Tab.Peuling.) Neither Strabo nor any writer before him mentions this town, and it is therefore generally believed that it was built on the site of the town of Side. which is not noticed by any writer after Strabo. Its name intimates that it was founded, or at- all events was named. after one l‘olemon, perhaps the one who was made king of that part of Pontus, about 8. c. 36, by M. Antonius. It had a harbour, and seems to have in the course of time become a place of considerable importance, as the part of Pontus in which it was situated received from it the name of Pontus l’olemoniacus. The town was situated on the western bank of the Sidenus, where its existence is still attested by the ruins of an octagon church, and the remains of a massive wall; but the ancient name of the place is preserved by the village of Ptmleman, on the opposite side of the river. (Hamilton, Researches, vol. i. p. 270.) [L. 8.]

l'Ol.lCl<lNA (Haitixva). l. A town of Lacouia, mentioned only by Polybias (iv. 36), is placed by Leake in the interior of the country on the eastern slope of Mt. Parnon at Réonda (rd 'Pe'ovru), where, among the ruins of a fortified town of the lower empire, are some remains of Hellenic walls. (Leake, Pelopmmeaiaca, p. 364.)

2. A town in the NW. of Messenia on the road from Andania to Dorium and Cyparissia. (Pans. iv. 33. § 6.) [Donlusn]

3. A town of Megaris, mentioned only in a line of Homer, quoted by Strabo, for which the Athenians substituted another to prove that Salamis at the


time of the Trojan War was a dependency of 1

Athens. (Strab. ix. p. 394.)

4. (Ella. I‘lokixm'rns), a. town of Crete, whose territory bordered upon that of Cydonia. (Thuc. ii. 85.) In B. c. 429 the Athenians assisted the inhabitants of Polichna in making war upon the Cydonians. (Thuc. l. c.) Herodotus also mentions the Polichnitae, and says that this people and the Praesii were the only people in Crete who did not join the other Cretans in the expedition against

Camicus in Sicily in order to revenge the death of Mines (vii. 170; Steph. B. I. n). Cmmer (Ancient Greece, vol. iii. p. 380) supposes the ruins at PM: S. of Armyro to be those of Poliohna, which I’ashley, however, regards as those of Lapps. or Lamps (Crete. vol. i. p. 83.)

POLICHNE (HoAlxvrl). a small town in the upper valley of the Aesepus in Troas (Strab. xiii. p.603; Plin. v. 32; Steph. B. s. 11.; Hierocl. p. 662.) licspecting a place bearing the same name near Ciszomenae, see CLAZOMENAE- [ Li]

POLIMA'RTIUM (Bomarzo). a town of Etruria, not far from the right bank of the Tiber, and about 12 miles E. of Viterbo. The name is not found in any writer earlier than Paulns Diaconus (Hist. Lung. iv. 8), and there is therefore no evidence of its antiquity: but it is certain that there existed anamcient Etruscan city about 2 miles N. of the pmnt village of Bomarzo. Some ruins and other slight vestiges of ancient buildings still remain, and numrous sepulchres have been discovered, some of Whlth have yielded various objects of interest. (his [1' them is adorned with paintings in the l-Itruszsn style, but apparently not of early date. (Dennis: Eli-aria, vol. i. p. 214—226.) H. B.]

POLIS (l'ldAzs), a village of the Hyaea in [mi Ozolis, which Leake supposes occupied the site of Karim, where he found an inscription. (Thuciii. 101; Leake. Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 620)

l’OLlSMA (l‘ldMo'pa). a. small place on the rim Simoeis in Troas, was originally called Polion; but it was situated in au unsuitable locality, andm decayed. (Strab. xiii. p. 601.) [L 5.]

l’OLlTO'ltlUM (HOMTQIJPLOV ; Eth~ Heat-mph: Steph. 15.), an ancient city of thium, destroyed a! a very early period of the Roman history. The accwnl of its capture and destruction by Aucus Marcia; comprises indeed all we know concerning it; forth statement cited from Cato (Serv. ad Age. v. 564). which ascribed its foundation to Polites. the send Priam, is evidently a mere etymological fiction. According to Livy and Dionysius, it was a diff the Prisci Latini, and was the first which “'1: sttackcd by the Roman king. who made hinself master of it with little difficulty, and transported the inhabitants to Rome, where he settled them upon the Aventine. But the Latins having min after reoolonised the deserted city, Aucns attacked it again, and having taken it a second time, emit!!! destroyed it, that it might not for the future afild a shelter to his enemies. (Liv. i. 33; Dionyaiii. 37, 38, 43.) The dstruction appears to have been complete, for the name of Politorium never again occurs, except in Pliny’s list of the cities of Luium that were utterly extinct. (Plin. iii. 5. s. 9.) ll! site is consequently involved in the grestat circurity; the only clue we have in the circumstance that it appears in the above narrative associated with Tellenne, which is equally uncertain, and lid! Ficana, the position of which at Dragonorb'o. on the Via Ostiensis, may be considered as well established. [FICANA.] Nibby would place Politon'um at a 5]»! called La Tom-em: near Decimo, on the Via Laurentina; while Gcll considers the remains if in ancient city that have been discovered at a place called La Giostra. on the right. of the Via Appla about a mile and a half from Fioram and it) mike from Home, as those of Pulitorium. Then: can b! no doubt that the ruins at La Gioslrn -—cous.i§ting of considerable fragments of walls, built in a "I! massive and ancient style, and enclosing a lung and


vy precipitous banks—tire
1 city; but whether they
ium, as supposed by Gel],
ted by Nibby and adopted
lly without the means of
. o/"Rome, p. 280 ; Nibby,
l, vol. iii. p. l46—l52;
i. 69.) The ruins at La
noticed under the article
[E. H. 3.]
l'loMswlc: Etk. l'ollen-
f Liguria, situated in the
at the northern foot of the
tlnence of the Stum and
miles W. of Alba. l’ontpeia.
n town before the Roman
in the territory of the
neat with its namc in his-
! of the Roman republic,
1 of importance. In it. c.
s defeat at Mutiuu. with-
utending to proceed into
his being opposed by his
to rech the Apennines,
tn Pollentia; in which he
by Dccimus Brutus. who
h five cohorts. (Cic. ad
Roman Empire, I’olleutin
hug the “ nobilia oppida"
of Liguria between the
(Plin. iii. 5. s. 7.) 1t
tures of pottery. and the
:ory enjoyed great reputa-
§ colour. (Plin. viii. 48.
l. Ital. viii. 597 : Martial,
.lly mentioned as a muni-
of Tiberius, having been
emperor for a tumult that
Suet. Tab. 37.) But its
history as the scene of s
n Stilicho and the Goths
t. The circumstances of
rl'ectly known to us. and
related; for while Chin-
lotions triumph. Orosius
success, and Cassiodorus
rim the victory for the
rt. 580—647; Prudent.
: Oros. vii. 37 ; Prosper.
Tin-on. p. 450; Jornand.
rtain that it was attended
oth sides, and that it led
' the Gothic king. No
ml of it, and we have no
ices of its decay or de-
loes not reappear in the
den] Pollenza is a poor
mins of the ancient city
1 in a very decayed cou-
traces of a theatre, an
nd other buildinc'w and
>0 been discovered on the
evidence of its ancient
:. (Millin, Voyage en
t The ruins arc situated
n town of Cherasco, but
mentioned only by Pliny,
if that region, enumerates
lites with the Urbs Salviu
>0 prove the two commu-

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“ Tenuisque censu civitas Polygium est,

Tum Manse vieus oppidumque Naustulo." There is nothing to say about a place for whose site there is no sufiicient evidence. Menard supposed it to be Boun'gues on the [flurry ole T (m. The name seems to be Greek, and the place may be one of the Massaliot settlements on this coast. [NAUs'rrrm]. [G. L.]

POLYME'DIUM (UoAupfibtoI, Strnb. xiii. pp. 606, 616; Polymedia, Plin. v. 30. s. 32), a small place in Mysis, between the promontory Lectum and Assus, and at the distance of 40 stadia from the former.

POLYRRHE'NIA (HoAvpfinvia, Ptol. iii. 17.§ 10; Holuifip'qv, l'IoM'Ipnv, Steph. B. a. 0., corrected by Meineke into HoAvfip-qua; HoMoflpnvo, Scylnx, p. 18, corrected by Gail; HoAvfifi-hvtov, chob. Prov. v. 50 ; Polyrrhenium, Plin. iv. 12. s. 20: Elli. Hohuflpyfvtos, Polyb. iv. 53, 55; Strab. X. p. 479), a town in the NW. of Crete, whose territory occupied the whole western extremity of the island, extending from N. to S. (Scylax, p. 18.) Strabo describes it as lying W. of Cydonin, at the distance of 30 stndia from the sea, and 60 from Phalasama, and as containing a temple of Dictynna He adds that the Polyrrhenians formerly dwelt in villages, and that they were collected into one place by the Achaeans and Lacedaemonians, who built a strong city looking towards the south. (Strab. x. p. 479.) In the civil wars inCrete in the time of the Achaean League, B. c. 219, the Polyrrhenians, who had been subject allies of Cnossus, deserted the latter, and assisted the Lyctians against that city. They also sent auxiliary troops to the assistance of the Achaeans, because the Gnossians had supported the Aetolians. (I’olyb. iv. 53, The ruins of Polyrrhenia, called Palaedkastro, near Kiranw-Knstéli, exhibit the remains of the ancient walls, from 10 to 18 feet high. (Pashley, Crete, vol. ii. p. 46, seq.)



POMPE'II (HO/Hffltfl, Strab.; Hopmiioi, Dion Cass: Eth. Honmtauos, Pompcianus: Pompeii), an ancient city of Csmpania, situated on the coast of the beautiful gulf called the Crater or Bay q/‘Naples, at the mouth of the river Sat-nus (Santa), and immediately at the foot of Mount Vesuvius. It was intermediate between Herculaneum and Stabiae. (Strab. v. p. 247; Pliny, iii. 5. s. 9; Mela, ii. 4. 9.) All accounts agree in representing it as a very ancient city: a tradition recorded by Solinns (2. § 5) ascribed its foundation to Hercules; but Dionysius, who expressly notices him as the founder of Hercnlaneum, says nothing of Pompeii (Dionys. i. 44). Strabo says it was first occupied by the Oscans, subsequently by the Tyrrhenians (Etruscans) and Pelasgians, and afterwards by the Snmnites (Strab. l.c.). It continued in the hands of those last, that is, of the branch of the nation who had assumed the name of Companions [CAMPANIA], till it passed under the government of Rome. it is probable that it became from an early period a flourishing town, owing to its advantageous situation at the nronth of the Sarnus, which rendered it the port of Nola, Nuceria, and all the rich plain watered by that river. (Strab. l. 0.) But we meet with no mention of its name in history previous to the Roman conquest of Campanin. In B. c. 310 it is mentioned for the first time, when a Roman fleet under P. Cornelius touched there, and the troops on board proceeded from thence to ravage the tcrritory of Nuceria. (Liv. ix. 38.) No sub.



sequent notice of it occurs till the outbreak tithe
Social War (11.0. 91), in which it appears to have
taken a prominent part, as the Pompenrni are men-
tioned by Appian apart from the other Cnnpanians,
in enumeratingr the nations that joined in the hour-
rection. (Appinn, B. C. i. 39.) In the second yer:
0f the "111' (B. c. 89) Pompeii was still in the hands
of the insurgents, and it was not till after repeated
engagements: that L. Sulla, having defeated the Sons
nitc forces underL. Cluentius,and forced thenrtrnke
refuge within the walls of Nola, was able to form the
siege of Pompeii. (Appi:rn,i11. 50; Omar. 18:1:11.
Put. ii. 16.) The result of this is nowhere mentioned.
It is certain that the town ultimately fell into the
hands of Sulla ; but whether by force or a capital:-
tion we are not informed ; the latter is, hmrerer, the
most probable, as it escaped the fate of Stable-Anni
its inhabitants were admitted to the Roman franchise.
though they lost a part of their territory, in Willt'il
a military colony was established by the drops.
under the guidance and pantinge of his rrhnnn,
1’. Sulla. (Cic. pro $1411.21; Zumpt. deClePt}
254, 468.) Before the close of the ltepnbhcv l‘wntrfl
became, in common with so many other manttmt
towns of Campania, a favourite resort of nobles, many of whom had villus in its rmmohm
neighbourhood. Among others, Cicero had I fill!
there, which be frequently mentions under therans
of “ Pompeianum," and which appears to 111W a considerable establishment, and one of his tawnrfll
residences. (Cic. Acad. ii. 3, MA“. 1. 2t). MFR!
vii. 3, xii. 20.) Under the Empire it continued to he
resorted to for the some purposes. Seneca Pm”?
the pleasantnesa of its situation, and we learn be!
from him and Tacitus that it wasa populous and
flourishing town (“celebre oppidnrn," Tacdam. xv.
22; Sen. Not. (In. vi. 1). In addition to the fiflwl
which it received (as already mentioned) under and which is alluded to in an inscription as CUM
Veneria Cornelia ” (Momnrsen, INOI‘. R. r\. 2201).
it seems to have received a colony at saint. W
period, probably under Augustus (though 1! till):
termed a colony by Pliny), as it bests that tile
several inscriptions (Mommsen, Lo. 2230-4227991}i
In the reign of Nero (A. D. 59)"a tntnult turd.
place in the amphitheatre of Pompeii, arising (flied
a dispute between the citizens and the newlys‘tmiu
colonists of Nuceria, which ended in a with?“
which many persons were killed and woundedb [he
Pompeians were punished for thrs outbrelk i5-
prohibition of all gladiatorial and thfm'lml ‘i’ m
tions for ten years. (Tac. Ann. an". 11.) mg
years after, the city Suti'ered severely hm "hm"
quake, which took place on the 5th of Fed T35:
A. D. 63. The expressions both of seneor an kl
tus would lead us to suppose that it was part utterly destroyed; and we learn from exrstgilsm'
dence that the damage done was _nn’l“e"'_°m 'im'j
great, the public buildings especially Mimi-1452 “I
inost severely. (Sen. 11' . Q". "r 1; Tac' '[his w
22.) The city had hardly recovered final My
lamity, when it met with one for E“? ‘0“;
totally overwhelmed by the famous eruption H”
. - 35 Wt
snvins in A. D. 79, which buried Pompeii. J New
Herculaneum. under a dense bed of 844195 a" “We:
The loss of life in the former city WE? birch-m“;
because the inhabitants were assembledk 111]“e mm
at the time when the catastroplle to? hiis cejfimal
Cass. lxvi. 23.) Tire younger 111an "l I. 20) ,5,
letters describing the eruption (hp. :1. to," “BE.
not even notice the destruction of 101111”

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on is directed principally ' |is uncle’s death and the limself witnessed.

ie of Pompeii disappears ticed by Ptolemy; and it t never rebuilt. But the ‘ 'l‘abula; and it thus apiust have again arisen on in the neighbourhood, of race of Pompeii was submiddle ages its very site hat even the learned and >le to fix it with certainty, rafati on the Sumo, about )n. This difliculty arise, a great physical changes phe of a. D. 79, which a Sarno, so that. it now u Pompeii,—and at the the line of the coast, so a mile distant from the s undoubtedly bathed its

suppose that Pompeii in ove the rank of a secondie rc-discovery of itsburied v has given a celebrity to the greatest cities. The truction were peculiarly tion of its remains. lt >rrent of lava, but simply on of volcanic sand, ashes, l Italians Iapilli), which

light, dry, and porous time, it is almost certain tion of this volcanic deces 15 feet in depth) did was formed by successive tle doubt that the ruins valuable objects removed


soon after the catastrophe took place. This seems to be proved by the small number of objects of intrinsic value (such as gold and silver plate) that have been discovered, as well as by the fact that comparatively few skeletons have been found, though it appears certain, from the expressions of Dion Cassius, that great numbers of the inhabitants perished; nor have any of these been found in the theatre, where it is probable that the greatmt loss of life occurred.

It was not till 1748 that an accidental discovery drew attention to the remains of Pompeii; and in 1755 regular excavations on the site were first commenced by the Neapolitan government, which have been carried on ever since, though with frequent intervals and interruptions. It is impossible for us here even to attempt. to give any account of the results of these excavations and the endless variety of interesting remains that have been brought to light. We shall confine ourselves to those points which bear more immediately on the topography and character of the town of Pompeii, rather than on the general habits, life, and manners of ancient times. More detailed accounts of the remains, and the numerous objects which have been discovered in the course of the excavations, especially the works of art, will be found in the great work of Mazois (Le: Raine-r de Pompeii, continued by Gan, 4 vols. fol., Paris, 1812—1838), and in the two works of Sir W. Gell (Pompeiana, 1st series, 2 vols. Bro. Lond. 1824; 2nd series, 2 vols. SW. 1830); also in the little work published by the Society of Useful Knowledge (Pompeii, 2 vols. l2mo. 183] ). A recent French publication by Breton (Pompeia, 8vo. Paris, 1855), also gives a good account of the whole progress and results of the discoveries (including the most recent excavations) in a moderate compass and inexpensive form. The still more recent work of Overbeck (8vo. Leipzic, 1856), of which the first part only has yet appeared, contains an excellent compendium of the whole sub



neum. !



. Gate of the Theatres. . Modern entrance to the city. . Forum. . Theatres. . Amphitheatre. . Sheet DI the Tombs. 'r "r 4


, with especial attention to the works of art dis'red. ‘he area occupied by the ancient city was an zular oval, about 2 miles in circumference. It surrounded by a wall, which is still preserved 1d the whole of the city, except on the side urds the sen, where no traces of it have been 1d, and it seems certain that it had been pulled 'n in ancient times to allow for the extension muses and other buildings down to the water‘s e. The wall itself is in many places much lt‘d, as well as the towers that flank it, and igh this may be in part owing to the earthquake 53, as well as the eruption of 79, it is probable t the defenca of the town had before that time

been allowed to fall into decay, and perhaps em intentionally dismantled after the SocialWar. There were seven gates, the most considerable 1nd ornamental of which was that which formed the m trance to the city by the high mad from Hemilaneum: the others have been called respectively the gate of Vesuvius, the gate of Capua, the gated Nola, the gate of the Samus, the gate of Stable, and the gate of the Theatres. The entmmes totho town from the side of the sea had mud to be gates. there being no longer any walls on that side All these names are of course modem, but are unvenient in assisting us to describe the city. The walls were strengthened with an Agger or mmpfl‘ faced with mmnry, and having a parapeturww

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