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J OVI'ACUM, a town in Noricum, where a “ pmefectus secundae Italicse militum Liburnariorum" had his head-quarters ; a circumstance suggesting that the town, though situated some distance from the Danube, was yet connected with its navigation. (Itin. Ant. p. 249; Not. Imp.; Tab. Peut.) [L. 5.]

JOVlS MOSS (Monyri, near Ampuriaa), a spur of the Pyrenees in Spain, running out into the Mediterranean near the frontier of Gaul. The steplikc terraces which its face presented were called Scalae Herculis. (Mela, ii. 6. § 5.) [P. S.]

JOVIS MONS (To Alb: 6pm, l’tol. iv. 3. § 18; Zowan), a mountain of Africa Propria, between the rivers Bagradas and Triton, apparently containing the sources of the river Catada. . S.

JOVIS PAGUS, a town in the interior of Moesis, on the eastern bank of the Margus. (11in. Hieros. p. 565 ; Tab. PM; Geog. Rev. iv. 7, where it is called simply Pagus.) Some identify it with the modem Glagovm. S.]

JOVIS PROMONTORIUM (Ale! lixpu, Ptol. vii. 4. § 4), a promontory mentioned by Ptolemy, at the 5. end of the island of Taprolnme (Ceylon). Its exact position cannot be identified, but it must have been in the neighbourhood of the present Point du Gallo. if it be not the same.

ll’AGRO or IPAGRUM (Aguilar, on the Calms), acity of Hispanin Baetica, 28 M. P. south of Cordoba, on the road to Gades. (Itin. Ant. p. 412 ', Inscr. up. Mnratori, p. 1052, No. 3; Florez, Esp. S. vol.xii. p. 2 ; Coins, ap. Flores, Med. V01. ii. p. 647: Mionnct, vol. i. p. 17, Suppl. vol. i. p. 29; Sestini, pp. 28, 29 ; Eckhel, vol. i. p. 23.) [P. S.]

IPASTURGI. [Isruucn]

IPlllSTlADAE, [ArricA, p. 326, b.]

IPNI (Israel), on the coast of Magnesia, in Thessaly, at the foot of Mount Pclion, where part of the fleet of Xerxes was wrecked, seems to have been the name of some rocks. (Herod. vii. 188 ; Stmb. ix. p. 443.)

IPNUS ('h'uas; Efll, 'Irvelis), a town of the Locri Omlae, of uncertain site. (Thuc. iii. 101; Steph. B. .v. o.)

IPSUS (New or "hind, a small town of Phrygin, a fewmiles below Synnada. The place itself never was of any particular note, but it is celebrated in history for the great battle fought in its plains, u. c. 301, by the aged Antigonus and his son Demetrius against the combined forces of Cassander, Lysimachus, Ptolemy, sud Seleucus, in which Antigonus lost his conquests and his life. (Plut. Pyrrh. 4; Appian, Syriac. 55.) From Hierocles (p. 677) and the Acts of Councils(Concil. Nicaen, ii. p. 161), we learn that in the seventh and eighth centuries it was the sec of a. Christian bishop. Some modems identify lpsus with Ipsili Hissar. [L. S.]

IRA ('lpd). 1. A town of Messenia, mentioned by Homer (IL ix. 150,292), usually identified with the later Abia on the Messoninn gulf. [Anna]

2. Or EIRA (Elpa), a mountain in Messenia, which the Mcsscnians fortified in the Second Messeninn War, and which Aristomencs defended for ten years against the Spartans. It was in the north of Messenia, near the river Neda. Leaks places it at no great distance from the see, under the side of the mountain on which now stands Sidherolxutro and .Ma'rmaro ; but there are no ancient remains in this spot. More to the east, on the left bank of the Neda, near Kakalétri, are the remains of an ancient fortress, which was, in all probability, Eire; and the lofty

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the highest summit of Mount Eim. (Pans. iv. 17. § 10, iv. 20. l. 5 : Strab. viii. p. 360 ; Stcpll. B. s. v. 'lpd; Lcnke, Alarm, vol. i. p. 486; Cell, Itiner. of the filorea, p. 8-1 ; Ross, Reisen im I’eloponncs, p. 95, seq.)

lllEXO'l’Ole' (Eipflvdl'OMS), a town of the district Lacunitis, in the north-east of Cilicia. It was situated not far from the river Calycadnus, and is said to have once home the name of Neronius (Nepal:viar). (Theoduret. Hist. Ecclu. i. 7, ii. 8; Socrat. ii. 26; Pm]. v. 8. § 6.) [L 5.]

IRENO'I’OLIS. [Banana]

lllE’SlAl-l. [As-rumors]

lRlA FLAVlA. [GALLAxcuu]

lRlA (Elpia, Ptol.: Elk. Iriensis: Voghcra). a considerable town of the interior of Liguria, mcntioncd both- by Pliny and Ptolemy, as well as in the Itineraries, which place it 10 miles from Dertona, on the road to Placentia. (Plin. iii. 5. s. 7; Ptol. iii. 1. § 35; Itin. Ant. p. 288; Tub. Paul.) This distance agrees with the site of the modern town of Voghera, which appears to have been called in the middle ages View (M, a name gradually corrupted into its modern appellation. It is situated on the little river Smfl'ora, which would seem to have borne in ancient times the same name with the city: it is called Hiria or Iris by P. Diaconus, who tells us that the emperor Majorianns was put to death on its banks. (Hist. Ma'scell. xvi. p. 554.) Ptolemy includes Iris, as well as Dertona, in the territory of the Taurini; but this would seem to be certainly a mistake: that people could never have extended so far to the eastward. An inscription (of which the reading is, however, a matter of controversy) has “ Colonies Fore J uli Iriensium," from which it would seem that Iria, as well as the neighbouring Dertona, became a colony after the death of Caesar, and obtained the name of Forum Julii; but this is very doubtful. No other trace is found either of the name or the colony. (Mafi‘eiJlus. Ver. p. 371. 4; Murat. Imcr. p. 1108. 4; Orell. laser. 73.) 11. IL]

IRINE, an island in the Argolic gulf, supposed by Leaks to be Ypsili. (Plin. iv. 12. s. 19 ; Make, Pe iaca, p. 294.)

IRlNUS SINUS. [CANTHI SINUSJ

IRIPPO, a town of Hispania Baetica (Plin. iii. 1. s. 3), which Ukert supposes to have been situated in the Sierra do Ronda, near Zara or Final. (Florez, Esp. S. vol. xii. p. 303 ; Coins, up. Florez, died. vol. ii. p. 474, vol. iii. p. 85 ; Mionnet, vol. i. p. 56, Suppl. vol. i. p. 113 ; Scstini, Med. Isp. p. 61 ; Ultert, vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 358.) [P. S.]

IRIS (d ‘Ipls: Kasalmnk), a considerable river of Poutus, which has its sources in the heights of Antitaurus in the south of Pontus. It flows at first in a north-wcstcm direction, until reaching Comana it takes a western turn: it thus passes by the towns of Mesylu and Gaziura. A little above Amisus it receives the Scylax, and turns eastward; near Eupatoria the Lyeus empties itself into it. After this it flows due north, and, traversing the plain of Themiscyra, it empties itself into the Euxine by four mouths, the westernmost of which is the most important. (Strub. xii. p. 556.) The Iris is smaller than the Halys (Apollon. Rhod. ii. 368), but still aconsiderable river,fiowing through a vast extent of country, and, according to Xenophon (Anab. v. 6. 3), was three plethra in breadth. (Comp. Strnb. i. p. 52, xii. 547; Scylax, p. 32; I’tol. V. 6. § 2; Xenoph. v. 6. § 9, vi. 2. l; Apollon. Rhod. ii. 965; Dionys. Per.

mountain above, now called Tetra'zi, was probably 783; Plin. vi. 3, 4.) The part near its mouth is

now called Yet-hi1 or Yekil Innnk. (Hamilton, Researches, vol. i. p. 340.) [L. 5.] IRIS. [lessen] IRUS or IRA ('lpos or'Ipd), a town of Malls, of uncertain site. (Steph. B. s. on. ; Lycophr. 903.) IS ('1:, Herod. i. 179), a town of Mesopotamia, eight days' journey N. of Babylon, situated, according to Herodotus, on a. stream of the same name, which brought down the bitumen which was used in the construction of the walls of Babylon. There is no reason to doubt that it is represented by the modern Hit. There does not appear to be any river at present at Hit, but a small stream may have been easily blocked up by the sand of ages. There are still bitumen springs in the neighbourhood of this place. It has been conjectured that the ’Kavimao'. I’le of lsidoras (p. 5) refers to the same town. (Ritter, Erdkurule, vol. ii. p. 148; Rennell, Geogr. ofHerod. p. 552.) ISACA, in Britain, a river mentioned by Ptolemy (ii. 3. §4) as lying west of the outlet of the Tanumu (Tamar). In the Monuments Britannica, lsacue ostia are identified with ll'eymoutlt, and also with Ermoul/i; most probably the latter, name for name, as well as place for place. In the Geographer of Ravenna the form is Isca, which is preferable. [154“. [R. G. L.] ISADICI (Elucidurot), a. people whom Stmbo (xi. p. 506) couples with the Troglodytae and other tribes of the Caucasus. The name may imply some Hellenic fancy about savage justice and virtue. (Comp. Groskurd, adloc.) B. J.] ISAleIUM, in Ireland, mentioned by Ptolemy (ii. 2. 8) as a promontory north of the Bubinda (river Boyne) = St. John‘s Forelanll, Clog/121' Ilead, Dummy Point, Bullas/ian Point [IL G. L.] ISANNAVATIA, in Britain, mentioned in the 6th Itinerary as lying between Luctodurum and Tripontium. It is a name of some difficulty, since neither of the places on each side of it has been identified. (See vo.) In the Geographer of Ravcnna we find a Bannovallum, and in the 8th Itinerary a Bannovantum. Probably these two names are identical. At any rate, Bannorantum = Isannavatiu, since each is 28 miles from Magiovinium. Thus, in the 6111 Itinerary, we have:—

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It is only safe to say that Isannavatia was a town in the southern part of Northamptonshire, probably Din-entry. The Itinerary in which it occurs has only two names beyond doubt, viz. Verulamium and Lindnm (St. Alban'a and Lincoln). Dovmh-y, however, is Horsley’s identification. In more than one map of Roman Britain, Bannovallum is placed in Lincolnshire. This is because it is, in the first plow, separated from Bannovantum, and then fixed on the river Rain, 3 Lineolnshire river. This is the meaning of [Iorncrutle being given as its equivalent. The change, however, and the assumption, are equally gratuitous. [R. G. L.]

I'SARA, the river. 1. [INSULAJ

2. The Isara, which was a branch of the Sequana, has its name preserved in the Celtic name of a place which was on it, named Briva Isarae. [Bnrva lumen] The Celtic element 1.: has become Oise, the modern name of the river, which is the same

VOL. II.

word as the English Ouse. D’Anville says that the name Isara in the middle ages became Esta or Aesia. V ibius Sequester mentions a river Esia which flows 1 into the Sequana; but D’Anville suspects the passage f to be an interpolation, though it is impossible to i judge what is interpolation in such a strange book as Vibius Sequester. Oberlin, the editor of Vibius

I Sequester, maintains the passage to be genuine (p. . 110). [G. L.] 3. [Lon/i.

ISAHCI, a Rhaetian tribe dwelling about the mouth of the river lsarus (Plin. iii. 24), from which it appears to have derived its name. [L. 5.]

ISARGUS. [lune-Us]

ISARUS ('Ioapos' : the Isar), a river of the Rhaetian Alps, flowing from an Alpine lake, and in a southern direction until it joins the Athesis near Pous Drusi. (Strab. iv. p. 207, where the 'Iaapas (or a) is said toreceive the Atsgis (Athesis) ; either a mistake of Strabo himself, or by a transcriber transposing the names. Comp. lumps.) [L. S.]

ISAUItA (1d 'Iaaupa: Eth. ’Io'avpel’zs), the capital of Isauria, situated in the south-west of the country; it was a wealthy, populous, and well-fortified city at the foot of Mount Taurus. Of its earlier history nothing is known; but we learn from Diodorns (xviii. 22) that when it was besieged by Perdiccas, and the inhabitants were no longer able to hold out, they set fire to the city, and destroyed themsalves with all they possessed. Large quantities of molten gold were found afterwards by the Macedonians among the ash and ruins. The town was rebuilt, but was destroyed a second time by the Itoman Servilius Isauricns, and thencei'orthit remained a heap of ruins. Strnbo (xii. p. 568) states that the place was coded by the Romans to Amyntas of Galotia, who built out of the ruins of the ancient city a new one in the neighbourhood, which he surrounded with a wall; but he did not live to complete the work. In the third century of our hero lsaura was the residence of the rival emperor Trebcllitlnus (Trebell. Poll. XXX. Tyran. 25); but in the time of Ammianus Marcellinus (xiv. 8) nearly all traces of its former magnificence had vanished. At a later period it is still mentioned, under the name Isauropolis, as a town in the province of Lycaouia. ( Hierocl. p- 675; Concil. Chalced. p. 673; comp. Strnb. xiv. p. 665; Ptol. is 4. § 12; Steph. B. s. t‘.; Plin. v. 27.) Of Old lsaura no ruins appear to be found, though D'Anville and others have identified it with the modern Bei Shelter,- they also believe that Sei'di Shelter occupies the site of New Isaurn, while some travellers regard Serki Semi as the representative of New Issora; but Hamilton (Researches, vol. ii. pp. 330, toll.) has given good reasons for thinking that certain ruins, among which are the remains of a triumphal arch of the emperor Hadrian and a gateway, on a hill near the village of 014m Bmmar mark the site of New lsanra. The walls of the city can still be traced all around the place. The lsaurians were a people of robbers, and the site of their city was particularly favourable to such a mode of life.

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ISAU'RIA (i7 Irmupia), a district in Asia Minor, bordering in the east on Lycaonia, in the north on l’hrygia, in the west on PlSltllll, and in the south on Cilieia and Pamphylia. Its inhabitants, living in a wild and rugged mountainous country, were little known to the civilised nations of antiquity. The country containle but few towns, which existed especially in the northern part, which was less

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mountainous, though the Capital, Isaura, was in the south. Strabo, in a somewhat obscure passage (xii. p. 568), seems to distinguish between ’lo'aupia, the northern part, and 'Ioauput'h, the southern and less known part, which he regards as belonging to Lycaonia. Later writers, too, dcaignzrte by the name lsauria only the northern part of the country, and take no notice of the south, which was to them almost a term incognita. The inhabitants of that secluded mountainous region of Asia, the Isauri or Isaurica gens, appear to have been a kindred race of the l'isitlians. Their principal means of living were derived from plunder and rapine; from their mountain fustnesses they used to descend into the plains, and to ravage and plunder wherever they could overcome the inhabitants of the valleys in Cilieia, Phrygis, and l'isidin. These marauding habits rendered the Isaurians, who also took part. in the piracy of the Cilicians, so dangerous to the neighbouring countries that, in B. c. 78, the Romans sent against them an army under P. Servilius, who, after several dangerous campaigns, sue» eeeded in conquering most of their strongholds and reducing them to submission, in conscquem‘e of which he received the surname of Isauricns. (Strab. l. 6.; DlOd. Sic. XV‘iii. 22; Zosim. v. 25; hieln, i. 2; Plin. v. 23; Entrop. vi. 3; Liv. Epil. 93; Dion Cass. xlv. 16; Flor. iii. 6; Ptol. v. 4. § 12; Oros. v. 23; Amm. Marc. xiv. 2, axv. 9.) The Isaurians after this were quite distinct from the Lycaonians, for Cicero (ad A“. v. 21; comp. ad I-‘am. xv. 2) distinguishes between the Forum Lycaonium and the lsauricum. But notwithstanding the severe measures of Servilius, who had destroyed their strongholds, and even their capital of lsaura, they subsequently continued to infest their neighbours, which induced the tetrarch Amyntas to attempt their extirpation; but he did not succeed, and lost his life in the attempt. Although the glorious vietory of Pompey over the pirates had put an end to such practices at sea, the lsunrians. who in the midst of the r ' of Rome ' ‘ ' ’ their independence, continued their predatory excursions, and defied the power of Rome; and the Romans, anable to protect their subjects against the bold mountaineers in any other way, endeavoured to check them by surrounding their country with a of fortres~es. (Treb. P011. XXX. Tyr. 25.) In this, however, the Romans succeeded but imperfectly, for the lsaurlans frequently broke through the surrounding line of fortifications; and their success emboldened them so much that, in the third century of our aera, they united themselves with their kinsmen, the Cilicians, into one nation. From that time the inhabitants of the highlands of Cilicia also are comprised under the name of Isanri, and the two, united, undertook expeditions on a very large scale. The strongest and most flourishing cities were attacked and plundered by them, and they remained the terror of the sumunding nations. In the third century, Trebellianns, a chief of the Cilician Isanrians, even assumed the title and dignity of Roman emperor. The Romans, indeed, conquered and put him to death; but were unable to reduce the Isaurians. The emperor Probns, for a time, succeeded in reducing them to submission; but they soon shook off the yoke. (Vopisc. Prob. 16; Zosim. i. 69, 70.) To the Greek emperors they were particularly formidable, for whole armies are said to have been cut to pieces and destroyed by them. (Said. .t. r. BPIlXIOS and 'deerios ; l’hilostorg.

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Hint. Ecclu. xi. 8.) Once the Imurians even had the honour of giving an emperor to the East in the person of Zeno, sumamed the lsaurian; but they were subsequently much reduced by the emperor Anastasius, so that in the time of Justinian they had ceased to be formidable. (Comp. Gibbon, 11nd. of the Decline, (’13., chap. :1.) The lsaurians are described as an ugly race, of low stature, and badly armed; in the open field they were bad soldiers, but as hardened mountaineers they were irresistible in what is called guerilla warfare. Their country, though for the mat part consisting of rugged mountains, was not altogether barren, and the vine was cultivated to aconsiderable extent. (Alum. Marc. xiv. 8.) Traditions originating in the favourite pursuits of the ancient lsauriaus are still current among the present inhabitants of the country, and an interesting specimen is related in Hamilton's Researches, vol. ii. p. 331. [L. 3.]

180A, the name of two towns in Britain. The Cflilt‘lam of certain ditlieulties connected with their identification is given under MURIDUNL'M. Here it is assumed that one is Enter, the other Cam-Iconon-Uslc.

1. lsca=Ez-eter, mentioned by Ptolemy (ii. 8. § 30). In the 12th and 15th Itineraries this appears as Isca Dnmnoniorum, 15 miles from Muridunum. The word Dumnoniorurn shows that Devoruht'rs is the county in which it is to be sought. Name for name, Eweter suggests itself. Nevertheless, Hensley gives Uxela as the Roman name for Exeter, and placed Irca D. at Chiselboro’. After remarking on Isaca, that “it is universally supposed to be the river Ere in Devonshire," and that " Isacae ostia must, therefore, be Emoulh," he adds, “ lsea Dumnoniorum has been universally taken for Enter,- 1 have placed it near Chilelboro' and South Pelhcrtmt, near the borders of Somersetshiro” (p. 371). His objections (p. 462) lie in the difiiculty of fixing Muridunum (q. o.) ; but, beyond this, he considers himself free to claim Uxela (q. o.) as Ereter. For

"‘ ing Isea Dumnoniorum to be Euler, he sees no better reason than " general opinion and some seeming aflinity of names." Yet the “ afiinity of names" has been laid great stress on in the case of Isaeae oetia. The [sea of Ptolemy must be about 20 or 30 miles north-east of the mouth of the Eu, “on which river Exeter stands. This reaches to the As." Hence he suggests lie/tester as Iscs. Dumn.; but, as he admits that that town has a claim to be considered Isehalis (q. 9].), he also admits that some of the localities about Hampden Hill (where there are the remains of a Roman camp), South Pethertun (where Roman coins have been found), and Cln'selboro’ (not far from the Ame), have better claims. Hence, in his map, Uxela=Ereler, and Isca D.= Chiselboro'. Assuming that some, if not all, these difficulties are explained under UXELA and Munromwu, the positive evidence in favour of Eacter is something more than mere opinion and similarity of name.

(1) The form Isca is nearer to E: than Ar, and that Isaea=Ere is admitted. The Ila:— iu Uz-ela may better = Ax.

(2) There is no doubt as to the other Isea= Caerleon-on- Usk. Now, Roger Hoveden, who wrote whilst the Cornish was a spoken language, states that the name of Eater was the same as that of Caerleon, in British, i. e. Coerwiac = eivitas square.

(3) The statement of Horsley, that “ he could never hear of any military way leading to or from” Exeter, misleads. 1n l’ohrhele (p. 182) we have a most distinct notice of the road from Seaton, and, nine miles from Exeter, the lomlity called Street-way Head; the name dreet=road (when not through a. town or village) being strong evidence of the way being Roman. Tesselated pavements and the foundations of Roman walls have been found at Exeter, as well as other remains, showing that it was not only a Roman town, but a Roman town of importance, as it continued to be in the Saxon times, and as it had probably been in the British.

2. Isca Liamoxrs:Caerleon-on-Usk, is mentioned in the 12th Itinerary, i. e. in the one where Isca Duinnoniorum occurs. The only town given by Ptolemy to the Silures, the population of the parts to which [sea (sometimes called by later writers lsca Silurum) belongs, is Bullaeum. This=Burrium of the Itinerary, 8 Roman miles from him (= Usk, about. 6 English miles from Cam-lean.) Hence, Isca may have been a military station of comparatively recent date. But there is a further complication. It is the Devonshire Isca to which Ptolemy gives the Second Legion (Ae'yluv Bewipa IcSad'T‘h). “ This," remarks Horsley (and, perhaps, with truth), on the part of Ptolemy, is, " in my opinion, the only manifest and material error committed by him in this part of England ” (p. 462).

Again; several inscriptions from the Wall (per lineam Valli) show that, when that was built, the second Legion was on the Scottish border, taking part. in the work; the previous history of the legion being, that it came into Britain under the reign of Claudius, commanded by Vespasian. ('l‘ae. Hint. iii. 44.) On the other hand, an inscription mentioned by Horsley, but now lost (p. 78), indicates their presence at Crrerleon in the time of Severus. As the Itinerary places them there also, we must suppose that this was their quarters until the times approaching the evacuation of Britain. When the Notilia was made, they were at Butnpiae (Richboro'): PRAEPOSITUS Luoroms 1r. auocs-r. noruns.

The Roman remains found at. Caerleon are considerable. A late excavation for the parts about the Castle .Ummd gave the remains of a Roman villa, along with those of a medieval castle, built, to a great extent, out of the materials of the former. In some cases the stucco preserved its colour. There was abundance of pottery,—Samian ware, ornamented with figures of combatant gladiators, keys, bowls, bronze ornaments, and implements. At PM Back, near Cuerlemz, tesselnted pavements have been found, along with the following inscription:—mrs MAMovs TADIA VELLAVIVS . vnn'r ANNOS szxaGINTA QVINQVE . nrrwtvs EXUPERTVB Pruvs vrxn' armos TIHGINTA azP'rEM . DEFVNTVS (sic) EXPEDITIONE csmumca . TADIA EXUPERATA FILIA MATRI m PATRI rrrasma sucvs 'rv:rvu'n PATRIS Posvrr. Others, of less length,to the number of twenty, have also been found in the neighbourhood. Archaeologin Canibr'emic; Journal of British Archaeological Association (paaim); and Delineation; of Roman Antiquities found at Caerleon, J. E. Lee.) [IL G. L.]

ISCA, river. [Isacm]

ISCA’DIA (Eionadia), a town in the W. of Baetica, between the Bactis and the Arms, not far from Tucci. (Appian, Hisp. 68.) [P. S.]

lSCHALlS, in Britain, mentioned by Ptolemy (ii. 3. § 28) as one of the towns of the Belgne, Bath and Ii’iadlater ("Nara Geppd, or Aqnue Solis, and

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Vents) being the other two; identified, in the Monumenta Britannica, with llchuter. [IscA DI'MNOMorton] [IL G. L.] ISCHO'POLIS ('ond'n'ohs), a small town on the coast of l’ontus near Pharnacia, was in ruins even in the time of Strabo (xii. p. 548), but is still noticed by Ptolemy (v. 6. 5). [1,. 5.] ISIACO'RUM PORTUS (’Imamiw Midyv, Arrian, Peripl. p. 21, Anon. Peripl. p. 9), aharbour on the Euxine sea, 380 stadia from the island at the mouth of the Borysthenes, and 1200 stadia from the I'silon (Salim!) mouth of the Danube. (Arrinn, 1.0.) It has been identified by Rennell (Comp. Geog. vol. ii. p. 360) with Odessa. There is some dil’riculty in adjusting the discrepancies in detail; but the aggregate distance appears to be clearly enough made out. Thus, from the island to Odessna Arr-inn allows a distance of 80 stadia, and from Odessus to the port of the Istrians (’Io'rpmvr'iw Amity) 250 stadia, and thence to that of the lsiaci 50 studio. The OnrasusCOSnoo'ds) of Arrian (for he places Odessus at Vania) is probably a false reading, and is the same as the OKDESL'S (0945-1106:) of Ptolemy (iii. 5. §29) and Pliny (iv. 12), situated upon the river Axucus, or the modern Teligul, a large estuary which receives a river of the same name. As the interval in Arrian between Odessus (011103115) and the island is too short, so the next is too large; but the errom balance one another, and the harbour of the Isiaci agrees with that of Oder-m within three quarters of a mile: the port of the Istrians may have lain to the N. of the bay of Odusa. [Ii B. J.] ISIDIS OPPIDUM (Plin. v.10. a. 1]). Near the city of Busiris, in the Aegyptian Delta, was situated a splendid temple of Isis, around which, besides the ordinary dwellings of the priests within the sacred precincts, gradually clustered a large and flourishing village, inhabited by the artisans and husbandmeu who supplied the wants or tilled the lands of the inmates of the temple. These buildings formed probably the hamlet or town of Isis mentioned by l'liny. The modem village of Balibeyt. N. of the ancient city of Busiris. is supposed to cover the ruins of the 'I'cmplum Isidis. (l’oeoeke, Travel: in the East, vol. i. p. 34; Minutoi, p. 304.) [Bow suns] [\V. B. 1).] Ib‘lNlSCA, a place in Rhaetia Secunda, on the ancient road between Augsburg and Snlzlmrg. (lt'in. Ant. pp. 236, 251, 257 ; Tab. PeuL, where it is called Islmist‘a.) It is identified by some with ben, and by others with a place near 11E!fi'fllf()l_'f. [L. 5.] ISIONDA (’Imévoa), a town in the south-west of Pisidia, a few miles to the north-west of Termessus. (Polyb. Eu. do Leg. 3]; Liv. xxxviii. l5.) Strabo (xii. p. 570), in enumerating the Pisidian towns, mentions one which he calls Siuda, a name which some editors believe to be a corrupt reading for Isionda; but, as there existed a town of the name of Sinda near Cibyra in Pisidian Phrygia, it Would be hazardous to decide anything. (See Kramer's note on Strab. l. 0.) Sir C. Fellowes (Asia Minor, p. 194) found extensive remains of an ancient town on the top and side of one of the many isolated hills of the district, which he supposes to be the ruins of Isionda, but he does not mention any coins or inscriptions in support of his conjecture. [L. S.] ISIS (6 '10“), a navigable river on the east coast of the Euxine between the Acinaais and Mogrus, from each of which its distance amounted to 90 stadin, while its mouth was ISO studio south of that of the I’hasis. (Arriun, Peripl. p. 7 ; I’lin. vi. 4; Scylax, p. 32, where the common reading 'lpts has been corrected by Gail.) This river is believed to be the modern Tahm'ok. [L. 5.] l'SlUM (Isiu, lti». Anton. p. 167 ; lsui, Not. 1mp.). was a fort situated on the borders of the Thebaid and Heptanomis in Egypt, in lat. 27° 5’ N., and on the eastern bank of the Nile. Isium was about 20 miles SE. from the castle of Hieraoon, and nearly 24 miles NE. from that of Muthis. Under the Roman empire a troop of British infantry (ala Britonum) was stationed there. [\V. B. D.]

Ib'lUS MONS (-rb 'Iorov 6pm, Ptol. iv. 7. § 5), a mountain, or rather a ridge of highlands rising gra~ dually on its western side, but steep and esosrped towards the east, on the coast of Aethiopia, and in the iter Troglodytica. It. was seated in Int. 20° 1’ N., a little to the southward of the headland Mnemium (Mvnpeiov hpov, Ptol. iv. 5. § 7), and SW. of Bereuice and the Sinus 1mmundus(FoulBay). Mons lsins answers to the modern Rao-el-Dwaer. Slrabo, indeed (xvii. p. 770), places this eminence further to the south, and says that it was so called from a temple of 1sis near its summit. [\V. B. D.]

ISMARIS ('Io'papls Alum), a small hike on the south coastot' Thrace, slittle to the east of Muronea. (Herod. vii. 169; Steph. B. Lt). 'Iauapor.) On its eastem side rises Mt. Ismarus. [lsauuws] [L S.]

l'SMARUS (“layup”), a. mountain rising on the east of lake Ismaris, on the south coast of Thrace (Virg. Ecl. vi. 30, Georg. ii. 37 ; Propert. ii. 13. 5. iii. 12. 25 : Lucret. v. 31, where it is called Isrnsra, as in Virg. Am. 3. 351.) Homer (0d. ix. 40, 198) speaks of Ismarns as a town of the Cicones, on or at the foot of the mountain. (Comp. Marc. Hench 28.) The name of the town also appears in the form lsmar'on. (Plin. iv. 18.) The district about Ismarus produced wine which was highly esteemed. (Athen. i. p. 30; Ov. Met. hr. 641; Steph. B. e e.) [L. 5.]

ISME'XUS. [Tnnsam]

ISONDAE ('lodvdm, Pwl. v. 9. § 23), a people whose position must be sought for in the valley of the river Terek or Krima, in Lezge'stdn, to the W. of the Caspian. [R B. J.]

151’1’NUM. [Canes'rann]

15RAFJ.. [PALAESTINL]

ISSA (“1mm Ptol. ii. 16. § 14; Agathem. i. 5; Pomp. Mela, ii. 7. § 13; Plin. iii. 26; Steph. 3.; Itin. Antvlm Paul. Tab.; Isis, Geog. Raw; "1119, Const. Por'ph. de Adm. Imp. 36: EM. and Adj. “Iocreus, lssacus, Isscnsis, Issaicus: Lissa), one of the most well known of the islands in the Adriatic, off the coast of Liburnia. (Strab. vii. p. 315.) It is mentioned by Scylax (p. 8) as a Grecian colony, which, according to Scymnus of Chins (l. 412), was sent from Syracuse. Dindorus (xv. 13) relates that in 11.6. 387 Diunysius the elder, in his attempts to secure to himself the sovereignty of the Adriatic, assisted the Parisns in founding colonies at less and Pharw. The island was besieged by Agron, king of lllyria, and the inhabitants applied to Rome for protection, when a message was sent by the Romans to Agron, requiring him to desist from molesting the friends of the republic. In the mean time, B. c. 232, Agron died; and his widow Tents, having succeeded to the throne, resolved on pressing the siege of Issa. The Roman envoys required her to cease from hostilities, when, in defiance of the law of nations, she

at one of them to death. This brought on the First llyrian War, a. c. 229; one of the consequences of which was the liberation of 1m (Polyb. ii. 8; App.

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Illyr. 7.) That lssa remained free for a long time is proved by its coins, which also show that the island was famous for its wine (comp. Athen. i. p. 22), hearing, as they do, an “smphora” on one side, and on the other a vine with leaves. (Eckhel, vol. ii. p. 159.) The inhabitants were expert seamen, and their beaked ships, “ Lembi lssaici," rendered the Romans especial service in the war with Philip of Macedon. (Liv. xi. 45, xxavii. 16, xlii. 48.) They were exempted from the payment of tribute (Liv. xlv. 8),and were reckoned as Roman citizens (Plin. iii. 21). In the time of Caesar the chief town of this island appears to have been very flourishing.

The island now called Lina risa from the sea, so that it is seen at a considerable distance; it has two ports, the larger one on the NE. side, with a town of the same name: the soil is barren, and wine forms its chief produce. Lissa is memorable in modern times for the victory obtained by Sir W. Huerta over the French squadron in 1811. (Sir G. Wilkinson, Dalmatia and Montenegro, vol. i. p. 110; Neigebaur, Die Sudslarem, pp. 110—115.) B. J.)

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ISSA. [Lrsnos]

lSSACHAR. [PALAESTINA-J

ISSE'DONES ('1o'rr1766vrt, Stcplr. B. I. v. ; in the Roman writers the usual form is “ Essedones "), a people living to the E. of the Argippaci, and the most remote of the tribes of Gentrnl Asia with whom the Hellenic colonies on the Euxine had any communication. The name is found as early as the Spartan Alcman, n. c. 671 ——631, who calls them “Assedones” (Fr. 94-, ed. Wclckcr), and Hecataeus (Fr.168, ed. Klanson). A great movement among the nomad tribes of the N. had taken place in very remote times, following a direction from NE. to SW.; the Arimsspi had driven out the Issedoues from the stcppes over which they wandered, and they in turn drove out the Scythians, and the Scythians the Cimmerians. Traces of these migrations were indicated in the poem of Aristeas of Pmeonnesus, a semimythical personage, whose pilgrimage to the land of the lssedones was strangely disfigured after his death by the fables of the hlilesian colonists. (Herod. iv. 13.) The lssedones, according to Herodotus (iv. 26), have a custom, when any one loses his father, for the kinst'olk to kill a certain number of sheep, whose flesh they hash up together with that of the dead man, and make merry over it. This done, they peel and clean out his skull, which after it has been gilded becomes a kind of idol to which yearly sacrifices are offered. In all other respects they are a righteous people, submitting to the rule of women equally with that of men ; in other words, aciviliscd people.

Heeren (Asiat. Nat. vol. ii. p. 15, trans), upon Dr. Leyden's authority (Asiat. Res. vol. ix. p. 202), illustrates this way of carrying out the duties of

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