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filial piety by the practice of the Battas of Sumatra. It may be remarked that a similar story is told of the Indian l’adaei. (Herod. iii. 99.) Pomponius Mela (ii. 1. § 13) simply copies the statement of llerodotus, though he alters it so for as to assert that the Issedones used the skull as a drinking cup. The name occurs more than once in Pliny (iv. 26, vi. 7, l9); and Ptolemy, who has a town Issnnon in Series (’Iao-qfio’iv, vi. 16. §7, viii. 24. § 5), mentions in another place (viii. 24. § 3) the Scythian lssedon. (Comp. Steph. B. 5.12.; Amm. Marc. xxiii. 6 ' 66.

§Von Humboldt (Aeie Centrale, yo]. i. pp. 390-— 412) has shown that, if the relief of the countries between the Don and the Irlysh be compared with the itinerary traced by Herodotus from the Thyssagetae to the lssedones, it will be seen that the Father of History was acquainted with the existence of vast plains separating the Ural and Altai, chains which modern geographers have been in the habit of uniting by an imaginary range passing through the steppe of the Kirghiz. This route (Herod. iv. 23, 24) recognises the passage of the Ural from W. to E., and indicates another chain more to the E. and more elevated—that of the Altai'. These chains, it is true, are not designated by any special names, but Herodotus was not acquainted even in Europe with the names of the Alps and Rhipacan mountains; and a comparison of the order in which the peoples are arranged, as well as the relief and description of the country, shows that much definite infonnation had been already attained. Advancing from the Palus Maeotis, which was supposed to be of far larger dimensions than it really is, in a central direction towards the NE., the first people found occupying the plains are the “ Black-clothed” Ma:LASCHLAENI, then the Bcnmt, Tilrasaon'ran, the luncar. (who have been falsely identified with the Turks), and finally, towards the E., a colony of Scythians, who had separated themselves from the “ Royal Scythians" (perhaps to barter gold and skins). Here the plains end, and the ground becomes broken (MOéE-ns Kal 'rpnxe'n), rising into mountains, at the foot of which are the ARGXPPAEI, who have been identified from their long chins and flat noses with the Kalmucks or Mongolians by Niebuhr, B'ockh, and others, to whom reference is made by Mr. Grote. (Hill. of Greece, vol. iii. p. 320.) This identification has been disputed by Humboldt (comp. Cosmos, vol. i. p.353 note, 440, vol. ii. p. 141 note, 202, trans), who refers these tribes to the Finnish stock, assuming as a certain fact, on evidence which it is diflicult to make out, that the llongolians who lived around Lake Baikal did not move into Central Asia till the thirteenth century. Where the data. are so few, for the language (the principle upon which the families of the human race are marked 08‘) may be said to be unknown, ethnographic analogics become very hazardous, and the more so in the case of nomad tribes, the same under such wide differences of time and climate. But if there be considerable difliculty in making out the analogy of race, the local bearings of these tribes may be laid down with tolerable certainty. The country up to the Argippaei was well known to the traders; a ban-ier of impassable mountains blocked up the way beyond. [HYPERBOREL] The position of the lsscdoncs, according to the indications of the route, must be assigned to the E. of Iclu'm in the steppe of the central horde of the Kirghiz, and that of the Arimaspi on the N. declivity of the

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Altai. The communication between the two peoples for the purpose of carrying on the gold trade was probably made through the plains at the NW. extremity of the Altai, where the range juts out in the form of a huge promontory. [15. B. J.]

ISSICUS SlNUS. [ISSL'S.]

ISSUS ('Ioods and ’Icmoi, Xen. Anab. i. 2. § 24, and i. 4. § 1), a town of Cilicia, on the gulf of lssus ('lcra'urbs K6A1ros). Herodotus calls the gulf of lssus the gulf of Myriandros (iv. 38), from the town of Myriandros, which was on it.

The gulf of Issus is now named the gulf of Is» kenderun or Scanderocm, from the town of Seanderoon, formerly Alexandria ad lssum, on the east side. It is the only large gulf on the southern side of Asia Minor and on the Syrian coast, and it is an important place in the systems of the Greek geographers. This gulf runs in a NE. direction into the land to the distance of 47 miles, measured nearly at right angles to a line drawn from the promontory Mcgarsus (Cape Kaz‘adush), on the Ciliciau coast, to the Rhosicus Scopulus (Ra's-el-Kha'nzir, or Hymyr, as it has sometimes been written), on the Syrian coast ; for these two capes are respectively the limits of the gulf on the west and cast, and 25 miles from one another. The width immediately north of the capes is somewhat less than 25 miles, but it does not diminish much till we approach the northern extremity of the gulf. It seems certain that the ancient outlet of the Pyramus was west of and close to Cape Karadaslt, where Beaufort supposes it to have been; and this is consistent with the old prophecy [VoL I. p. 620], that the allurium of the Pyramus would some time reach to the shore of Cyprus; for if the' river had entered the gulf where it does now, 23 miles further east, the prophecy would have been that it would fill up the gulf of lssus. For tho earth that the river formerly discharged into the sea is now sent into the gulf, where it “ has produced a plain of sand along the side of the gulf, somewhat similar in shape, and equal in size, to that fonned by the Ghiuk Sonyoo [CALYCADNI'S, Vol. I. p. 483]; but. the elbow where the current that sets round the gulf quits it, is obtuse :uid without any shoals. Perhaps the disappearance of the Serrcpolis of Ptolemy from the coast, may be accounted for by the progressive advance of the shore into the gulf, which has left the ruins of that town some miles inland" (Beaufort, Coramam'a, p. 296). Plolemy‘s Serraepolis (Zefipalauais), which he calls ll small place (mop-11), is between Mallus, which is a little east of Cape Megarsus, and Aegao or Aynz. [Arrears] The next city to Acgae on the coast is lssus, and this is the remotest. city in this part of Cilicia which Ptolemy mentions. Xenophon also speaks of it as the lost city of Cilicia on the road to Syria.

The mountains which bound the gulf of Issue are described in the article Amasus. The bold Rhosicus Scopulus (5400 feet high), where the Syrian Amanus terminates on the coast, may be distinctly seen by the sailor when he is abreast of Seleuceiu (Selefkeh), at. the mouth of the Cniycadnus, a distance of 85 geographical miles (Bufort). A small stream flows into the head of the gulf of lasus, and a few from the Amanus enter the cast. side, one of which, the Pinarus, is the Dell Tschai ,and the other, the Camus of Xenophon, is the Merkeo. The Amanus which descends to the Rhosicna Scopulus, and the other branch of the Amanus which shots in the gulf of Issue on the NW. and forms Slrnbo's Amanides Pylae, unite in the interior, as Strnbo says 535) ; and our modern maps represent it so. There is a plain at the head of the gulf. Strabo gives a greater extent to the Issic gulf than we do to the gulf of Scanderuon, for he makes it extend along the Cilician coast as far as Cilicia Trachea, and certainly to Soli (pp. 534, 664). In another passage (p. 125) he shows what extent 'he gives to the gulf of Issue, by placing Cyprus in the Pamphylian sea and in the gulf of Issus,—-the west part of the island being in the Pamphylian, and the east in the Issic gulf. The golf of .11ka was surveyed by Lt. Murphy in the Euphrates expedition under the command of Colonel Chesney. From the Same the army marched 5 parasangs to the Pyramus, which was crossed where it was 600 Greek feet wide; and the march from the Pyramua to lssus was 15 parasangs. Accordingly, the whole distance marched from Tarsus to lssus was 30 parnsangs. The direct distance from Tarsus to the head of the gulf is about 56 geographical miles; and these two points are very nearly in the same latitude. The modern road from Tarsus, through Adana on the Sarus, and lllnpsuestia on the l'yramus, to the head of the gulf, has a general direction from W. to E. The length of Cyrus's march, from 'l‘arsus to the Same, exceeds the direct distnnce on the map very much, if we reckon the parasang at 3 geographical miles; for 10 pirasangs are 30 geographical miles, and the direct distance to Adana is not more than 16 miles. Mr. Ainsworth infonns us that the Sarus is not fordable at Adana; and Cyrus probably crossed at some other place. The march from the Same to the I’yramus was 5 parasangs, or 15 geographical miles; and this appears to be very nearly the direct distance from Adana to Mopsucstia (.llzln's). But Cyrus may have crossed some distance below Mopsuestia, without lengthening his march from the Same to the Pyramus; and he may have done this even if he had to go lower down the Sarus than Adana to find a ford. If he did not go higher up the Pyramus to seek a ford, for the reasons which Mr. Ainsworth mentions, he must have crossed lower down than Mopsuestia. The distance from the point where the supposed old bod begins to turn to the south, to the NE. end of the gulf of Issus, is 40 geographical miles; and thus the distance of 15 parasangs from the passage of the l'yramus to lssus, is more easily reconciled with the real distance than the measurement from Tarsus to the Sarus.

The ancient geographers did not agree about the position of the isthmus of the country which we call Asia Minor; by which isthmus they meant the shortest distance across the eastern part of the peninsula from the Euxino to the Mediterranean. Strabo (p. 673) makes this shortest distance lic along a line joining Amisus and Tarsua. If he had said Amisus and the head of the gulf of Issue, he would have been quite right. He was nearly correct as to the longitude of the head of the gulf of Issus, which he places in the meridian of Amisus and 'l'hemiscyra (p. l26); and in another passage he says that the head of the gulf of Issue is a little more cost than Amisus, or not at all more east (p. 519). Amisus is, in fact, a little further cost than the most eastern part of the gulf of Issue. The longest direction of the inhabited world, according to Stmbo's system (p. 118), from west to east, is measured on a line drawn through the Slelae (Straits of Gibraltar), and the Sicilian strait (Straits of Alesaina), to Rhodua and the gulf of Issue, whence it follows the Taurus, which divides Asia into two parts, and terminates on the eastern sat. Those ancient geographers who made the isthmus of the Asiatic peninsula extend from Issue to the Euxine, considered the shortest. line across the isthmus to be a meridian line, and the dispute was whether it ran to Sinope or Amisus (Stmb. p. 678). The choice of ISsus as the point on the Mediterranean to reckon from, shows that lssus was the limit, or most eastern point, on the south coast of the peninsula, and that it was not on that part of the bay of Issue where the coast runs south. Consequently Issue was on or near the head of the gulf. Herodotus (iv. 38) makes the southern side of this peninsula, or Acte, as he calls it, extend from the Myriandric gulf (gulf of Issns) to the Triopian promontory, which is quite correct. On the noth side he makes it extend from the mouth of the Phaaia to the promontory Sigenm, which is correct as to the promontory; but he carries the neck too far east, when he makes it begin at the Phasis. This mistake, however, shows that he knew something of the position of the mouth of the Phasis, for he intends to make the Acte begin at that part where the coast of the Euxine begins to lie west and east; and though the mouth of the Phasis is not exactly at this point, it was the best known river of any near it. In another passage (i. 72), which, like many others in his history, is obscurer expressed, he describes the neck (elixir) of this Acte as nearly cut through by the river Halys; and he makes its width from the sea opposite to Cyprus to the Euxiue to be five days" journey for an active mnn,—nn estimate very much short of the truth, even if we allow Greek activity to walk 30 miles a day through a rough country. Strabo‘s re

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port from hearsay (vol. i. p. 538), that the bay of lssna can be seen from the summit of Argacus [ARGAEUS], is very improbable.

Xenophon says that Cyrus marched 15 parasange from the l’yramus (Jailwn) “ to lssi, the uttermost city of Cilicia, on the sea, great and prosperous." From lssus to the l’ylao ot' Cilicia and Syria, the boundary between Syria and Cilicia, was five parasangs, and here was the river Carsus (Ken. Anab. i. 4. § 4). The next stage was five parasangs to Myrinndrus, a town in Syria on the sea, occupied by Pliocnicians, a trading place (iptopiov), where many merchant ships were lying. Carsten Niebnhr, who went tln'ongh the Pylae Ciliciae to Taraus, has some remarks on the probable site of Isaus, but they lead to no conclusion (Vol. i. p. 116), except that we cannot certainly determine the site of lssus from Xenophon; and yet he would give no the best means of determining it, if we knew where he crossed the l’yramus, and if we were also certain that the numbers in the Greek text are correct.

The nearest road to Susn from Sardis was through the Cilicinn plains. The difficulties were the pmuoge into the plains by the Cilicise l’ylao or pass [\'ol. 1. p. 6l9], and the way out of the plains along the gulf ot' lssus into Syria. The great road to Susa which Herodotus describes (v. 49, 52), went north of the Taurus to the Euphrates. The land forces in the expedition of Datis and Artaphernes, 11.0. 490, crossed the Syrian Amanus, and went as far as the Aleian plain in Cilicia; and there they embarked. (Herod. vi. 95.) They did not march by land through the Cilician Pylae over the Taurus into the interior of the peninsula; but Mardonius (Herod.vi. 43), in the previous expedition had led his troops into Cilicia, and sent them on by land to the llcllcspontus, while he took ship and sailed to lonia. The land force of Mardonius must have passed out of Cilicia by the difficult pass in the Taurus. [VoL I. p. 619.]

Shortly before the battle of Issue (B. c. 333) Alexander was at Mallos, when he heard that Darius with all his force was at Sochi in Assyria; which place was distant two marches from the Assyrian Pylae. (Arrian, Anab. ii. 6.) “ Assyria" and " Assyrian" here mean “ Syria" and “ Syrian.“ Darius had crossed the Euphrates, probably at Thapsacus, and was encamped in an open country in Syria, which was well suited for his cavalry. The place Sochi is unknown: but it may be the place which Curtins calls Unchae. (Q. Curt. iv. 1.) Arrian says that Alexander left Mallos, and on the second day he passed through the l’ylae and reached Myriandrus : he does not mention Issus on this march. Now the shortest distance that Alexander could march from Mallos to Scunderoon is at least 70 miles, and if Myriandrus was south of Scaudemon, it was more than 70 miles. This statement of Arrian as to time is therefore false. Curtins (iii. 8) says that Alexander only reached Caetabalum [CASranaurnr] on the second day from Mallos ; that he went through Issue, and there deliberated whether he should go on or halt. Darius crossed the Amanns, which separates Syria from the bay of Issus, by a pass called the Amanicao Pylae (Arrian, ii. 7), and advancing to Issue, was in the rear of Alexander, who had passed through the Cilician and Syrian Pylae. Darius came to the pass in the Amanus, says Cnrtius, on the same night that Alexander came to the pass (fauces) by which Syria is entered. The place where Darius crossed the Annmus was

so situated that he came to Issue first, where he ahmncfully treated the sick of the Macedonians who had been left there. The next day he moved from Issue to pursue Alexander (Arrian; Curtius, iii. 8); that is, he moved towards the Pylae, and he came to the banks of the river l’inarus, where be halted. bus was, theretbre, north of the Pinurus, and some little distance from it. Kiepert's map of Asia Minor marks a pass in the range of the Syrian Ainauus, which is north of the pass that leads over the same mountains from the east to Boise (Bayou), and nearly due east of the head of the gulf of Issue. lie mils it Pylae Amanides, by which he means the Pylae Amauicae of Arrian, not the Amauides of Strabo; and he takes it to be the pass by which Darius crossed the Syrian Ainanus and came down upon the gulf. This may have been his route, and it would bring him to Issus at the head of the gulf, which he came to before turning south to the Pinarue (Deli Tschac'). It is certain that Darius crossed by some pass which brought him to lssus before he reached the I’inarus. Yet Kicpert has placed lssus south of the Pinurus, or rather bctwecn the two branches of this river, which he represents as uniting near the coast. Kiepert also marks a road which passes over the junction of the two branches of the Amanus [A)l.\.\'US, Vol. I. p. 1H] and runs to Mariub, which he supposes to be Germanicia. This is the dotted road marked as running north from the head of the gulf of lssus in the plan [Yo]. I. p.115]; but even if there be such a road, it was not the road of Darius, which must have been the post above mentioned, in the latitude of the head of the gulf of Issue; which is not marked in the above plan, but ought to be. This pass is probably the Amnnicae Pylon of Ptolemy, which he places 5’ further south than lssus, and 10' east. of Issus.

Alexander, hearing that the Persians were in his rear, turned back to the Pylae, which he reached at midnight, and halted till daybreak, when he moved on. (Arrian, Anab. ii. 8.) So long as the road was nnrmw, he led his army in column, but as the loss widened, he extended his column into line, part towards the mountain and port on the left towards the sea. When he came to the wide part (cflpvxorplnt), he arranged his army in order of battle, which Arrian describes very particularly. Darius was posted on the north side of tho Pinarus. It is plain, from this description, that Alexander did not march very far from the Pylae before he reached the wider part of the valley, and the river. As the sea was on his left, and the mountains on his right, the river was a stream which ran down from the Syrian Amanus; and it can be no other than the Deli Tschai, which is about 13 miles north of the Carsus (Mn-Ira), direct distance. I’olybius (xii. 17), who criticises Callisthencs's description of the battle, states, on his authority, that Darius descended into Cilicia through the Pylae Amanides. and encamped on the Pinarus, at a place where the distance between the mountains and the sea was not more than 14 stadia; and that the river ran across this place into the sea, and that in its course through the level part “it had abrupt and ditlicult cminences (Addmvs)." This is explained by what Arrian says of the banks of the river being steep in many parts on the north side. (Anal). ii. 10.) Cullisthcnes further said, that when Alexander, after having passed the defile (1d (we've), heard of Darius being in Ciliciu, he was 100 studio from him, and, accordingly, he marched back through the defile. It is not clear, from the

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extract in Polybius, whether the 100 stadia are to be reckoned to Issus or to the Pinnrus. According to Arrian, when Alexunder hcard of Darius being behind him, he sent some men in a galley hack to lssus, to see if it was so; and it is most consistent with the narrative to suppose that the men saw the Persians at lssus before they had advanced to the river; but this is not quite certain. The l’ersinn army was visible, being near the coast, as it: would be, if it were seen at Issue.

Strubo (p. 676), following the historians of Alexander, adds nothing to what Arrian has got from them. Alexander, he says, led his infantry from Soli along the coast and through the lllnllotis- to Issue and the forces of Darius; an expression which might mislead, if we had no other narrative. He also says, after Mallus is Aecac, a small town with a harbour, then the Amunidus Pylne [Alumni—2s PYLAE], where there is a harbour; and after Acgue is lssus, a. small town with a harbour, and the river Pinarus, where the fight was between Alexander and Darius. Accordingly he places lssus north of, the Piuarus. Cicero, during his proconsulship of Cilicia, led his forces against the mountaineers of the Amnnus, and he was saluted as impcratnr at lssus, “where,” he says, “as l have often heard from you, Clitarchus told you that Darius was defeated by Alexnnder." There is nothing to be got from this. (Ad 1"am. ii. 10.) In another puss-ope, he says that he occupicd for u few days the same camp that Alexander bud occupied at lssus against Darius. (Ad Alt. v. 20.) And again (ad l'l'un. xiv. 20), he says that, “ he cncampcd for four days at the roots of the Amnnus, at the Ame Alcxandri." If this is the same fact that he mentions in his letter to Atticus, the Arne were at lssus, and Issue was near the foot of the Atnunus.

The battle between Septimiua Severus and Niger was fought (A. D. 194) somewhere about lssus; but nothing can be collccted from the description of llcrodinn (iii. 12), exccpt that the battle was not fought on the same ground as Alexander‘s, though it was fought on the gulf of Issue. Stephunus (a. v. 10:16:) describes it as “a city between Syria and Cilicia, where Alexander defeated Darius, which was called,f0r this reason, Nicnpolis by him; and there is the bay of lssus; and there, also, is a river named Pinarus." Stmbo, after speaking of lssus, montions, on the lssic gulf, Rhosus, and lilyriundnis, and Alexandria, and Nicopolis, and Mopsuestia, in which description he proceeds from the Syrian side of the gulf, and tenniuutes with ansucstia on the l’yramus. According to this enumeration, Nicopolis would be between Alexandria (Scanderomt) and Mopsuestia; and it may be ncar lssus, or it may not. Ptolemy (v. 8. § 7, 15. 2) places Nicopolig exactly one degree north of Alexandria and 50' north of Issue. He places lssus and lthosus in the same longitude, and N iccpolis, Alexandria, and Myrinndrus 10’ further east than Issue. The absolute truth of his numbers is immaterial. A map constructh according to Ptolemy would place lssus at the head of the gulf, and Nicopolis inland. Nicopolis is one of the citics which he enumerates among the inland cities of Cilicia Proper.

Issue, then, being at the head of the gulf, and

. Tarsus being a fixed point in the march of Cyrus,

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The places not absolutely determined on or near the gulf of lsaus, are: Myriandrus, Nicopolis, Epiphaneia [EPIPHANEIA], Arae Alexandri, and Issue, though we know that lssus, must have been at the head of the gulf and on it. The following extract from Colonel Chesney contains the latest information on these sites:—“ About 7 miles south-eastward from the borders of Syria are the remains of a considerable city, probably those of Issue or Nicopolis, with the ruins of a temple, a part of the Acropolis, an extensive aqueduct, generally with a double row of arches, running ESE. and WNW. These, in addition to the walls ot'the city itself, are entirely built of lava, and still exist in considerable perfection. Nearly 14 miles southward from thence, the Deli Chai'i' quits the foot of the Amanus in two branches, which, after traversing the Issic plain, unite at the foot of the mountain just previously to entering the sea. The principal of these branches makes a deep curve towards the NE., so that a body of troops occupying one side might seebehind and outflank those posted on the opposite side, in which, as well as in other respects, the stream appears to answer to the Pinarus of Alexander's historians. A little southward of this river are the castle, khdn, bazar, baths, and other ruins of Baytls, once Baine, with the three villages of Kuretur in the neighbourhood, situated in the midst of groves of orange and palm trees. Again, 5 miles southward, is the pass, above noticed, of Slikril-tuuin, and at nearly the same distance onward, the fine bay and anchorage of lskendemin, with an open but convenient landing-place on a bold beach;_hut, in consequence of the accumulation of the sand by which the months of the streams

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descending from this part of the Amanus are choked, n pestilential swamp extends from the very edge of the sea almost to the foot of the mountain. In the marsh towards the latter are some trifling ruins, which may possibly be the site of ancient Myriandrus; and within a mile of the shore are the remains of a castle and bridge constructed by Godfrey of Bouillon." (Expedition for the Survey of the River: Euphrates and Tigris, vol. i. p. 408.)

There is no direct proof here that these remains are those of Issus. The aqueduct probably belongs to the Roman period. It seems most likely that the remains are those of Nicopolis, and that Issue on the coast has disappeared. Colonel Chesney's description of the bend of one of the branches of the Deli Tschai corresponds to Arrian’s (ii. 2. § 10), who says, " Darius placed at the foot of the mountain, which was on the Persian left and opposite to Alexander’s right, about 20,000 men; and seine of them were on the rear of Alexander's army. For the mountain where they were posted in one place opened to some depth, and so a part became of the form of a bay on the sea. Darius then, by advancing further to the bend, brought the men who were posted at the foot. of the mountain, in the rear of the right wing of Alexander."

There still seems some doubt about the site of Myriandrus, which Mr. Ainsworth (Travels in the Track of the Ten Thousand, 4-0. p. 60) places about half way between Scandermm and Rhesus (Arsus); and he has the authority of Strabo. in his enumeration of the places on this coast, and that of Ptolemy, who places Myriandrus 15' south of Alexandria ad Issum. As to Arsus, he observes,—-“ there are many ruins, and especially a long aqueduct leading from the foot of the mountains.” [G. L.

ISTAEVONES. [Germans and HILLEVI— onus]

lS'fER. [Danumus]

l’b'THMIA, a small district in Thessaly. [Zamsum.

IS'l‘HMUS. [CORINTHUS, p. 682, seq]

lSTO’NE. [Concrtm.]

lSTO'NlUM. [CELTIHERLL]

I'STRIA ('ltr-rpfa) or Hl'S'l'RIA, was the name given by the Greeks and Romans to the country which still bears the same appellation, and forms a peninsula of somewhat triangular form near the head of the Adriatic sea, running out from the coast of Liburnia, between Tergeste (Trieste) and the Sinus Flanaticus, or Gulf of Qua'mrro. It is about 50 G. miles in length, and 35 in breadth, while the isthmus or strip of land between the two gnlfs of Trieste and Quarnera, by which it is united to the mainland, is about 27 G. miles across. The name is derived both by Greek and Latin authors from the fabulous notion entertained at a very early period that one branch or arm of the Danube (the lster of the Greeks) flowed into the Adriatic sea near its head. (Strab. i. p. 57; Plin. iii. 18. a. 22.) The deep inlets and narrow channels with which the coasts of the Adriatic are intersected for a considerable distance below the peninsula of Istria may have contributed to favour this notion so long as those coasts were imperfectly known; and hence we cannot wonder at Scylnx speaking of a river named lstrus (which he identifies with the Danube) as flowing through the land of the Istrians (Scyl. p. 6. § 20); but it seems incredible that an author like Mela, writing in the days of Augustus, should not only speak of a river lster as flowing into this part of the Adriatic, but should assert that its waters entered that sea with a turbulence and force similar to those of the Padus. (Mei. ii. 3. § 13, 4. § 4.) In point of fact, there is no river of any magnitude flowing into the upper part of the Adriatic on its eastern shore which could afford even the slightest countenance to such a notion; the rivers in the peninsula of Istria itself are very trifling streams, and the dry, calcareous ridges which hem in the E. shore of the Adriatic, all the way from Trieste to the southern extremity of Dalmatia, do not admit either of the formation or the outlet of any considerable body of water. It is scarcely POSsible to account for the origin of much a fable; but if the inhabitants of Istria were really called ISTRI (input), as their native name, which is at least highly probable, this circumstance may have first led the Greeks to assume their connection with the great river Ister, and the existence of a considerable amount of trafiic up the valley of the Savus, and from thence by land across the Julian Alps. or Mount Ocra, to the head of the Adriatic (Strab. vii. p. 314), would tend to perpetuate such a notion.

The Istrians are generally considered as a tribe of Iliyrian race (Appian, Illyr. 8; Strab. vii. p. 314; Zeuss, Die Dealschen, p. 253), and the fact that they were immediately surrounded by other Iliyrian tribes is in itself a strong argument in favour of this view. Scymnus Cirius alone calls them a Thracian tribe, brrt on what authority we know not. (Scymn. Ch. 398.) They first appear in history as taking part witir the other Iiiyrians in their piratical expeditions, and Livy ascribes to them this character as early as 3.0. 30] (Liv. X. 2); but the first occasion on which they are distinctly mentioned as joining in these enterprises is just before the Second Puuic War. They were, however, severely punished; the Roman consuls M. Iiiinucitls Rufus and P. Cornelius were sent against them, and they were reduced to complete submission. (Eutrop. iii. 7; Ores. iv. 13; Zonar. viii. 20; Appian, Illyr. 8.) The next merrtion of them occurs in 13.0. 183, when the consul M. Claudius Marcellus, after a successful campaign against the Gauls, asked and obtained permission to lead his legions into Istria. (Liv. xxxix. 55.) It drum not, however, appear that this invasion produced any considerable result; but their piraticui expeditions, together with the apparition offered by them to the foundation of the Roman colony of Aquiieia, soon became the pretext of a fresh attack. (id. xi. 18, 26, xii. I.) In B. c. 178 the consul A. Maniius invaded Istria. with two legions; and though he at first sustained a disaster, and narrowly escaped the capture of his camp, ire recovered his psition before the arrival of his colleague, M. Junius, who had been sent to his support. The two consuls now attacked and defeated the Istrians; and their successor, C. Claudius, following up this advantage, took in succession the towns of Nesactium, Mutila, and Faveria, and reduced the whole people to submission. For this success he was rewarded with a triumph, is. c. 177. (Liv. xii. 1—5, 8—13; Flor. ii. 10.) The subjection of the Istrians on this occasion seems to have been real and complete; for, though a few years after we find them joining the Cami and lapydes in complaining of the exactions of C. Cassius (Liv. aliii. 5), we hear of no subsequent revolts, and the district appears to have continued tranquil under the Roman yoke, until it was incorporated by Augustus, together with Venetia and the land of the Cami, as a portion of Italy. (Strab. v.

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p. 215; Plin. iii. 19. s. 23.) It continued thenceforth to be always included under that name, though geographically connected much more closely with Dalmatia and lilyricum. Hence we find, in the Notitia Dignitatum, the “ Consularis Venetiae ct Histriae" placed under the jurisdiction of the Vicarius Italiae. (Not. Dign. ii. pp. 5, 65.)

The natural limits of Istria are clearly marked by those of the peninsula of which it consists. or by a line drawn across from the Gulf of Trieste to that of Quarnero, near Fiume ,- but the political boundary was fixed by Augustus, when he included Istria in Italy, at the river Arsia. or Ana, which falls into the Gulf of Quarnero about 15 miles from the southern extremity of the peninsula. This river has its sources in the group of mountains of which the Monte )[aggiore forms the highest point, and which constitutes the heart or nucleus of the peninsula, from which there radiate ranges of great calcareous hills, gradually declining as they approach the western coast, so that the shore of Istr'ia along the Adriatic, though hilly and rocky, is not of any considerabie elevation, or picturesque in character. But the calcareous rocks of which it is composed are indented by deep inlets, forming excellent harbours; ofthese, the beautiful land~lockcd basin of Poia is particularly remarkable, and was noted in ancient as well as modern times. The northern point of Istrin was fixed by Augustus at the river Formio, I. small stream falling into the Gulf of Trieste between that city and Cape d'lstria. Pliny expressly excludes Tergcste from Istria; but l’toierny extends the iirnits of that province so as to include botir the river l-‘ormio and Tergeste (Ptol. iii. 1. §27); and Strabo also appears to consider the Tirnavus as constituting the boundary of Istria (Strab. v. p.215), though ire elsewhere calls Tcrgcste “ a village of the Cami" (vii. p. 314). Pliny, however, repeatedly alludes to the Formio as having constituted the boundary of Italy before that name was ofiiciaiiy estcnded so as to include Istr'ia also, and there can be no doubt of the correctness of his staterrrcnt. Istria is not a country of any great natural fertility; but its calcareous rocky soil was well adapted for the growth of olives, and its oil was reckoned by Pliny inferior only to that of Venut'rum. (l’lin. xv. 2. l. 3.) In the later ages of the Roman empire, when the seat of government was tired at Iiavenrra, 1stria became of increased importance, from its facility of communication by sea with that capital. and furnished considerable quantities of corn, as well as wine and oil. (Cnssiod. Varr. xii. 23, 24.) This was probably the most flourishing period of its history. It was subsequently ravaged in snccemion by the Lombards, Avars, and Sciavi (1’. Diac. iv. 25, 42), but appears to have contrnued permanently subject to the Lombard kingdom of Italy, until its destruction in A. 1). 77-1.

The towns in Istria mentioned by ancient writers are not numerous. Much the most important was POLA, near the extreme southern promontory of the peninsula, which became. a Roman colony under Augustus. Proceeding along the coast from Tergeste to Pola, were Armrmt (Capo d‘lsln'a), subsequently called Justinopolis, and PARENTIUM (Parenzo); while on the E. coast, near the nrouth of the river Arsia, was situated Nasarrrrnsr. already noticed by Livy among the towns of the independent Istrians. The two other towns, liiutiia and Faveria, mentioned by him in the same {message (xii. 11), are otherwise unknown, and cannot be identrticd. i’to

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