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NE. of Erma, but W. of the valley of the Symaethus; CENTURIPA (Centm-bi), nearly due E. of Enna; ADRANUM (Ada-no), on the E. bank of the Symaethus, at the foot of Mount Aetna; HYBLA MAJOR (which must. not be confounded with the city of the same name near Syracuse), and AETXA, previously called Imassx, both situated on the southern slope of the same mountain. N. of Agyrium, on the southern slopes of the Mons Nebrodes were situated Heaarra, CAPITIUM, and probably also Gamma: while on the northern declivities of the same mountains, fronting the sea, but at some distance inland, were placed Arounoxta (probably Pollina), AMESTRATUS (illistretta), ABACAENUM, a few miles inland from Tyndaris, and Noam, probably Noara. Three other towns, huenana, Ionasa, and TISSA, may probably be assigned to this same region of Sicily, though their exact position cannot be determined. 3. In the SE. portion of Sicily, S. of the Symaethus and its tributary the Chrysas or Dittaino, were situated ERGETIUM, MORGANTIA, Laox'rmt, and HYBLA: as well as Mum-must and Hennnssos: but of all these names Leontini (Lentim') and Menaenum (Mince) are the only ones that can be identified with anything like certainty. In the hills W. of Syracuse were Acme (I’alazzolo), BIDIS (S. Gio. dc' Bidino), and CACYRUM (Cassaro); and \V. of these again, in the direction towards Gela, must be placed the Heraean HYBLA, as well as Eons-rm, in the neighbourth of Gran Michele. SW. of Syracuse, in the interior, were NETL'M or NEETUM (Nola l'ecchio), and Monro/l (Medina), both of which are well known. The Syracusan colony of CASMl-ZNAE must probably have been situated in the same district but its site has never been identified.

After going through this long list of Sicilian towns, there remain the following, noticed either by Cicero or Pliny, as municipal towns, to the position of which we have no means of even approximating. The ACIIKRINI (Cic.),TYRAClNl (Cic.; Tyracienses, Plin.), Acestoei (Plin.), ‘Etini (ld.), Herhulenses (Id.), Sctnellitani (ld.), Talarenses (ld.). Many of the above names are probably corrupt and merely false readings, but we are at a loss what to substitute. On the other hand, the existence of a town called MUTISTRATUM or Mytistratum is attested by both Cicero and Pliny, and there seems no sufficient reason for rejecting it as identical with Amestratus, as has been done by many modern geographers, though its site is wholly uncertain. Equally unknown are the following names given by Ptolemy among the inland towns of the island; Aleta ('M-Irra), l-lydra or Lydia ("I‘Bpa or Audio), Patyorns (l'la-riupos), Coturga or Cortuga (Khup-ya or Koprvya), Legum or Letnm (Afiyov or Afi-rov), Ancrina ('A'ynpwa), In or Ena ('Ivo. or'l-lva), and Elcethium (“t-mam). It would be avvustc of time to discuss these names, most of which are probably in their present form corrupt, and are all of them otherwise wholly unknown. On the other hand the existence of Nacoxa, mentioned by Stephnnns of Byzantium, but. not noticed by any other writer, is confirmed by coins.

The topography of Sicily is still very imperfectly known. The ruins of its more celebrated cities are indeed well known. and have been often described; especially in the valuable work of the Duke of Serra di Falco (ARUL‘IH'M delln Sicilia, 5 vols. fol. Palermo, 1834~1839), as well us in the well-known travels of Swinburne, Sir R Home, &c. (Swinburue's


Travels in the Two Siciliea, 2 vols. 4to. Lond. 1783:, Sir R. Hoare's Classical Tour through Italy and Sicily, 2 vols. 8vo. Lond. 1819; St. Non, Voyage Pittoruque de Napr et (10 la Sicile, 5 vols. fol. Paris, 1781; Biscari, Principe di, Viaggio per la Amie/aim della Sicilia, 8vo. Palermo, 1817, &c.): but the island has never been thoroughly explored by an antiquarian traveller, like those to whom we are indebted for our knowledge of Greece and Asia Minor. The valuable work of Cluverius (Sicilia Antigua, fol. Lugd. Bat. 1619) must here, as well as for ltaly, be made the foundation of all subsequent researches. But much valuable information is found in the more ancient work of Fazello, a Sicilian monk of the sixteenth century, as well as of his commentator Amico, and in the Topographical Dictionary of the latter author. (Thomae Fazelli de Rebus Sictdis Demde; Duo, first edit. in fol. Panormi, 1558, republished with copious notes by Amico, 3 vols. fol. Cutanae, 1749—1753; Amico, Lcm'con Topographicam Siculum, 3 vols. 4to. Catanae, 1759). Much, however, still remains to be done. Many localities indicated by Fazello in the sixteenth century as presenting ancient remains have never (so far as we are aware) been visited by any modem traveller; no geod map of the island exists, which can be trusted for topographical details, and there can be little doubt that a minute and careful examination of the whole country, such as has been made of the neighbouring island of Sardinia by the Chev. De in Marrnora, would well reward the labours of the explorer. Even the ruins described by Sir R. Home as existing in the neighbourhood of Sta Croce, or those situated near Vindicm'i, a few miles N. of Cape Pachynus and commonly ascribed to Imacliara, have never been examined in detail, nor has any clue been obtained to their identification.

The Itineraries give several lines of route through the island, but many of the stations mentioned are wholly uncertain, and were probably never more than obscure villages or mere solitary posthouses. The first line of route (Itin. Ant. pp. 86—89) proceeds from Messana along the E. coast by Tauromcnium and Acium to Catana, and from thence strikes inland across the centre of the island to Agrigentum; the course of this inland route is wholly uncertain and the names of the three stations upon it, Capitonianu, Gelasium Philosophiana and Petiliana, are entirely unknown. From Agrigentum it followed the line of coast to Lilybaeum; the stations given are Ceun [CAKNA], Allava, Ad Aquas (i. e. the Aquae Labodes or 'l‘hermae Selinuntiae), Ad fluvium Lanarium, and Mantra; all except the 3rd and 5th of very uncertain site. A second route (Itin. Ant. pp. 89, 90) proceeds in the inverse direction from Liiybaeum to Agrigentum, and thence by a more southerly line, through Calvisiana, Hybla, and Acrae (Palazzolo) to Syracuse, and from thence as before along the E. coast to Messana. A third line follows the N. coast of the island from Lilybaeuttt by l’snormus to Mcssana. The stations on this line are better known and can for the most part be determined: they are, Drepana. Aquae Segestanae (near Segestn), Parthenium (Partinico), Hyccara (Mom 45 Carim'), Panormus, Soluntnm, Thermae, Cephaloedium, Halesus (Alaesa), Calacte, Agatinn um, (Agathyrnum),'1'ynduris, and Messattn. A fourth route (Itin. Ant. p. 93) crossed the interior of the island from Thermae, where it branched off from the preceding. passing through Enna, Agyrium, Centuripa and Aetua to Catana. A fifth gives us a line of strictly maritime route around the southern extremity of the island from Agrigentum toSyracusc; but with the exception of Pintis, which is probably Phintias (Alimta), none of the stations can be identified. Lastly, a line of road was in use which crossed the island from Agrigentum direct to Panormus (Itin. Ant. p. 96), but none of its stations are known, and we are therefore unable to determine even its general course. The other routes given in the Itinerary of Antoninus are only unimportant variations of the preceding ones. The Tabula gives only the one general line around the island (crossing, however, from Calvisiana on the S. coast direct to Syracuse), and the cross line already mentioned from Thermae to Catana. All discussion of distances along the above routes must be rejected as useless, until the routes themselves can be more accurately determined, which is extremely difiicult in so hilly and broken a country as the greater part of the interior of Sicily. The similarity of names, which in Italy is so often a sure guide where all other indications are wanting, is of far less assistance in Sicily, where the long period of Arabic dominion has thrown the nomenclature of the island into great confusion. H. B.]

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SICILIBBA or SICILIBRA (in the Googr. Rav. Siciliba, iii. 5), a place in Africa I’ropria (Ih'n. Ant. pp. 25, 45), variously identified with Bazilball and Haouch Alouina. ['1‘. H. D.]

SI’CINOS (Shaves: Eth. Emu/ins: Sikino), a small island in the Acgaean sea, one of the Sporades, lying between Pholegandros and Ios, and containing a town of the same name. (Scylax, p. 19; Strab. x. p. 484; I’tol. iii. 15. § 31.) It is said to have been originally called Ocnoé from its cultivation of the vine, but to have been named Siciuos after a son of Thom and Oenoié. (Steph. B. I. 0.; Apoll. Ithod. i. 623; Schol. ad 100.; Plin. iv. 12. s. 23; Etym. M. p. H2. 49.) Wine is still the chief production of the island. It was probably colonised by Ionians. Like most of the other Grecian islands, it submith to Xerxes (Herod. viii. 4). but it. afterwards formed part of the Athenian maritime empire. There are some remains of the ancient city situated upon a lofty and rugged mountain, on whose summit stands the church of S. Marina. There is also still extant an ancient temple of the Pythian Apollo, now converted into the church Epiakopi (i, 'E'Irta'Kmr'h). It stands in a depression between the main range of monotains, and the summit lying more to the left, upon which the ruins of the ancient city stand. We learn from an inscription found there by Ross that it was the temple of the Pythian Apollo. (Ross, Reuben aqfden Griech. Imeln, vol. ii. p. 149, seq.; l-‘iedler. Reirc, vol. ii. p. 151, seq.)

SICOR. 515003.]

SI'CORIS (leopn, Dion Case. xli. 20), a tributary river of the Ibcrus in Hispania Tarnwoncnsis. It rose in the Pyrenees in the territory of the (Jer


retsni, and separated the countries of the Ilergetes and Lacetani. It flowed past Ilerda, and according to Vibius Sequester (p. 224, ed. Bipont) bore the name of that town. A little afterwards it received the Cinga, and then flowed into the Iberus near Octogesa. (Cues. B. C. i. 40, 48; Plin. iii. 3. s. 4; Lucan. iv. 13, seq.) Ausonius describa it as flowing impetuousiy (“torrentem,” Epl'al. xxr. 59). Now the Segre. [T. H. D.]

SI'CULI (Itxrhol), is the name given by ancient writers to an ancient race or people that formed one of the elements in the primitive population of Italy, as well as Sicily. But the accounts given of them are very confused and uncertain. We find the Sicnli mentioned: 1, as among the early inhabitants of Latium; 2, in the extreme S. of Italy; 3, in Sicily; 4, on the shores of the Adriatic. It will be convenient to examine these notices separately.

1. The Sicnli are represented by Dionysius as the earliest inhabitants of the country subsequently called Latium (i. 9), as Well as of the southern part of Etruria; they were an indigenous race, i. e. one of whose wanderings and origin he had no account. They held the whole country till they were expelled from it by the people whom he calls Aborigines, descending from the mountains of Central Italy [Auoutomss]. who made war upon them, in conjunction with the Pelasgians; and after a long protracted struggle, wrested from them one town after another (ld. i. 9, 16). Among the cities that are expressly mentioned by him as having once been occupied by the Sicnli, are Tibur, where a part of the city was still called in the days of Dionysius Euremév, Ficulea, Antemnae, and Tellenae, m well as Falerii and Fescennium, in the country afterwards called Etruria (ld. i. 16, 20, 21). The Siculi being thus finally expelled from their possessions in this part of Italy, were reported to have migrated in a body to the southern extremity of the peninsula, from whence they crossed over the straits, and established themselves in the island of Sicily, to which they gave the name it has ever since borne. [SICIL1A.] (Id. i. 22.) Dionysius is the only author who has left us a detailed account of the conquest and expulsion of the Sicnli, but they are mentioned by Pliny among the races that had successively occupied Latium (Plin. iii. 5. s. 9); and this seems to have been an established and received tradition.

2. We find the Sicnli frequently mentioned in the southernmost portion of the Italian peninsula, where they appear in close connection with the Oenotrians, Morgetes, and Itali, all of them kindred tribes, which there are good reasons for assigning to the Pelasgic race. [Oaxormm] It is probable, as suggested by Strabo, that the Sicnli, more than once, mentioned by Homer (Odyss. xx. 383, xxiv. 211, &c.), were the inhabitants of the coast of Italy opposite to Ithaca: and the traditions of the Epizephyrian Locrians, reported by Polybius, spoke of the Sicnli as the people in whose territory they settled, and with whom they first found themselves engaged in war. (Polyb. xii. 5, 6.) Numerous traditions also, reported by Dionysius (i. 22, 73) from Antiochus, Hellsnicns, and others, concur in bringing the Siculi and their eponymous leader Siculus (Extends) into close connection with Italus and the Itali: and this is confirmed by the linguistic relation which may fairly be admitted to exist between ImeAd; and 'IraAd: (Niebuhr, vol. i. p. 47) though this is not close enough to be in itself conclusive. SO far as our scanty knowledge goes, therefore, we must conclude that the two shores of the Sicilian strait were at one period peopled by the same tribe, who were known to the Grceks by the name of Siccls or Siculi; and that this tribe was probably a branch of the Oenotriau or Pelasgic race. The legends which connected these Siculi with those who were expelled from Latium seem to have been a late invention, as we may infer from the circumstance that Sicelus, who is represented by Antiochus as taking refuge with Morges, king of Italia, was called a fugitive from Home. (Dionys. i. 73.)


3. The Sicnli or Siceli were the people who occupied the greater part of the island of Sicily when the Greek colonies were first established there, and continued throughout the period of the Greek domination to occupy the greater part of the interior, especially the more rugged and mountainous tracts of the island. [SictuA.] The more westerly portions were, however, occupied by a people called Sicani,whom the Greek writers uniformly distinguish from the Siculi, notwithstanding the resemblance of the two names. These indeed would seem to have been in their origin identical, and we find Roman writers using them as such; so that Virgil more than once employs the name of Sicani, where he can only mean the ancient Latin people called by Dionysius Siculi. (Virg. Am. viii. 795, xi. 317.)

4. The traces of the Siculi on the western shores of the Adriatic are more uncertain. Pliny indeed tells us distinctly that Numana and Aneona were founded by the Siculi (Plin. iii. 13. s. 18); but it is by no means improbable that this is a more confusion, as we know that the latter city at least was really founded by Sicilian Greeks, as late as the time of Dionysius of Syracuse [Ancona]. When, however, he tells us that a considerable part of this coast of Italy was held by the Siculians and Liburnians, before it was conquered by the Umbrians (lb. 14. s. 19), it seems probable that he must have some other authority for this statement; Pliny is, however, the only author who mentions the Siculi in this part of Italy.

From thme statements it is very difficult to arrive at any definite conclusion with regard to the ethnographic aflinities of the Siculi. On the one hand, the noticw of them in Southern Italy,as already observed, seem to bring them into close connection with the Itali and other Ocnotrian tribes,and would lead us to assign them to a Pelasgic stock: but on the other it must be admitted that Dionysius distinctly separates them from tho Pelasgi in Lstium, and represents them as expelled from that country by the Pelasgi, in conjunction with the so-called Aborigines. Hence the opinions of modern scholars have been divided: Niebuhr distinctly receives the Siculi as a Pelasgic race, and as forming the Pulasgic or Greek element of the Latin people; the same view is adopted by O. Miiller (Elmsker, pp. 10— 16, See.) and by Abeken (Mills! Italian, p. 5) ; while Grotefeud (Alt Italian, vol. iv. pp. 4—6), followed by Forbiger and others, regards the Siculi as a Gaulish or Celtic race, who had gradually wandered southwards through the peninsula of Italy, till they finally crossed over and established themselves in the island of Sicily. This last hypothesis is, however, purely conjecture]. We have at least some foundation for supposing the Siculi as well as the Oenotriaus to be of Pelasgic origin : if this be rejected, we are wholly in the dark as to their origin or aflinities. [E. H. B.]


Sl’CULUM MARE ('rb Eurehurbv Ic'An'yos, Pol. Strab. &c.), was the name given in ancient times to that portion of the Mediterranean sea which bathed the eastern shores of Sicily. But like all similar appellations, the name was used in a somewhat vague and fluctuating manner, so that it is difi'icnlt to fix its precise geographical limits. Thus Strabo describes it as extending along the eastern shore of Sicily, from the Straits to Cape Pschynus, with the southern shore of Italy as far as Locri, and again to the eastward as far as Crete and the Peloponnese; and as filling the Corinthian Gulf, and extending northwards to the lapygian promontory and the mouth of the Ionian gulf. (Strab. ii. p. 123.) It is clear, therefore, that he included under the name the whole of the sea between the Peloponnese and Sicily, which is more commonly known as the Ionian sea [onwsr Mann], but was termed by later writers the Adriatic [ADRIATXCUM MARE]. Polybius, who in one passage employs the name of Ionian sea in this more extensive sense, elsewhere uses that of the Sicilian sea in the same general manner as Strabo, since he speaks of the island of Cephallenia as extending out towards the Sicilian sea (v. 3); and even describes the Ambracian gulf as an inlet or arm of the Sicilian sea (iv. 63, v. 5). Eratosthenes also, it would appear from Pliny, applied the name of Siculum Mars to the whole extent from Sicily to Crete. (Plin. iii. 5. s. 10.) The usage of Pliny himself is obscure; but Mela distinguishes the Sicilian sea from the Ionian, applying the former name to the western part of the broad sea, nearest to Sicily, and the latter to its more easterly portion, nearest to Greece. (Mel. ii. 4. § 1.) But this distinction does not seem to have been generally adopted or continued long in use. Indeed the name of the Sicilian sea seems to have fallen much into disuse. Ptolemy speaks of Sicily itself as bounded on the N. by the 'l'yrrheniau sea, on the S. by the African, and on the E. by the Adriatic; thus omitting the Sicilian sea altogether (l’tol. iii. 4.§ l); and this seems to have continued under the Roman Empire to be the received nomenclature.

Straho tells us that the Sicilian sea was the same which had previously been called the Ausonian (Strab. ii. p. 133, v. p. 233); but it is probable that that name was never applied in the more extended sense in which he uses the Sicilian sea, but was confined to the portion more immediately adjoining the southern coasts of Italy, from Sicily to the Iapygiau promontory. It is in this sense that it is employed by Pliny, as well as by l’olybius, whom he cites as his authority. (Plin. L c.) H. B.]

SlCUM (Euroiiv, Ptol. ii. 16. § 4; Plin. iii. 22; Siclis, Pout. Tab.), a town of Dalmatia, to the E. of Tragurium, on the road to Salons, where Claudius is said to have quartered the veterans. (Plin. l. c.) From its position it cannot be Sebenico, with which it, has been identified, but may be represented by the vestiges of a Roman station to the NW. of Cute! Vetlu'ri, on the Riviera (lei Costelli, where a column with a dedicatory inscription to M. Julius Philippus has been lately found, as well as much pottery and Roman tiles. (Wilkinson, Dalmatia, vol. i. p. 176.) (E. B. J.]

. Sl'CYON (d and 1'1 Iurvév, also Zexw’w, Bekker, Anccd. p. 555: Elli. Emuémos: the territory 2»Kuewld: Valilikd'.)

I. Silualion.—-Sicyon was an important city of Peloponnesus, situated upon a table-height of no great elevation, at the distance of about 2 miles from the Corinthian gulf. Strabo (viii. p. 382) correctly describes it asoccupying a strong hill distant 20 stadia from the sea, though he adds that others made the distance 12 stadia, which may, however, have reference to the lower town built at the foot of the tableheight. Upon this height the modern village of Vasilikci now stands. It is defended on every side by a natural wall of precipices, which can be ascended only by'; one or two narrow passages from the plain. A river flows upon either side of the height, the one on the eastern side being the Asopus, and that. on the western side the Helisson. When Sicyon was at the height of its power, the city consisted of three parts, the Acropolis on the hill of Vtwilikfi, the lower town at its foot, and a port-town upon the coast. The port-town was well fortified. (Emuwvr'wv Ann'tv, ch. Hell. vii. 3. § 2; Polyb. v. 27; Pans. ii. 12. § 2; Strab. L 0.)

II. History.—Sicyon was one of the most ancient cities of Greece, and is said to have existed under the name of AEGuusrA (Ai'yra'kera, I’aus. ii. 5. § 6) or AEGIAIJ (Al'ymAni, Strab. viii. p. 382) long before the arrival of Pelops in Greece. It was also called Macoxrt (Mmra’nm), which was apparently its sacerdotal name, and under which it is celebrated as the "dwelling-place of the blessed," and as the spot where Prometheus instituted the Hellenic sacrifices and deceived Zeus. (Steph. B. s. v. Irxuév; Strab. viii. p. 382; Callim. Fraym. 195, p. 513,ed. Ernesti; Hesiod. Theog. 535.) Its name Tat,cnmm (TeAxtvr'a) has reference to its being one of the earliest seats of the workers in metal. (Steph. I3. .1. v. Emmi-v). Its name Acgialeia was derived from a mythical autoclrthon Aegialeus, and points to the time when it was the chief city upon the southern coast. of the Corinthian gulf, the whole of which was called by the same name. Its later name of Sit-yon was said to have been derived from an Athenian of this name, who became king of the city. and who is represented as a son of either Marathon or Motion. (Pans. ii. 6. § 5.) This legend points to the fact that the early inhabitants of Sicyon were Ionittns. Aegialeus is said, in some traditions, to have been the son of Inachus. the first king of Argos, and the brother of Plroroneus. A long series of the successors of Aegialcus is given, among whom one of the most celebrated was the Argive Adrmrtus, who, being expelled from his own dominions, fled to Polybus, then king of Sicyon, and afterwards succeeded him on the throne. (Euseb. Chron. p. 11. 8011.: August. Cir. Dei, xviii. 2; Paus. ii. 6. 6, 7.) Homer indeed calls Adrastus first king of Sicyon (Horn. Il. ii. 572); and we know that in historical times this hero was worshipped in the city. (Herod. v. 67.) Sicyon was subsequently conquered by Agamemnon, who, however, left Hippolytus on the throne; but Sicyon became a tributary city to Mycenae. (Pans. ii. 6. 6, 7; Horn. [1. ii. 572, xxiii. 299.) Hippolytus was the grandson of Phaestus, who was a son of Hercules ; and in consequence of this connection, the inhabitants were not expelled or reduced to subjection upon the conquest of the city by the Dorians under Phalces, the son of Terncnus; for while the Dorian conquerors, as in all other Doric states, were di~ vided into three tribes under the names of Hylleis, Pamphyli, and Dymanatae, the original Sicyonians were formed into a fourth tribe, under the name of Aegialeis, which possessed the same political rights as the other three. (Pans. ii. 6. § 7; Strah. viii. p. 389; Herod. v. 68.) Sicyon was now a Dorian


state; and from this time its real history begins. It was at first dependent upon Argos (Pans. I. 0.), which was for some time the most powerful state in the Peloponnesus, Sparta being second toit. In the First Messcniun War the Sicyonians fought on the side of the Messenians along with the Argives and Arcadians. (Pans. iv. 11. § 1.) In the Second Messenian War, about a. c. 676, Sicyon became subject to the tyranny of the Orthagoridne, who governed the city for more than I00 years. and whose rule is praised by Aristotle (1’91. v. 9. § 21) for its mildness. The family of the Orthagoridae belonged to the non-Dorian tribe, and the continuance of their power is to be accounted for by the fact of their being supported by the original population against the Dorian conquerors. Orthagoras, the founder of the dynrsty, is said to have been originally a cook. (Aristot. l. 0.; Hellad. up. Phat. cod. 279, p. 530 ; Liban. vol. iii. p. 251, ed. Iteiske.) In other accounts Andreas is mentioned as the first of the Sicyonian tyrants (Herod. vi. 126; Diod. Frogm. Vat. 14); and it is probable that he is the same person as Orthagoras, as the two names do not occur in the same author. He was succeeded by his son Myron, who gained a chariot victory at Olympia in B.c. 648; Myron by Aristonyurus; and Atistonymus by Cleisthenes. (Herod. vi. 126; Pans. ii. 8. § 1, vi. 19. 1.) Tire latter was celebrated for his wealth and magnificence, and was also distinguished by his bitter hatred against Argos, and his systematic endeavour to depress and dishonour the Dorian tribes. He changed the ancient and venerable names of the three Dorian tribes into the insulting names of Hyatae, Oneatae, and Choereatae. from the three Greek words signifying the sow, the BS, and the pig; while he declared the superiority of his own tribe by giving it the designation of Arclrelai, or lords of the people. Cleisthenes appears to have continued despot till his death, which may be placed about 5.0. 560. The dynasty perished with him. He left no son; but his daughter Aguriste, whom so many suitors wooed, was married to the Athenian Megacles, of the great family of the Alcmaeonidae, and became the mother of Cleisthenes, the founder of the Athenian democracy after the expulsion of the Peisistratidae. The names given to the tribes by Cleisthenes continued in use for sixty years after the death of the tyrant, when by mutual agreement the ancient names were restored. (Herod. vi. 126 —l3l; Grote, Hist. of Greece, v01. iii. p. 43, seq.; Diet. of Biogr. art. Cutrs'rrraxras.)

A Dorian reaction appears now to have taken place, for during a long time afterwards the Sicyonians were the steady allies of the Spartans. In the invasion of Greece by Xerxes (no. 480), the Sicyonians sent a squadron of 15 ships to Salamis (Herod. viii. 43), and a body of 3000 hoplites to Plataea. (Herod. ix. 28.) In the interval between the Persian and I’eloponnesisn wars the territory was twice invaded and laid waste by the Athenians, first. under Tolmldes in 13.0. 456 (Thuc. i. 108; Pans. i. 27. § 5), and a second time under Pericles, 23.0. 454 (Thuc. i. 111; Diod. xi. 88). A few years later (3.0. 445) the Sicyonians supported the Megarians in their revolt from Athens. (Thuc. i. 114.) In the I’cluponnesian War they sided with Sparta, and sent a contingent of ships to the Peloponnesirrn fleet. (Tlurc. ii. 9, 80, 83.) In a. (1.424 the Sicyonians assisted Drasidas in his Operations against the Athenians in the Megorid


(Thuc. iv. 70), and in the same year they repulsed a descent of the Athenians under Demosthenes upon their territory. (Thuc. iv. 101.) In 11.0. 419 they united with the Corinthians in preventing Alcibiades from erecting a fortress upon the Achaean promontory of Rhium. (Thuc. v. 52.) About this time a democratical revolution appears to have taken place, since we find the Lacedaemonians establishing an oligarchical government in Sicyon in 15.0. 417. (Thuc. v. 82.) In the wars ofLact-daemon against Corinth, 13.0. 394, and against TIlebQS,B.C. 371, the Sicyonians espoused the side of the Lacedaemonians. (Xen. Hell. iv. 2.§ 14. iv. 4. § 7, seq. vi. 4. §18.) But in B. c. 368 Sicyon was compelled by Epaminondas to join the Spartan alliance, and to admit a Theban harmost and garrison into the citadel. Euphron, a leading citizen of Sicyon, taking advantage of these circumstances, and suppoer by the Arcadians and Argives. succeeded in establishing a democracy, and shortly afterwards made himself tyrant of the city. But being expelled by the Arcadians and 'I'hebuns, he retired to the harbour, which he surrendered to Sparta. By the assistance of the Athenians he returned to Sicyon ; but finding himself unable to dislodge the Thebnn garrison from the Acropolis, he repaired to Thebes, in hopes of obtaining, by corruption and intrigue, the banishment of his opponents and the restoration of his own power. Here, however, he was murdered by some of his enemies. (Xen. Hell. vii. 1—3 ; Diod. xv. 69, 70 ; Diet. of Biogr. art. Eurimos.) Sicyon seems, however, to have been favorable to tyrants; for, after a short time, we again find the city in their power. The facility with which ambitious citizens obtained the supreme power was probably owing to the antagonism between the Dorian and old Ionian inhabitants. Demosthenes mentions two Sicyonian tyrants, Aristratus and Epichares, in the pay of Philip ((Ie Cor. pp. 242, 324). In the Lamiau war, after the death of Alexander the Great, 13.0. 323, the Sicyonians joined the other Greeks against the Macedonians. (Diod. xviii. 11.) The city subsequently fell into the hands of Alexander, the son of Polysperchon; and after his murder in B.C. 314, his wife Cratesipolis continued to hold the town for Cassander till 13.0. 308, when she was induced to betray it. to Ptolemy. (Diod. xix. 67, xx. 37.) In B. c. 303, Sicyon passed out of the hands of Ptolemy, being surprised by Demetrius Poliorcetea in the night. It appears that at this time Sicyon consisted of three distinct parts. as already mentioned, the Acropolis, on the hill of Vasilika', the lower city at its foot, and the port-town. It is probable that formerly the Acropolis and the lower city were united with the port-town, by walls extending to the sea; but the three quarters were now separated from one another, and there was even a vacant space between the lower town and the citadel. Seeing the difficulty of defending so extensive a space with the diminished resources and population of the city, and anxious to secure a strongly fortified place, Demetrius compelled the inhabitants to removetothe site of the ancient Acropolis, which Diodorus describes as “ a site very preferable to that of the former city, the inclosed space being an extensive plain, surrounded on every side by precipices, and so diflicult of access that it would not be possible to attack the walls with machines." This new city was called Demetrias. (Diod. xx. 102; Plut. Demetr. 25; Pans. ii. 7. §l; Strab._ viii. p. 382.) The name Demetrias


soon disappeared ; but the city continued to remain upon its lofty site, which was better adapted than most mountain heights in Greece for a permanent population, since it contained a good supply of water and cultivable land. I’susanias (I. 0.) represents the lower town as the original city of Aegialeus; but Col. Leukejustly remarks, it is more natural to conclude that the first establishment was made upon the hill Van'lilca', which, by its strength and its secure distance from the sea, possesses attributes similar to these of the other chief cities of Greece. Indeed, Pausanias himself confirms the antiquity of the occupation of the hill of Vasilikd, by describing all the most ancient monuments of the Sicyonians as standing upon it. (Leake, Moi-ea, vol. iii. p. 367.)

After Demetrius quittod Sicyon, it again became subject to a succession of tyrants, who quickly displaced one another. Cleon was succeeded in the tyranny by Euthydemus and Timocleidea; but they were expelled by the people, who placed Cleinias, the father of Aratus, at the head of the government. Cleinias was soon afterwards murdered by Abnntidns, who seized the tyranny, n. c. 264. Abantidas was murdered in his turn, and was succeeded by his father Paseas; but he again was murdered by Nicocles, who had held the sovereign power only four months, when the young Aratus surprised the citadel of Sicyon, and delivered his native city from the tyrant, 13.0. 251. (Fans. ii. 8. 1—3; Plut. Aral. 2.) Through the influence of Aratus, Sicyon now joined the Achaean League, and was one of the most important cities of the confederacy. (Pans. ii. 8. §3; Plut. Aral. 9; Polyb. ii. 43.) In consequence of its being a member of the league, its territory was devastated, both by Cleomenes, B. C. 233 (Plut. Arat. 41, Cleom. 19: Polyb. ii. 52), and by the Aetolians, 11.0. 221. (Polyb. iv. 13.) In the Roman wars in Greece, Sicyon was favoured by Attalus, who bestowed handsome presents upon it. (Polyb. xvii. 16; Liv. xxxii. 40.) The conquest of Corinth by the Romans, 11.0.146, was to the advantage of Sicyon, for it obtained the greater part of the neighbouring territory and the administration of the Isthlnian games. (Pans. ii. 2. § 2.) But even before Corinth was rebuilt, Sicyon again declined, and appears in an impoverished state towards the end of the Republic. (Cic. ad Att. i. 19, 20, ii. 1.) After the restoration of Corinth, it still further declined, and its ruin was completed by an earthquake, which destroyed a great part of the city, so that Pausanias found it almost depopuluted (ii. 7. § 1). The city, however, still continued to exist in the sixth century of the Christian era; for Hierocles (p. 646, Wess.) mentions New Sicyon (Nt'a. Itxua’w) among the chief cities of Achaia. The maritime town was probably Old Sicyon. Under the Byzantine empire Sicyon was called Hellas, and the inhabitants Helladici, probably in contradistinction to the surrounding Slavonic inhabitants. (Imuo’w, 1'1 viiv 'EAAcis, Saidas; 'ra'w Imuwlimv 1'er vwl Ac'yoae'vwv 'EAAaEva, Malala, iv. p. 68, Bonn.) The name Vasilika' (1'6. Brermd) has reference to the ruins of the temples and other public buildings.

III. Art, da—Sicyon is more renowned in the artistic than in the political history of Greece. For a long time it was one of the chief seats of Grecian art, and was celebrated alike for its painters and sculptors. According to one tradition painting was invented at Sicyon, where Telephanes was the first to practise the monogram, or drawing in outline

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