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the site is given by Pococke. “ It was situated,” he . says, “on a rising ground, defended by the sea on ‘ the north and west. The present city is mostly on the north side of the hill. The old city seems to have extended further east, as may be judged from t the foundations of a thick wall, that extends from the sea to the east; on the south it was probably bounded by a rivnlet, the large bed of which might serve for a natural fosse; as another might which is on the north side, if the city extended so far, as some seem to think it did, and that it stretched to the east as far as the high hill, which is about three quarters of a mile from the present town. . . . On the north side of the town, there are great ruins of a fine fort, the walls of which were built with I very large stones, 12 feet in length, which is the thickness of the wall; and some are 11 feet broad, and 5 deep. The harbour is now clicked up. . . . This harbour seems to be the minor port mentioned by Strabo (xvi. p. 756) for the winter; the outer one probably being to the north in the open sea between Sidon and Tyre. ('1’), where the shipping rides in safety during the summer season.” (Observation-s Palestine, p. 86.) The sepulehral grots are cut in the rock at the foot of the hills ; and some of them are adorned with pilssters, and handsomely painted.

The territory of the Sidonians, originally circumscribed towards the north by the proximity of the hostile Gibbites, extended southwards to the tribe of Zebulon, and Mount Carmel; but was afterwards limited in this direction also by the growing power of their rivals the T yrians. (Ritter, l. c. p. 43, &c.)

The coins of Sidon are very numerous, belonging to two epochs: the former that of the Seleucidae, from Antiochus 1V. and onwards; the latter commencing with A. U. o. 643, which is found on coins of Trajan and Hadrian. They commonly represent aship, the most ancient emblem of the maritime pre-eminence of Sidon, sometimes an eagle, sometimes Astnrte with a crown, spear, &c., with the legend zmmvo: GEAE. (Eckhel, vol. iii. pp. 364—372.) G. W.]

SIDO'NES (Elbows), a tribe in the extreme east of Germany, about the sources of the Vistula (Poll. ii. 11. § 21), and no doubt the some which appears in Strabo (vii. p. 306) under the name of Elbows, as u. branch of the Bastamae. [L. S.]


SlDUS (21605:. itoouv-ri s Ka'um, Hesych.: Eth. Elbow—nor), a village in the Corinthia, on the Saronic gulf, between Crommyon and Schoenus. It was taken by the anedaemonians along with Crommyon in the Corinthian War, but was recovered by Iphicrates. (Xen. Hell. iv. 4. § 13, iv. 5. § 19.) It probably stood in the plain of Susa'ki. (Scylax; Staph. B. s.v.; Plin. iv. 7. s. 11; Boblaye, Rec/terches, gf-c. p. 35 ; Leaks, Peloponnesiaca, p. 397: Cnrtius, Pelopmmeaoe, vol. ii. p. 555.)

SIDUSSA (2160111700.), 11 small town of Ionin, belonging to the territory of Erythrae. (Thucyd. viii. 24; Steph. B. s. v.) Pliny (v. 38) erroneously describes it as an island 05' the coast of Erythrae. It is probable that the place also bore the name of Sidus (Zioofis), as Stephunus B. (s. v.) mentions a town of this name in the territory of Erythme. [L 3.]

SIDYMA (Eifiupa: Eth. 2L5vpteiis),a town of Lycia, on the southern slope of Mount Cragus, to the north-west of the month of the Xanthus. (Plin. v. 28 ; Staph. B. s. 11.; Ptol. v. 3. § 5 ; Hierocles, p.


684; Cedrenns, p. 344.) The ruins of this city, on a lofty height of Mount Cragus, have first been discovered and described by Sir C. Fellows. (Lycirz, p. 151, full.) They are at, the village of Tm-too'rca'r Hind, and consist chiefly of splendidly built tombs, abounding in Greek inscriptions. The town itself appears to have been very small, and the theatre, ugora, and temples, are of diminutive size, but. of great beauty. [L. S.]


SIGA (217a, Ptol. iv. 2. § 2), a commercial town of Mauritania Caesariensis, seated near the mouth of a river of the same name in a large bay. The mouth of the river formed the port of the city, at a distance of 3 miles from it (Sigensis Portus, ltin. Ant. p. 13), opposite to the island of Acra, on the highroad, and near Cirta, the residence of Syphax. (Strab. xvii. p. 829; Plin. v. 2. s. 1.) ln Strabo’s time it was in ruins, but must. have been subsequently restored, since it is mentioned in the Itinerary (p. 12) as a Roman municipium. (Comp. Ptol. l. 0.; Mela, i. 5; Scylax, 51. 52.) According to Show (Travels, p. 12), who, however, did not visit the place, its ruins are still to be seen by the present Tucumbril; others identify it with the Aresch1.141 of the Arabs, at the mouth of the Tafna, nmr Rasgrm. [T. H. D.]

SlGA (217a, Ptol. iv. 2. § ‘2), a river of Mauritania Caesariensis, falling into a bay of the sea opposite to the island of Acra (now Camcofea). Scylax (p. 51) calls it 217w. Probably the resent Tafna. [T. H. D.

SlGE’UM (Efyemv or 1') Iryuds tin-pa), a promontory in Troas, forming the north-western extremity of Asia Minor, at the entrance of the Hellespont, and opposite the town of Elaens, in the Thracian Chersonesus. Near it the naval camp of the Greeks was said to have been formed during the Trojan War. (Herod. r. 65, 94; Thucyd. viii. lOl; Strab. xiii. pp. 595, 603; Pomp. Mela, i. 18; Plin. v. 33; Ptol. v. 2. § 3: Serv. ad Aen- ii. 312.) This promontory is now called Yem'sheri.

Near the promontory was situated the town of Sigeum, which is said to have been an Aeolian colony, founded under the guidance of Archaeanax of Mytilene, who used the stones of ancient Troy in building this new place. But some years later the Athenians sent troops under Phrynon and expelled the Mytileneans; and this act of violence led to a war between the two cities, which lasted for a long time, and was conducted with varying success. Pittacus, the wise Mytilenean, is said to have slain Phrynon in single combat. The poet Alcaens also was engaged in one of the actions. The dispute was at length referred to Periander, of Corinth, who decided in favour of the Athenians. (Strah. xiii. p. 599; Herod. v. 95; Steph. B. a. 12.; Diog. Lat-'rt. i. 74.) Henceforth we find the Pisistratidae in possession of Sigeum, and Hippias, after being expelled from Athens, is known to have retired there with his family. (Herod. v. 65). The town of Sigeum was destroyed by the inhabitants of Ilium soon after the overthrow of the Persian empire, so that in Strabo's time it no longer existed. (Strab. xiii. p.600; Plin. v. 33.) A bill near Sigeum, forming a part- of the promontory, was believed in antiquity to contain the remains of Achilles, which was looked upon with such veneration that gradually a small town seems to have risen around it, under the name of Achilleum [ACHILLEUM]. This tomb, which was visited by Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, and Germanicus, is still visible in the form of a mound or tumnlus. [L. 5.] SIGMAN (Show), a river in Gallia. Ptolemy (ii. 7. § 2) places the month of the Sigman between the Aturis (Adour) and the Gamma; and between the Sigman and the Garonne he places Cnrianum Promontorium. [Coaranuw] Marcianus (PeripL), who has the name Signat-ius, gives two distances between the month of the Adour and that of the Sigman, one of which is 500 and the other 450 stadia. We cannot trust either the latitudes of Ptolemy or the distances of Marcian along this coast. There is no river between the Adour and the Garonne that we can suppose to have been marked down by the ancient coasting ships to the exclusion of the Leyre, which flows into the Russia d'Arcwchon. But Gosselin supposes the Sigman to be the Illimisan, which is about half-way between the Adour and the Basin d’Arcachon. [G. L.] Sl'GNlA (Eryvla: Etb. Signinus: Segm'), an ancient city of Latinm, situated on a lofty hill at the NW. angle of the Volscian mountains, looking down upon the valley of the Sacco. It is represented by ancient authors as a Roman colony founded by 'l‘arquinius Superbus, at the some time with Circeii. (Liv. i. 55; Dionya. iv. 63.) No trace of it is found before this; its name does not figure among the cities of the Latin League or those of which the foundation was ascribed to Alba; and the story told by Dionysius (i. 0.), that it originated at first in a fortuitous settlement of some Roman troops encamped in the neighbourhood, which was afterwards enlarged and strengthened by T arquin, certainly points to the fact of its being a new town, and not, like so many of the Roman colonies, a new settlement in a previously existing city. It passed, after the expulsion of Tarquin, into the hands of the Roman Republic, as it was attacked in 3.0. 497 by Sextus Tarquinius, who in vain endeavoured to make himself master of it (Dionys. v. 58). A few years later, it received a fresh colony, to recruit its exhausted population (Liv. ii. 2|). From this time it appears to have continued a dependency of Rome, and never, so far as we learn, fell into the power of the Volscians, though that people held all the neighbouring mountain country. Sig-Ilia must indeed, from its strong and commanding position, overlooking all the valley of the Trerus and the broad plain between it and Praencste, have been a point of the utmost importance for the Romans and Latins, especially as securing their communications with their allies the Hernicans. In B. c. 340 the Signians shared in the general defection of the Latins (Liv. viii. 3); but we have no account of the part they took in the war that followed, or of the terms on which they were received to submission. We know only that Signia became again (as it had probably been before) a Colon-i8. Latino, and is mentioned as such during the Second Punic War. On that occasion it was one of those which continued faithful to Rome at the most trying period of the war (Liv. xxvii. 10), and must therefore have been still in a flourishing condition. On account of its strong and secluded position we find it selected as one of the places where the Carthaginian hostages were depssited for safety (Id. xxxii. 2): but this is the last mention of it that occurs in history, except that the battle of Sacriportus is described by Plutarch as taking place near Signia (l’lut.SuIl. 28). That decisive action was fought in the plain between Signia and Praeneste [S.tcnrI'ORTI'S]. It, however, certainly continued during


the later ages of the Republic and under the Empire to be a considerable municipal town. It received a. fresh body of colonists under the Triumvirate, but it is doubtful whether it retained the rank of a Colonic. Pliny does not reckon it as such, and though it is termed “ Colonia Signina " in some inscriptions, these are of doubtful authenticity. (Strab. v. p. 237; Plin. iii. 5. s. 9; Sil. Ital. viii. 378; Lib. Colon. p. 237; Zumpt, dc Col p. 338; Gruter, Imcr. p. 490. 5, 8w.)

Signia was chiefly noted under the Roman Empire for its wine, which, though harsh and astringent, was valued for its medical qualities, and seems to have been extensively used at Rome (Strab. v. p. 237; Plin. xiv. 6. s. 8; Athen. i. p. 27; Sil. Ital. L c.; Martial, xiii. 116; Gels. do Med. iv. 5). Its territory produced also pears of a celebrated quality (Juv. xi. 73; Plin. xv. l5. s. 16; Colum. v. 10. l8: Macrob. Sat. ii. 15), as well as excellent vegetables, which were sent. in large quantities to Rome (Colum. x. l3l). These last were grown on a hill near the city, called by Columella Mons Lepinus, apparently one of the underfalls of the Volscian mountains; but there is no authority for applying the name (as modern writers have frequently done) to the whole of that mass of mountains [ann'us Moss]. Signia also gave name to a particular kind of cement known as “opus Signinum,” and extensively employed both for pavements and reservoirs of water (Plin. xxxv. l2. s. 46; Colum. i. 6. § 12, viii. l5. 3; Vitruv. viii. 7. § 14).

The modern town of Segm' (a poor place, with about 3500 inhabitants) occupies a part only of the site of the ancient city. The latter embraced within the circuit of its walls the whole summit of the hill, which stands boldly out from the Volscian mountains, with which it is connected only by a narrow neck or isthmus. The line of the ancient walls may be traced throughout its whole extent; they are constructed of large masses of stone (the. hard limestone of which the hill itself consists), of polygonal or rudely squared form, and afford certainly one of the most remarkable specimens of the style of construction commonly known as Cyclopean or Pelasgic, of which striking instances are found also in other cities in this part of Lntium. The city had in all five gates, two of which still retain their primitive construction; and one of these, known as the Porto Saracinesca, presents a remarkable instance of the rudest and most massive Cyclopean construction. The architrave is formed of single masses of stone not less than 12 feet in length, laid across from one impost to the other. This gate has been repeatedly figured“; another, less celebrated but scarcely less remarkable, is found on the SE. side of the town, and is constructed in a style preciser similar. The age of these walls and gntm has been a subject of much controversy; on the one hand the rude and massive style of their construction, and the absence of all traces of the arch in the gateways, would seem to assign them to a remote and indefinite antiquity; on the other hand, the historical notices that we possess concerning Signia all tend to prove that it was not one of the most ancient cities of Latium, and that there could not have existed a city of such magnitude previous to the settlement of the Roman colony under Tarquin. (For the discussion of this question as well its for

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SIGRfA'NE (1‘; Ziypravh, Strab. xi. p. 525), a district of Media Alropahene, near the Caspian Gates. Ptolemy calls it 217pmvm-l; (vii[. 2. § 6). V. Sl’GRlUM (Ii'yprov), the westernmost promontory of the island of Lesbos, which now bears the name of Sigri (Strab. xiii. pp. 616, 618.) Stephanus B. (a. 0.) calls Sigrium a harbour of Lesbos. [L. s.]

SlGULO'XES (It’yol'leIfl), a German tribe mentioned by Ptolemy (ii. ll.§ 11) as inhabiting the Cimbrian Chersonesus, to the north of the Saxones. but is otherwise unknown. [L. s.]

SIGYNNES (Ei'yriwer. Herod. v. 9; Ii'yuvor, Apoll. Rhod. iv. 320: Orph. Arg. 759; Zi'yrvvor, Strab. xi. p. 520). The only name of any TransDanubian population, other than Scythian, known to Herodotus was that of the Sigynnes, whom he seems to have described as the Thracians described them to either himself or his informants. The Thracian notion of one of these Sigynnes was that he wore a Median dress, and considered himself a descendant of the Medea; though how this could be was more than Herodotus could say. Any— thing, however, is possible in a long space of time. The horses of the Sigynnes were undersized —p0nies, indeed, rather than horses. They were flatnosed and long-haired ; their cont being five fingers deep. They were too weak to carry a man on their back; but not too weak for harness. In chariots they were light and quick; and in the drawing of chariots the Sigynnes took great delight.

We must look on Sigynnes as a general and collective name for a large assemblage of populations; inasmuch as their country is said to extend as far westwards as the Hencti on the Adriatic. Say that it reached what was afterwards the frontier of Pan


nonia. On the north it must really have been bounded by some of the Scythian districts. In the language of the Ligyans above Massilia, the word Sigymm means a merchant, or retail-dealer, or carrier. In Cyprus they call spears by the name Sigynna. The resemblance of this word to the name Zigeur=Gipsy has often been noticed. Word for word, it may be the same. It may also have been applied to the gipsies with the meaning it has in Ligyan. It does not, however, follow that the Sigynnes were gipsies. [PL G. L.] SIHOR (Zubp). 1. The torrent more commonly known as “the River of Egypt,” the southern boundary of the Promised Land, identified by the LXX. with Rhinocorura, the modern Wady-elArish. RHIXOCORURA (Joshua, xiii. 3; 1 Chron. xiii. 5; Jeremiah, ii. 18). in the first cited passage, the LXX. read Eur): 'riis doutfi'rou 'rfis Kurd. npéawwov Ai'yl'nr'ruu; in the second, dwb 6piwv Ai'yi'nrrou, and only in the last is a proper name retained, and there it is changed to I‘naiw. St. Jerome (Onomast. s. 11.), following Eusebius, describes it as before Egypt, and speaks of a village of the name between Aelia and Eleutheropolis. which it is difiicult to imagine that they could have identified with the Sihor above named. St. Jerome says that he has said more on the subject “ in libri Hebraicorunr quaestionum," but the passage is not to be found there. In his " Epitaphium Paulae” he writes “veniam ad Aegypti flumen Sior, qui interpretatur turbidus" (p. 677); but be here probably means the Nile, which is sometimes supposed to be called Sihor, as in the passage of Jeremiah above referred to. The village named by Eusebius and St. Jerome doubtless marked the site of the city of the tribe of Judah, situated in the mountains, and written Zior in the authorised version, but “(pig in the ori

ginal (Joshua, av. 54), and in the LXX. Zia-p, (a1. Empald).

2. Suron or Srmrorr Lrsnam (LXX. Zulw Kal Aagavdfl), perhaps to be taken as two names, as by the LXX., Ensehius, and St. Jerome, who name “ Sior in tribu Aser," without the addition of Libnath. It is mentioned only in the border of Asher. (Joshua, xix. 26.) Tire various conjectures concerning the place or places are stated by Bonfrerins (Comment. in 100.), but none are satisfactory, and the site or sites have still to be recovered. [G.

SlLA (1'7 ZIM: Sila) was the name given in ancient times to a part of the Apennines in the S. of Brnttinm, which were clothed with dense forests, and furnished abundance of pitch, as well as timhnr for ship-building. Strabo tells us it was 700 stadia (7t) geog. miles) in length, and places its commencement in the neighbourth of Locri. (Strab. vi. p. 261.) It is evident, therefore, that he, as well as l’liny (iii. 5. s. 10), who notices it in connection with Rhegium and Leucopetra, assigned the name to tho southemmost group of the Apennines (the range of Aaprumonte), S. of the isthmus which separates the Terinaean and Scylletic gulfs. At the present day the name of Sila is given only to the detached and outlying mountain group N. of that isthmus, and E. of Cosmza (Consentia) It is probable that the name, which evidently means only “ the forest,” and is connected with the Latin silva, and the Greek 5A1), was originally applied in a more general sense to all the forest-covered mountains of this part of Calabria, though now restricted to the group in question. 5.13.]

SILACE'NAE, a place in Lower Pannonia, on the south of Lake Peiso. (It. Ant. p. 283, where it appears in the ablat. form Silacenis). Its exact. site is unknown. [L. 5.]

SILANA, a town in the NW. of Thessaly, near the frontiers of Athamania, mentioned along with Gomphi and Tricca by Livy. Leaks conjectures that it occupied the site of Polia'na, near which are several squared blocks of ancient workmanship. (Liv. xxxvi. 13; Leske, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 529.)

Sl'LARUS (Ziltapos, Ptol.; ZtAaplr, Strab. : Sale), a considerable river of Southern Italy, flowing into the gulf of Posidonia, and forming the boundary between Campanin and anania. It rises in the mountains near Team, on the confines of the Hirpini, and not far from the sources of the Aufidus; thence flows for some distance in a southerly direction till it receives the waters of the Tanager (Tanugro), a considerable stream, which joins it from the 512).; it then turns to the SW. and pursues that direction to the sea, which it enters about 5 miles to the N. of the city of Paestum. About 5 miles from its mouth it receives another important tributary in the Calor (Galore), which joins it from the S. Between the Calor and Tanager, on the S. bank of the Silnrus rises the mountain group of Mount Albumus, mentioned by Virgil in connection with that river. The “ lnci Silari " of the same author are evidently the same with the extensive woods which still clothe the valley of the Sale from its confluence with the Tanagro to within a few miles of the sea. (Virg. Georg. iii. 146.) The Silarus was in the days of Strabo and Pliny the recognised boundary between Campania (including under that name the land of the Picentini) and Lucania; but this applies only to its course near its mouth, as Eburi (Eboli), though situated to the N. of it, is included by Pliny among the towns of Lucania. (Strnb. v. p. 251. vi. p. 252; Plin. iii. 5. ss. 9, 10, ll.s. 15; Pm]. iii. 1. §8; Mel. ii. 4. §9; Tab. Peut..; Dionys. Per. 361.) A peculiarity of its waters, mentioned by several ancient writers, is that they had the power of petrifying sticks, leaves, and other substances immersed in them. (Strab. v. p. 251 ; Plin. ii. 103. s. 106; Sil. Ital. viii. 582.)

The name is written by Lucan and Columella Siler, and the same form is found in Vibins Sequestcr, indicating an approach to the modern name of Sele. (Lucan, ii. 426 ; Colum. x. 136; Vib. Seq. p. 18.) H. B.]

SILAS (Eddie, Arrian, Ind. c. 6; Strab. xv. p. 703; Diod. ii. 37), a river of the Upper Punjab, the story of which, as told by ancient writers, is clearly fabulous. According to Arrian and others, the water of this river was so light that nothing could swim in it. Lassen, who has examined this story with his usual acuteness, has shown from the lllaltabhdram that titers was a stream in the northern part of India called the Sila, the water of which was endowed with a highly petrifying power, from which circumstance the river obtained its signification, Silo meaning in Sanscrit a stone. (ZeiIJcJI-r. Kunde des Morgenlands, ii. p. 63.) It may be remarked that the name occurs differently written. Thus Diodorus writes ZIAAav woranév; Antigonus IiAav Kpr'w'nv. (Mir-ab. c. 161.) Pliny evidently refers to the same story, but calls the river Side in his quotation from Ctesius (xxxi. 2. s. V

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town of Phrygia, on the east of Apamea and Celaenae, and beyond the source of the Mseander (Ptol. v. 2. § 25 ; Plin. v. 29). In the Byzantine writers it is sometimes mentioned under corrupt forms of its name, such as Silbia (Hierocl p. 667), Sublas (Cinnamus, vi. 15), or Sublium and Syblaea (Oriens Christ. p. 809). This place, which was the see of a bishop, belonged to the conventus of Apamea. Modern travellers seek its site in the neighbourhood of Sandukh'. (Kiepcrt, in anz‘s F finf [use/trifle", p. 37.) [L. S. SlLl or SIMl (20w: or Staci, Strab. xvi. p. 772), a tribe of Aethiopians, who used the horns of the oryx, a species of gazelle, as weapons. Some have considered them to be the same as the AlOtmrsr Ethel of Agatharchus, p. 42. (Comp. Diodor. iii. 8.) [T. H. D.] SILICENSE FLUMEN, a river in Hispania Baetica, in the neighbourhood of Corduba, probably the Guadajoz, or one of its tributars. (Hirt. B. A. 57.) [T. H. D.] SlLlNDIUM (Ztklvdlov), a small town of Troas at the foot of Mount Ida, is mentioned only by Stephanus B. (s. v.) on the authority of Demetrius of St'epsis. [L S.] SILINGAE (Stalwart), a tribe of Germany, on the south of the Semnones, between the western slopes of Mona Asciburgius and the river Albis. (Ptol. ii. 11. § 18.) It is generally supposed that this name is the one from which the modern Silesia or Schlesien is formed. (Latham, Tacit. Gmn. p. 138; l’alacky, Guch. von Béhmen, vol. i. p. 63.) [L. S.] SlLlS (Sale), a small river of Venetia, in the N. of Italy, which rises in the mountains above Treviso (Tarvisium), and flows into the Iagunes at Altinum (Allino). 1t is still called the Sole. (Plin. iii. 18. s. 22.) [15. H. B.] SILLA(2¢'AM1,Isid.Charax,§2,ed. Miillcr,1855), a river of Apolloniatis, a district of Assyria, which, according to Isidorus, flows through the centre of the town of Artemita. [ARTEMITAJ There can be little doubt that this is the river now called the Digaleh. It is also, in all probability, the same as that called by Steph. B. (s. v. ’Ardaem) the Delas. Forbiger imagines that the Diabus of Ammianus (xxiii. 6), the bums of Zosimus (iii. 25), and the Gorges of Ptolemy (iv. 1. § 7), refer to the same river. It is, however, more likely that the first of these streams is the same as that. elsewhere called the Zahatus. [\".] SlLO or SHlLOH (anéa: Elli. Inkwvl-r'ns), a town of Palestine, in the tribe of Ephraim, in the mountain region according to Josephus (Ant. v. 1), where the ark and the tabernacle were first established by Joshua on the settlement of the land by the tribes of Israel. There also were assembled the national convocations for the division of the land and the transaction of other public business afi'ecting the whole Union. (Joshua, xviii. l, 10. xix. 51, xxi. 2, xxii. 9.) There Samuel ministered before the Lord in the days of Eli the high-priest (1 Sam. i.—iii.). There was the seat of the Divine worship until the disastrous battle of Aphek, from which period the decline of Shiloh must. be dated (ch. iv.) until its desolation became proverbial in Israel. (Psalm lxxviii. 60 ; Jeremiah, vii. 12, xxvi. 6, 9.) Its situation is very particularly described in the book of Judges (xxi. 19), as “ on the north side of Bethel, on the east side of the highway that goeth up from Bethcl to Shechem, and on the south of chonah." St. Jerome places it xii. M. P. from Neapolis (=Shechem =Nabliis), in the toparchy of Acrabattena. (Onomast. s. 2:.) Its ruins were shown, and the remains of the altar among them, in his day. (Comment. in Sophon. i. 14, Epitaph. Paulae.) From these notes the site is easily identified with the modern Silfin, on the east of the Nablt‘u road, about four hours south of that town, situated over against a vange named El-Lebban (Lebonah), which lends its name also to a Khan on the road-side. Sillin is merely a heap of ruins lying on a hill of moderate elevation at the south-eastern extremity of a valley through which passes the great north road from Judaea to Galilee. “ Among the ruins of modern houses are traces of buildings 0t~ greater antiquity, and at some distance, towards the east, is a well of good water, and in the valleys many tombs excavated in the rock.’1 (Robinson, Bibl. Res. vol. iii. pp. 86—89.) Among the tombs of Shiloh, it Reland's conjecture is correct, is to be sought the very slender authority on which the pagans rested their assertion that their demigod. Silenus was buried in the country of the Hebrews; and the fact of the efiigy of this deity being found on the coins of Flavia Neapolis, certainly lends countenance to his ingenious hypothesis that the fable originated in the imaginary correspondence between this name and the town of Ephraim. (Palaestina, p. 1017.) But the error which he has copied from Benjamin ot‘ Tudela, of placing the tomb of Samuel in Shiloh, is obviously attributable to a lapse of memory on the part of that writer, as no one has ever identified Shiloh with the modern Nebi Same. The error is corrected by Asher. (Itinerary of R. Berg'amin of Tunisia, ed. A. Asher, vol. i. p. 78, vol. ii. p. 95.) [G. W.]

SILOAM. [J sausau-zsr, p. 28, b.]

SILPIA, a town in Hispania Baetics, N. of the Baetis, and apparently in the Sierra Morena. (Liv. xxviii. 12.) Probably Linares. [T. H. D.]

SI'LSILIS (Not. Imp.), a fort; situated on the right bank of me Nile, between Ombos and Apollinopolis Magma in Upper Aegypt. The original name of this place is nearly preserved in the modern Silili. The fort of Silsilis stood at the foot of the mountain now called Gebel Selsilek, or “ hill of the chain," and was one of the points which commanded the passage of the river. For at this spot the Arabian and Libyan hills approach each other so nearly that the Nile, contracted to about half its ordinary width, seems to flow between two perpendicular walls of sandstone. Silsilis was one of the principal seats for the worship of the Nile itself, and Bameses 11. consecrated a temple to it, where it was worshipped under the emblem of a crocodile and the appellation of Hapimoou. The stone quarries of Silsilis were also celebrated for their durable and beautiful stone, of which the great temples and monuments of the Thcbaid were for the most part built. (Wilkinson, Mod. Egypt and Thebes, vol. ii. p. 283.) [\V. B. D.] SILVANECTES. This name occurs in the Notitia of the Provinces of Gallia, where the chief town is called Civitas Silvanectium. In the Notit. Imp. the Silvanectes are placed in Belgica Secunda, but the name there denotes a town, according to the usage then established of giving to the capital towns the names of their people. It appears almost certain that the Subanecti of Ptolemy (ii. 9. § 11) is the same name as Silvanectae or Silvanectes. Ptolemy place the Subanecti east of the Seine, and makes


Ratcmagus their capital. But this Ratomagus is conjectured to be the some as the Augustomagus of the Itin. and of the Table, which is Senlt's [Auuus'romaous].

Pliny (iv. 0. l7) mentions the Ulmanetes in Gallia Belgica: “ Suessiones liberi, Ulmanetes liberi, Tungn'." It is possible that this too may be a corrupted form of Silvanectes, for the modern name Senli-s confirms the form Silvanectes, and the name Ulmanctes is otherwise unknown. [G. L.]

SILVIA, a place in lllyria, on the road from Sirmium to Salons. (Itin. Ant. p. 269.) It is probably the same town as the Salvia of Ptolemy [SALVIA]. It is identified with Keupris by La

ie. [T. H. D.]

SILVIUM (Iert'i't'av: Eth.Silvinus: Garagnone), a town of Apulia in the interior of the country. It is noticed by Strabo (vi. p. 283) as the frontier town of the Peucetii, and its name is noticed by Pliny among the municipal towns of Apulia (Plin. iii. 11. s. 16). But at a much earlier period it is mentioned by Diodorus as an Apulian town, which was wrested from the Samnites by the Romans in n. c. 306 (Diod. xx. 80). Our only clue to its position is derived from the Itineraries, which place it 20 miles from Venusia, on the branch of the Appian Way which led direct to Tarentum. This distance coincides with the site of a town (now destroyed) called Garag'nonc, situated about midway between Spinozzolo and Poggio Orsino, and nearly due E. of Venom (Pratilli, Via Appia, iv. 6. p. 478; Romanelli, vol. ii p. 188). [I'll-I. B.]

SILURA, an island of Britain, separated only by a narrow strait from the coast of the Dumnonii, who inhabited the most SW. point of Britannia. (Solin. c. 22.) It is probably the same island which Sulpicius Severus (ii. 51) calls Sylina, and seems to mean the Scilly Islands. [T. H. D.]

Sl'LURES (EiAupsr, Ptol. ii. 3. § 24), a powerful and warlike people in the \V. part of Britannia Romano, whose territory was bounded on the S. by the estuary of the Sabrina. The important towns of Isca and Vents belonged to them. Tacitus (A yr. 11) calls them descendants of the Iberi of Spain, and states that they had emigrated from Ireland int-o Britain; but there seems to be no foundation [or this opinion. (Cf. Zeuss, Die Deutschen, p. 202.) Although subjugated by the Romans, they caused them continual alarm; and they were the only people of Britain who, at a later period, maintained lheir independence against the Saxons. (Beda, Hist. Ecc- i. 12, seq.; cf. Tnc. Ann. xii. 2, 31; Plin. iv. 16. s. 30.) [T. H. D.]

SIME'NA (Zip/rpm: Eth. Emmi/s), a t0wn on the coast of Lycia, 60 studia from Aperlae (l’lin. v. 27 ; Steph. B. s. 0.; Smdiasm. Mar. May. 239, 240, where it is called Somena, 2611mm ; comp. Leake Asia Minor, p. 188; Spratt and Forbes, T ravels in Lycia, vol. i. p. 137, vol. ii. pp. 86, 274.) [L. 5.]

SI’MENI. [Icnxn] Y

SIMEON. [Pannusrlxm p. 529, b.]

SIMITTU (Zruiaflou, Ptol. iv. 3. § 29), called by I’liny (v. 4. § 4) Simittuense Oppidum, a Roman colony in the interior of Numidia. on the road from Cirta to Carthage, 7 miles to the W. of Bulls Begin. (Itin. Ant. p. 43.) There were some mineral waters 5 miles E. of the town (Ib.). It lay on the site of the present A in Semit, on the Qued-eL Bull, 2 lcngues to the W. of Bull. [T. H- D.]

SIMUIS (Index), a small river of Troas, having its source in Mount Ida, or more accui'atclyin Mount

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