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In some copies of the Work the following errors will be found, which the reader is requested to correct.

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for Elis, read Etis. for west, read east. for steepest, read deepest. for Helicon, read Cithaeron. for Buns, read Acmus ; CYNAETHA. for HIBROSOLYMA, read Janusssasr. for and, read and. for CASSO'TIS, read CA’SSOTIS. for 67, read 76. . dele from and including “ when an imortant," down to “ short period in oeotia." for in the neighbourhood, read at C0roneia. after the word battle, insert “ In consequence of this battle, the Athenians lost the supremacy which they had for a short time exercised in Boeotia." for Another and much more celebrated, read A celebrated. for 0d. iv. 39, read 0d. ix. 39, seqq. for 15, read 16. for Panama, read Ems. for south, read north. for Nahr-Ic-Dan, read Nahr-el-Dan. for Joansxas, read PALABSTINA. aittler Agafii'eue, insert Thucy.i. 100, lv. 02

for v. 5, read v. 52.

before the reference [Esovs], insert ENNEAODOS. [Ahli‘llli’OLll]

for inglirami, read inghirami.

for Volker-, read I'b'lker-.

for L111“, read Gunners.

insert Ava.

after straight, insert line.

for this isthmus, read the isthmus.

for Jusrmorous read Jusrmuuorous.

for Parthenius, read Parthenias.

for 362, read 352.

for Gangites, read Angites.

for Mass Usron, read Team: or Mus ULTOR.

insert of.

dcle the note qfler the words “ near the Thermodon ”.

for coeurs, read course.

for Her. 1. 105. read Herod. i. 103, seqq.

for V0 ., read Voy.

after igyaa, insert Eth. Thermitanus.

for § 480, read p. 480.

for imperuosiiy, read impetuosity.

for 59—88, read 57—88.)

for Ukert, ii. 2. § 230, read Ukert, ii. pt. 2, p. 230.

for § 25, read p. 25.

" t. means from the top,- h. from the bottom, of the column.


The Map of Ancient Rome to be placed between pages 7-20. and 721. Vol. II.

The Map of Syracuse to be placed between pages 1054 and 1055. Vol. II.

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IABA'DIUS (‘lasaiiov vines, Ptol. vii. 2. § 29, viii. 27.§ l0), an island 08' the lower half of the Golden Chersonesus. It is said by Ptolemy to mean the “Island of Barley," to have been very fertile in grain and gold, and to have had a metropolis called Anorae. There can be little doubt that it is the same as the present Java, which also signifies “ barley." Humboldt, on the other hand, considers it to be Sumatra (Kritische Unters. i. p. 64); and lilannert, the small island of Banoa, on the SE. side of Snmatra. [V. JABBOK (Wuhan-as, Joseph; 'IaGa’ex, LXX.), a stream on the east of Jordan, mentioned first in the history of Jacob (Gen. xxxii. 22). It formed, according to Josephus, the northern border of the Amnrites, whose country he describes as isolated by the Jordan on the west, the Arnon on the south, and the Jabbok on the north. (Ant. iv. 5. § 2.) He further describes it as the division between the dominions of Sihon, king of the Amoritcs, and 0g, whom he calls king of Galadene and Gaulonitis (§ 3)—the Bashan of Scripture. In the division of the land among the tribis, the river Jabbok was assigned as the northern limit of Gad and Reuben. (Deal. iii. 16.) To the north of the river, in the country of Bashsn, the half tribe of Manasseh had their possmsion (18,14.) [AMMONITAE haunt-m] It is correctly placed by Eusebius (Onomasl. av.) between Ammon, or Philadelphia, and Gerasa (Gemlz); to which S. Jerome odds, with equal truth, that it is 4 miles from the latter. It flows into the Jordan. It is now called El-Zerka, and “divides the district of Moerad from the country called ElBelln." (Burckhardt's Syria, p. 347.) It was crossed in its upper part by lrby and Mnngles, an 'hour and twenty minutes (exactly 4 miles) SW. of Gcrmh, on their way to Ea-Szalt. (Travel-1, p. 819, comp. p. 475.) [6. W.]

J ABESH ('ldCcu, LXX.; ’ldG-ns, 'laGwo'd, ‘laG’irnir, Joseph), a city of Gilead, the inhabitants of which were exterminatcd, during the early times of the Judges (see xx. 28), for not having joined in the national league against the men of Gibeah (xi. 9, 8m). Three centuries later, it was besieged by the Ammonite king, Nabasb, when the hard terms offered to the inhabitants by the invaders mused the indignation of Saul, and resulted in the relief of the town and the rent of the Ammonites. (1 Sam. xi.) It was probably in requital for this deliverance that the inhabitants of Jabesh-Gilead, having heard of the indignity ofl‘ered to the bodies of Saul and his sons

vol. II.



after the battle of Gilboa, “ arose, and went all night, and ted: the body of Saul, and the bodies of his sons, from the wall of Beth-shun, and came to ancsh and burnt them there; and they took their bones and buried them under a tree atJabesh, and fasted seven days." (l Sam. xxxi. 11—13; 2 Sam. ii.4—T.) It was situated, according to Eusebins, in the hills, 6 miles from Pella, on the road to Ger-(uh ; and its site was marked in his time by a large village (aw. 'Apuréd and 'IdGu). The writer was unsuccessful in his endeavours to recover its site in 1842; but atradition of the city is still retained in the name of the valley that runs into the plain of the Jordan, one hour and a quarter south of Wady Mm, in which Pella. is situated. This valley is still called Wady Yabn, and the ruins of the city doubtless exist. and will probably be recovered in the mountains in the vicinity of this valley. [G. W.]

JABNEH. [Immun]

JACCA. [Jaccennn Vascoxssj

JACCETA’NI (’lch-rauoi), the most important of the small tribes at the S. foot of the Pyrenees, in Hispanin 'l‘arraconensis, E. of the Vascosrzs, and N. of the lenm-z'rias. Their country, JACCETANIA ('lanne'ravl'a), lay in the N. of Arragon, below the central portion of the l’yrenaean chain, whence it extended towards the lberus as far as the neighbonrhood of [lords and Osca; and it formed a part of the theatre of war in the contests between Sertorins and Pompey, and between Julius Caesar and Pompey’s legates, Afranius and Petreius. (Strab. iii. p. 16] ; Cece. B. C. i. 60: concerning the reading, see LACETANI; Ptol. ii. 6. §72.) None of their cities were of any consequence. The capital, JACCA (Jam, in Bt'acayu). from which they derived their ' name, belonged, in the time of Ptolemy, to the Vasconrs, among whom indeed l’liny appears to include the Jaccctani altogether (iii. 3. s. 4). 'l‘ heir other cities, as enumerated by Ptolemy, and identified, though with no great certainty, by Ukert (vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 425),are the following: —lESPl'S (’Iwa-o's, Igualeda); Linnaeus (Kepunit, S. Colombo dc Ceralto) ; ANABIS ('Avdfis, Tarrega) ; BACASIS (Bunnie, Maarua, the district round which is still called Bayes) ; TELOBIS (TnAofls, Marley-ell); Ascamus ('Aaqufiix, Sagan-a) ; Umma (06Boupa, erdoaa); LISSA or Lesa (Alma. near Manrm); SETELSIS (Zermei: fl Zeitnwis, Solsona); Cm“ (Kiwa, nmr Guiaoaa), perhaps the same place as the Sctssul of Livy (xxi. 60, where the M58. have Scissis, Stiseum, Sisa), and the CissA of


Polybins (iii. 76: coins, up. Sestini, pp. 132, 163; Nnm. Goth) [1). S.

IA'DERA ('Idbrpa, Ptol. iii. 16. § 10; 'lddapa, Niret. p. 348 ; ladem, Plin. iii. 26; luder, Pomp. Mela, ii. 3. § 13; Paul. Tab.; Geog. Ham; on the orthography of the name see Tzchucke, ad Melam, l. 0. vol. ii. pt. 2. p. 275 : Eth. ladertinus, Hirt~ B. A. 42: Zara), the capital of Liburnla in lllyricum. Under Augustus it was made a Roman colony. (“ Parens coloniae," Irma-r. np. Farlati, I llyr. Soon, vol. v. p. 31 comp. Ptol. l. c.) Afterwards it .bore the name of Dtonomt. and paid a tribute of 110 pieces of gold to the Eastern emperors (Const. Porph. dc Adm. Imp. 30), until it was handed over, in the reign of Basil the Macedonian, to the Slavonic princes. Zara, the modern capital of Dalmatia, and well known for the famous siege it stood against the combined French and Venetians, at the beginning of the Fourth Crusade (Gibbon, e. la. ; Wilken, die Kreuzz. vol. v. p. 167), stands upon the site of ladera. Little remains of the ancient city; the sea-gate called Porto di San Chryaogano is Roman, but it scents likely that it has been brought from Acnona. The gate is a single arch with a Corinthian pilaster at each side supporting an entablature.

Eckhel (Vol. ii. p. 152) doubts the evidence of any coins of ladera, though some have been attributed to it by other writers on numismatics. (Sir G. Wilkinson, Dalmatia and Montenegro, vol. i. p. 78; J. F. Neigebanr, Die Sudslaoen, pp. 181— 191.) ' [E. B. J.]

IADO'NI, a people in the extreme NW. of Hispania Tarraconeusis, mentioned only by l'liny, who places them next to the Arrotrebae. (l’lin. iv. 20. s. 34.) l’. S.]

IAETA orIETAECle'ral, Sleph. 15.: El)». ’le-rai‘or, Id.; but Diodorus has‘larrivor, and this is confirmed by coins, the legend of which is uniformly ’Itu-rtwmv, Eckhel, Vol. i. p. 2l6: in Latin, Cicero has Ietini, but Pliny letenscs), a town of the interior of Sicily, in the NW. of the island, not very far from Panormus. It was mentioned by Philistus (op. Steph. B. a. o.) as a fortress, and it is called by Thucydides also (if the reading 'Ie'rds be admitted, in vii. 2) a fortress of the Siculians ('rd‘xos 16v ZIKGMQV), which was taken by Gylippus on his march from Himera through the interior of the island towards Syracuse. It first appears as an independent- city in the time of Pyrrhus, and was attacked by that monarch on account of its strong position and the advantages it altered for operations against Panorrnus; but tlte inhabitants readily capitulated. (Diod. xxii. 10, p. 498.) In the First Punic War it was occupied by a Carthaginian garrison, but after the fall of Panormua drove out these troops and opened its gates to the Romans. (ld. xxiii. 18, p. 505.) Under the Roman goremment it appears as a municipal town, but not one of much importance. The Ietini are only noticed in passing by Cicero among the towns whose lands had been utterly ruined by the emotions of Verres; and the Ietenses are enumerated by Pliny among the “ popnli stipendiarii" of the interior of Sicily. (Cic. Verr. iii. 43: Phil. iii. 8. s. 14.) Many MSS. of Cicero rend Lelt'm‘, and it is probable that the Afi-rov of Ptolemy (iii. 4. § 15) is only a corruption of the same name.

The position of Taste. is very obscurely intimated, but it appears from Diodorus that it was not very remote from Panormus, and that its site was one of great natural strength. Silius Italieus also alludes to its elevated situation (“ celsus letas,” xiv. 2H).


Fazcllo assures us that there was a mediacval fortmss called Ialo on the summit of a lofty mountain, about l5 miles from Palermo, and 12 N. of Entclla, which was destroyed by Frederic 11. at the same time with the latter city; and this he supposes, probably enough, to be the site of laeta. He says the mountain was still called Monte dt' Into, though more commonly known as blunts 111' S. C01mano, from a church on its summit. (Fazell. x. p. 471; Amie. Lez. Top. Sic. vol. ii. p. 291.) The spot is not marked on any modem map, and does not appear to have .been visited by any recent travellers. The position thus assiz‘ned to Iaeta agrees well with the statements of Ditxlnrus, but is wholly irreconcilable with the Nimissifln of 'lcrds into the text of Thueydides (vii. 2): this reading, however, is a more conjecture (sec Arnold's note), and must probably be discarded as untenable. H. B.]

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JAEZER (‘lafr'zp, LXX. ; 'laf'l'lp and 'Aoofvp, ' Euscb.), a city of Gilead, assigned to the tribe of Gad by Moeu. ln Numbers (mii. l), “ the land of Jazer" is mentioned as contiguous to “ the land of Gilead, and suited to cattle." ltt Jeremiah (xlviii. 82), “ the sea of Jazer " occurs in some Versions, as in the English; but Roland (a. v. p. 825) justly remarks, that this is not certain, as the passage may be pointed alter the word “ sea," and “Jazer,” as a vocative, commence the following clause. But as “ the land of Jazer " is used for the country south of Gilead, so the Dead Sea may be designated “ the sea of Jazer." Eusebius (Onomau. l. v. ’Aodvp) places it 8 miles west of Philadelphia or Ammon; and elsewhere (no. 'lmofip), 10 miles west of Philadelphia, and 15 from Esbon (Heshbon). He adds, that a large river takes its rise there, which runs into the Jordan. In a situation nearly corresponding with this, between Szalt and Edna, Butvkltardt passed some ruins named Szyr, where a valley named Wady Szyr takes its rise and runs into the Jordan. This is doubtless the modem representative of the ancient Jazer. “ In two hours and a half (from Szalt) we passed, on our right, the WadySzyr, which has its source near the road, and falls into the Jordan. Above the wares, on the declivity of the valley, are the ruins called Szyr." (Syria, p. 364.) It is probably identical with the I‘onpos of Ptolemy which he reckons among the cities of Palestine on the east of the Jordan (v. 16). [G.

IA'LYSUS ('Ia'Jtt-tros, 'ta'Amroos, or 'Hmvo'oos: Eth. ’lam'mrms), one of the three ancient Doric cities in the island of Rhodes, and one of the six towns constituting the Doric hoxapolis. It was situated only six stadia to the south-West of the city of Rhodes, and it would seem that the rise of the latter city was the cause of the decay of Ialysus; for in the time of Strabo (xiv. p. 655) it existed only as a village. Pliny (v. 36) did not consider it as an independent place at all, but imagined that Ialysua was the ancient name of Rhodes. Orychoma, the citadel, was situated above lalysus, and still existed in_ the time of Strabo. it is supposed by some that

Orychoma was the same as the fort Achais, which is said to have been the first settlement of the Heliadue in the island (Diod. Sic. v. 57; Athen. viii. p. 360); at any rate, Achaia was situated in the territory of lalysus, which bore the name Ialysia. (Comp. Hom. ll. ii. 656; Find. 0!. vii. 106; Herod. ii. 182; Thucyd. viii. 44 ; l’tol. v. 2. § 34; Steph. B. s. 9.; Scylax, Peripl. p. 81; Dionys. l’erieg. 504; Or. Mel. vii. 365; i’onip. Mela, ii. 7.) The site of ancient. Ialysus is still occupied by a village bearing the name Ialiso, about which a few ancient remains are found. (Ross, Reisen auf den Griech. Jmeln, vol. iii. p. 98.) [L- S

lA.\llSSA. [Tiraursis]

IAMNA, lAblNO. [Bar.s.\ans, p. 374, it]

IAMXIA ('luévfis, LXX.; ’idama, ’ldpmrla 'Iepmad), a city of the Philistintm, assigned to the tribe of Judah in the LXX. of Joshua xv. 45 (Penn); but omitted in the Hebrew, which only mentions it in 2 Chron. xxvi. 6 (Jansen in the English version), as oneof the cities of the l’hilistines taken and destroyed by king Uzziah. It is celebrated by Philo Judneus as the place where the first occasion was given to the Jewish revolt under Caligula, and to his impious attempt to profane the temple at Jerusalem. His account is as follows:— In the city of Iamnia, one of the most populous of Judaea, a small Gcntilo population had established itself among the more numerous Jews, to whom they occasioned no little annoyance by the wanton violation of their cherished customs. An unprincipled goremment officer, named Capito, who had been sent to Palestine to collect the tribute, anxious to pro-occupy the emperor with accusations against the Jews before their well-grounded complaints of his boundless extortion could reach the capital, ordered an altar of mud to be raised in the town for the deification of the emperor. The Jews, as he had anticipated, indignant at the profanation of the Holy Land, assembled in a body, and demolished the altar. On licaring this, the emperor, incensed already at what had lately occurred in Egypt, resolved to resent this insult by the erection of an equestrian statue of himself in the Holy of Holies. (l’hilo, do Legal. ad Caium, 0p. vol. ii. p. 573.) With respect to its site, it is assigned by Josephus to that part of the tribe of Judah occupied by the children of Dan (Ant. v. 1. § 22); and he reckons it as an inland city. (Ant. xiv. 4. §4, B. J. i. 7. Thus, likewise. in the 1st book of Maccabees (x. 69, 71), it is spoken of as situate/.1 in the plain country; but the author of the 2nd book speaks of the harbour and fleet of the lnlnnites, which were fired by Judas Maccahaeus; when the light of tho conflagratiou was seen at Jerusalem, 240 stadiu distant. The apparent discrepancy may, however, be reconciled by the notices of the classical geographers, who make frequcnt mention of this town. Thus Pliny expressly says, “ Inmnes duae: altcra intus." and places them between Azotus and Joppa (v. 12); and Ptolemy, having mentioned ’Iuavnrdiv, “the port of the lamnites," as a maritime town between Joppa and Azotus, afterwards enumerates 1amnia among the cities ofJudaea. From all which it is evident that Iamnia had its Majuma, or naval arsenal, as Gaza, Azotus, and Ascalon also had. (Le Quien, Orien: Christ. vol. iii. col. 587, and 622.) The itinerary of Antoninus places it 36 MP. from Gaza, and 12 M. P. from Diospolis (or Lyddn); and Eusehius

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