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my grounds were ? I answered, That St. Paul's words concerning this cause were my grounds. His next demand, What author I did follow in expounding St. Paul, and gathering the doctrine out of his words, against the judgment (he saith) “ of all Churches and all good writers ?” I was well assured, that to control this over-reaching speech, the sentences which I might have cited out of Churchconfessions, together with the best learned monuments of former times, and not the meanest of our own, were mo [more] in number than perhaps he would willingly have heard of: but what had this booted me? For, although he himself in generality do much use those formal speeches, “ all Churches,” and “ all good writers,” yet as he holdeth it in the pulpit lawful to say in general, the Painims think this, or the Heathens that, but utterful unlawful to cite any sentence of theirs that say it; so he gave me at that time great cause to think, that my particular alleging of other men's words, to shew their agreement with mine, would as much have displeased his mind, as the thing itself for which it had been alleged: for he knoweth how often he hath in public place bitten me for this, although I did never in any Sermon use many of the sentences of other writers, and do make most without any; having always thought it meetest, neither to affect nor to contemn the use of them.
24. He is not ignorant, that in the very entrance to the talk which we had privately at that time, to prove it unlawful altogether in preaching, either for confirmation, declaration, or otherwise, to cite any thing but mere Canonical Scripture, he brought in, “ The Scripture is given [2 Tim. by inspiration, and is profitable to teach, improve, &c.” 17.) urging much the vigour of these two clauses, “ the man of God,” and “ every good work." If therefore the Work were good which he required at my hands, if privately to shew why I thought the doctrine I had delivered to be according to St. Paul's meaning, were a good work, can they which take the place before alleged for a Law, condemning every man of God, who in doing the work of preaching any way useth human authority, like it in me, if in the work of strength’ning that which I had preached, I should bring forth the testimonies and the sayings of mortal men? I alleged therefore that which might under no
pretence in the world be disallowed, namely, Reasons ; not meaning thereby my own reason as now it is reported, but true, sound, divine reason; reason whereby those conclusions might be out of St. Paul demonstrated, and not probably discoursed of only; reason, proper to that science whereby the things of God are known; theological reason, which out of principles in Scripture that are plain, soundly deduceth more doubtful inferences, in such sort, that being heard they cannot be denied, nor any thing repugnant unto them received; but whatsoever was before otherwise by miscollecting gathered out of dark places, is thereby forced to yield itself, and the true consonant meaning of sentences not understood is brought to light. This is the reason which I intended. If it were possible for me to escape the ferula in any thing I do or speak, I had undoubtedly escaped it in this.
In this I did that which by some is enjoined as the only allowable, but granted by all as the most sure and safe way, whereby to resolve things doubted of in matters appertaining to Faith and Christian Religion. So that Mr. Travers had here small cause given him to be weary of conferring, unless it were in other respects than that poor one which is here pretended, that is to say, the little hope he had of doing me any good by conference.
25. Yet behold his first reason of not complaining to the High Commission is, That sith I offended only through an over-charitable inclination, he conceived good hope, when I should see the Truth cleared, and some scruples which were in my mind removed by his diligence, I would yield.* But what experience soever he had of former conferences, how small soever his hope was that fruit would come of it, if he should have conferred, will any man judge this a cause sufficient, why to open his mouth in public, without any one word privately spoken? He might have considered that men do sometimes reap, where they sow but with small hope; he might have considered, that although unto me (whereof he was not certain neither), but if to me his labour should be as water spilt or poured into a torn dish, yet to him it could not be fruitless to do that which Order in Christian Churches, that which charity amongst
* (See sup. p. 348.]
Christian men, that which at many men's hands, even common humanity itself, at his, many other things besides, did require.
What fruit could there come of his open contradicting in so great haste, with so small advice, but such as must needs be unpleasant, and mingled with much acerbity ? Surely, he which will take upon him to defend, that in this there was no oversight, must beware, lest by such defences he leave an opinion dwelling in the minds of men, that he is more stiff to maintain what he hath done, than careful to do nothing but that which may justly be maintained.
26. Thus have I, as near as I could, seriously answered things of weight: with smaller I have dealt as I thought their quality did require. I take no joy in striving, I have not been nuzzled or trained up in it. I would to Christ they which have at this present enforced me hereunto, had so ruled their hands in any reasonable time, that I might never have been constrained to strike so much as in mine own defence. Wherefore to prosecute this long and tedious contention no further, I shall wish that your Grace, and their Honours (unto whose intelligence the dutiful regard which I have of their judgments maketh me desirous, that as accusations have been brought against me, so that this my Answer thereunto may likewise come), did both with the one and the other, as Constantine with books containing querelous matter. Whether this be convenient to be wisht or no, I cannot tell : but sith there can come nothing of contention, but the mutual waste of the parties contending, till a common enemy dance in the ashes of them both, I do wish heartily that the grave advice which Constantine gave for re-uniting of his Clergy so many times, upon so small occasions, in so lamentable sort divided; or rather the strict commandment of Christ unto his, that they should not be divided at all; may at the length, if it be his blessed will, prevail so far, at the least in this corner of the Christian world, to the burying and quite forgetting of strife, together with the causes which have either bred it, or brought it up: that things of small moment never disjoin them, whom one God, one Lord, one Faith, one Spirit, one Baptism, bands of so great force, have linked : that a respective eye towards things wherewith we should not be disquieted, make us not, as through infirmity the very Patriarchs themselves sometimes were, full gorged, unable to speak peaceably to their own brother : finally, that no strife may ever be heard of again, but this,—who shall hate strife most, who shall pursue peace and unity with swiftest
(Dr. WORDSWORTH, Eccl. Biog. edit. 1818, says at p. 205, “ Respecting the point on which he incurred the censure of Mr. Travers, Hooker did not hesitate to maintain the same distinction in his Eccles. Pol. Book V. Sect. 49.]
JUSTIFICATION, WORKS, AND HOW THE FOUNDATION OF
FAITH IS OVERTHROWN.*
“ The wicked doth compass about the righteous; therefore perverse judgment doth
proceed.” HABAK. i. 4.
1. For the better manifestation of the Prophet's meaning in this place, we are, first, to consider " the Wicked," of whom he saith, that they “compass about the righteous:" secondly, “the Righteous” that are compassed about by them: and thirdly, that which is inferred; “ Therefore perverse judgment proceedeth.” Touching the first, there are two kinds of wicked men, of whom in the fifth of the former to the Corinthians, the blessed Apostle speaketh thus, “ Do ye not 1.Cor. v.
12, 13. judge them that are within ? but God judgeth them that are without." There are wicked, therefore, whom the Church may judge, and there are wicked whom God only judgeth: wicked within, and wicked without, the walls of the Church. If within the Church, particular persons be apparently such,
[Printed at Oxford, 1612, 4to. “To the Christian Reader.—Whereas many, đesirous of resolution in some points handled in this Learned Discourse, were earnest to have it copied out; to ease so many labours, it hath been thought most worthy and very necessary to be printed; that not only they might be satisfied, but the whole Church also hereby edified. The rather, because it will free the Author from the suspicion of some errors, which he hath been thought to have favoured. Who might well have answered with Cremutius in Tacitus,
Verba mea arguuntur; adeo factorum innocens sum' (Annal. lib. iv.). Certainly the event of that time wherein he lived, shewed that to be true which the same Author spake of a worse, 'Cui deerat inimicus, per amicos oppressus;' and that there is not 'minus periculum ex magna fama, quam ex mala' (Hist. lib. i.). But he hath so quit himself, that all may see how, as it was said of Agricola, Simul suis virtutibus, simul vitiis aliorum, in ipsam gloriam præceps agebatur' (In Vita Agric.). Touching whom I will say no more, but that which my Author said of the same man, 'Integritatem, &c. in tanto viro referre, injuria virtutum fuerit.' But as of all other his writings, so of this I will add that which Velleius spake in commendation of Piso, 'Nemo fuit, qui magis quæ agenda erant curaret, sine ulla ostentatione agendi' (Lib. ii.). So not doubting, good Christian Reader, of thy assent herein, but wishing thy favourable acceptance of this work (which will be an inducement to set forth others of his learned labours), I take my leave, from Corpus Christi College in Oxford, the 6th of July, 1612.* Thine in Christ Jesus,
HENRY JACKSON.+] * (This date is not in the Edition of 1612.)
+ (See Vol. I. Dr. King's Letter.]