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upside down. In him unreasonable cecity and blindness trampled all Laws, both of God and Nature, under feet; wilfulness tyrannized over reason, and brutish sensuality over will: an evident token that his outrage would work his overthrow, and procure his speedy ruin. The mother whereof was that which the Prophet in these words signifieth, “ His mind doth swell.”

6. Immoderate swelling, a token of very eminent breach, and of inevitable destruction: Pride, a vice which cleaveth so fast unto the hearts of men, that if we were to strip ourselves of all faults one by one, we should undoubtedly find it the very last and hardest to put off. But I am not here to touch the secret itching humour of vanity, wherewith men

are generally touched. It was a thing meanly inordinate, wherewith the Babylonian did swell. Which that we may both the better conceive, and the more easily reap profit by, the Nature of this vice, which setteth the whole world out of course, and hath put so many, even of the wisest, besides themselves, is first of all to be inquired into: secondly, the Dangers to be discovered which it draweth inevitably after it, being not cured: and, last of all, the Ways to cure it.

7. Whether we look upon the gifts of Nature, or of Grace, or whatsoever is in the world admired as a part of man's excellency, adorning his body, beautifying his mind, or externally any way commending him in the account and opinion of men, there is in every kind somewhat possible which no man hath, and somewhat had which few men can attain unto. By occasion whereof, there groweth disparagement necessarily; and by occasion of disparagement, Pride through men's ignorance. First, therefore, although men be not proud of any thing which is not, at the least in opinion, good; yet every good thing they are not proud of, but only of that which neither is common unto many, and being desired of all, causeth them which have it to be honoured above the rest. Now there is no man so void of brain, as to suppose that Pride consisteth in the bare possession of such things; for then to have virtue were a vice, and they should be the happiest men who are most wretched, because they have least of that which they would have. And though in speech we do intimate a kind of yanity to be in them of whom we say, They are wise men,


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xxii. 25,

and they know it;" yet this doth not prove, that every wise man is proud which doth not think himself to be blockish. What we may have, and know that we have it without offence, do we then make offensive when we take joy and delight in having it? What difference between men enriched with all abundance of earthly and heavenly blessings, and idols gorgeously attired, but this, The one takes pleasure in that which they have, the other none? If we be possest with beauty, strength, riches, power, knowledge, if we may be privy what we are every way, if glad and joyful for our own welfare, and in all this remain unblameable; nevertheless, some there are, who, granting thus much, doubt whether it may stand with humility, to accept those testimonies of praise and commendation, those titles, rooms, and other honours, which the world yieldeth, as acknowledgments of

some men's excellency above others. For, inasmuch as (Luke Christ hath said unto those that are his, “ The Kings of

the Gentiles reign over them, and they that bear rule over them, are called gracious Lords; be ye not so;" the Anabaptist hereupon urgeth equality amongst Christians, as if all exercise of authority were nothing else but heathenish Pride. Our Lord and Saviour had no such meaning. But his Disciples feeding themselves with a vain imagination for the time, that the Messias of the world should in Jerusalem erect his throne, and exercise dominion with great pomp and outward stateliness, advanced in honour and terrene power above all the Princes of the earth, began to think how with their Lord's condition their own would also rise; that having left and forsaken all to follow him, their place about him should not be mean; and because they were many, it troubled them much, which of them should be the greatest man. When suit was made for two by name, that of them" one might sit at his right hand, and the other at his left,” the rest began to stomach, each taking it grievously that any should have what all did affect: their Lord and Master, to correct this humour, turneth aside their cogitations from these vain and fanciful conceits, giving them plainly to understand, that they did but deceive themselves; his coming was not to purchase an earthly, but to bestow an heavenly, Kingdom, wherein they (if any) shall be greatest, whom unfeigned humility maketh in this world lowest, and least amongst others: “ Ye are they which have


Matt. xx. 21 )

xxii. 28.


continued with me in my temptations, therefore I leave unto Luke you a Kingdom, as my Father hath appointed me, that ye 30. may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and sit on seats, and judge the twelve tribes of Israel.” But my Kingdom is no such Kingdom as ye dream of; and, therefore, these hungry ambitious contentions are seemlier in Heathens than in you. Wherefore, from Christ's intent and purpose, nothing is further removed than dislike of distinctions in titles and callings, annexed for order's sake unto Authority, whether it be Ecclesiastical or Civil. And when we have examined throughly what the nature of this vice is, no man knowing it can be so simple, as not to see an uglier shape thereof apparent many times in rejecting honours offered, than in the very exacting of them at the hands of men. For, as Judas his care for the poor was (Matt. mere covetousness; and that frank-hearted wastefulness 7-15.) spoken of in the Gospel, thrift; so, there is no doubt, but that going in rags may be Pride, and thrones be clothed with unfeigned humility.

8. We must go further, therefore, and enter somewhat deeper, before we can come to the closet wherein this poison lieth. There is in the heart of every proud man, first, an error of understanding; a vain opinion whereby he thinketh his own excellency, and by reason thereof his worthiness of estimation, regard, and honour, to be greater than in truth it is. This maketh him in all his affections accordingly to raise up himself; and by his inward affections his outward acts are fashioned. Which if you list to have exemplified, you may, either by calling to mind things spoken of them whom God himself hath in Scripture specially noted with this fault; or by presenting to your secret cogitations that which you daily behold in the odious lives and manners of high-minded men. It were too long to gather together so plentiful an harvest of examples in this kind as the sacred Scripture affordeth. That which we drink in at our ears doth not so piercingly enter, as that which the mind doth conceive by sight. Is there any thing written concerning the Assyrian Monarch, in the tenth of Isaiah, of his swelling mind, his haughty looks, his great and presumptuous vaunts; “ By the power of mine own (Isai:

x. 13.) hand I have done all things, and by mine own wisdom I have subdued the world ?" any thing, concerning the

(Isai. dames of Sion, in the third of the Prophet Isaiah, of their iii. 16.)

stretched-out necks, their immodest eyes, their pageant-like,

stately, and pompous gait? any thing, concerning the {Nam. practices of Corah, Dathan, and Abiram, of their impatience xvi.)

to live in subjection, their mutinies, repining at lawful Authority, their grudging against their Superiors, Ecclesiastical and Civil? any thing, concerning Pride in any sort of sect, which the present face of the world doth not, as in a glass, represent to the view of all men's beholding? So that if books, both profane and holy, were all lost, as long as the manners of men retain the state they are in; for him which observeth, how that when men have once conceived an over-weening of themselves, it maketh them in all their affections to swell; how deadly their hatred, how heavy their displeasure, how unappeasable their indignation and wrath is above other men's, in what manner they compose themselves to be as Heteroclites, without the compass of all such rules as the common sort are measured by; how the oaths which religious hearts do tremble at, they affect as principal graces of speech; what felicity they take to see the enormity of their crimes above the reach of Laws and punishments; how much it delighteth them when they are able to appal with the cloudiness of their look; how far they exceed the terms wherewith man's nature should be limited; how high they bear their heads over others; how they browbeat all men which do not receive their sentences as oracles, with marvellous applause and approbation; how they look upon no man, but with an indirect countenance, nor hear any thing, saving their own praise, with patience, nor speak without scornfulness and disdain ; how they use their servants, as if they were beasts, their inferiors as servants, their equals as inferiors, and as for superiors they acknowledge none; how they admire themselves as venerable, puissant, wise, circumspect, provident, every-way great, taking all men besides themselves for ciphers, poor, inglorious, silly creatures, needless burthens of the earth, off-scourings, nothing: in a word, for him which marketh how irregular and exorbitant they are in all things, it can be no hard thing hereby to gather, that Pride is nothing but an inordinate elation of the mind, proceeding from a false conceit of men's excellency in things honoured, which accordingly frameth also their deeds and behaviour, unless there be

vii, 16.]

cunning to conceal it; for a foul scar may be covered with a fair cloth; and as proud as Lucifer, may be in outward appearance, lowly.

No man expecteth grapes of thistles; nor from a thing (Matt. of so bad a nature, can other than suitable fruits be looked for. What harm soever in private families there groweth by disobedience of children, stubbornness of servants, untractableness in them, who, although they otherwise may rule, yet should in consideration of the imparity of their sex, be also subject; whatsoever, by strife amongst men combined in the fellowship of greater societies, by tyranny of Potentates, ambition of Nobles, rebellion of Subjects in Civil States; by heresies, schisms, divisions in the Church; naming Pride, we name the mother which brought them forth, and the only nurse that feedeth them. Give me the hearts of all men humbled, and what is there that can overthrow or disturb the peace of the world? wherein many things are the cause of much evil; but Pride of all.

9. To declaim of the swarms of evils issuing out of Pride, is an easy labour. I rather wish that I could exactly prescribe and persuade effectually the Remedies, whereby a sore so grievous might be cured, and the Means how the pride of swelling minds might be taken down. Whereunto so much we have already gained, that the evidence of the cause which breedeth it, pointeth directly unto the likeliest and fittest helps to take it away: diseases that come of fulness, emptiness must remove. Pride is not cured but by abating the error which causeth the mind to swell. Then seeing that they swell by misconceit of their own excellency; for this cause, all which tends to the beating down of their Pride, whether it be advertisement from men, or from God himself chastisement; it then maketh them cease to be proud, when it causeth them to see their error in overseeing the thing they were proud of. At this mark Job, in his apology unto his eloquent friends, aimeth. For perceiving how much they delighted to hear themselves talk, as if they had given their poor afflicted familiar a schooling of marvellous deep and rare instruction, as if they had taught him more than all the world besides could acquaint him with; his answer was to this effect; Ye swell as though ye had conceived some greater matter; but as for that which ye are delivered of, who knoweth it not? Is any man ignorant

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