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that behalf, recorded by the holy Evangelists, be the only ground and foundation whereupon the practice of the Church must sustain itself; yet, as all multitudes, once grown to the form of societies, are even thereby naturally warranted to enforce upon their own subjects particularly those things which public wisdom shall judge expedient for the common good; so it were absurd to imagine the Church itself, the most glorious amongst them, abridged of this liberty, or to think that no Law, Constitution, or Canon can be further made either for limitation or amplification in the practice of our Saviour's Ordinances, whatsoever occasion be offered through variety of times and things, during the state of this inconstant world, which bringeth forth daily such new evils as must of necessity by new remedies be redrest; did both of old enforce our venerable Predecessor*, and will always constrain others, sometime to make, sometime to abrogate, sometime to augment, and again to abridge sometime; in sum, often to vary, alter, and change customs incident into the manner of exercising that Power which doth itself continue always one and the same: I therefore conclude, That Spiritual Authority is a Power which Christ hath given to be used over them which are subject unto it for the eternal good of their souls, according to his own most sacred Laws and the wholesome positive Constitutions of his Church.

In Doctrine referred unto action and practice, as this is which concerns Spiritual Jurisdiction, the first sound and perfect understanding is the knowledge of the end, because thereby both use doth frame, and contemplation judge, all things.

3. Seeing that the chiefest cause of Spiritual Jurisdiction of Peniis to provide for the health and safety of men's souls, by the bringing them to see and repent their grievous offences end procommitted against God, as also to reform all injuries offered by Spiwith the breach of Christian love and charity toward their Jurisdicbrethren in matters of Ecclesiastical cognizance; the use of Two this Power shall by so much the plainlier appear, if first the of Peninature of Repentance itself be known.

We are by Repentance to appease whom we offend by duty tosin. For which cause, whereas all sin deprives us of the God, the favour of Almighty God, our way of reconciliation with him duty of is the inward secret Repentance of the heart; which inward per



tency; the one a

* [Abp. Whitgift, Hooker's “ predecessor" in this controversy.]

of ex



ance, from which

part of

that duty.

Repentance alone sufficeth, unless some special thing, in the pline. Of the quality of sin committed, or in the party that hath done Repent- amiss, require more. For besides our submission in God's

sight, Repentance must not only proceed to the private conthe for- tentation of men, if the sin be a crime injurious; but also proceed farther, where the wholesome Discipline of God's Church of Con- exacteth a more exemplary and open satisfaction.* Now the first the Church being satisfied with outward Repentance, as

God is with inward, it shall not be amiss for more perspicuity, to term this latter always the Virtue, the former the Discipline of Repentance; which Discipline, hath two sorts of Penitents to work upon, inasmuch as it hath been accustomed to lay the offices of Repentance on sonje seeking, others shunning them; on some at their own voluntary request, on others altogether against their wills, as shall hereafter appear by store of ancient examples. Repentance being, therefore, either in the sight of God alone, or else with the notice also of men; without the one, sometime throughly performed, but always practised more or less in our daily devotions and prayers, we have no remedy for any fault; whereas the other is only required in sins of a certain degree and quality: the one necessary for ever, the other so far forth as the Laws and Orders of God's Church shall make it requisite. The nature, parts, and effects of the one always the same; the other limited, extended, varied by infinite occasions.

The Virtue of Repentance in the heart of man is God's handy-work, a fruit or effect of divine grace, which grace continually offereth itself even unto them that have forsaken

it, as may appear by the words of Christ in St. John's (Rev.

Revelation, “I stand at the door and knock:” nor doth he iii. 20.) only knock without, but also within assist to open, whereby

access and entrance is given to the heavenly presence of that saving power, which maketh man a repaired temple for God's good Spirit again to inhabit. And albeit the whole train of virtues which are implied in the name of Grace be infused at one instant; yet because, when they meet and

concur unto any effect in man, they have their distinct Poenitentiæ secundæ, et unius, quanto in actu negotium est, tanto potior probatio est, ut non sola conscientia proferatur, sed aliquo etiam actu administretur. Second Penitency, following that before Baptism, and being not more than once admitted in one man, requireth by so much the greater labour to make it manifest, for that it is not a work which can come again in trial, but must be therefore with some open solemnity executed, and not left to be discharged with the privity of conscience alone." "Tertull. de Poenit.

operations rising orderly one from another, it is no unnecessary thing that we note the way or method of the Holy Ghost in framing man's sinful heart to Repentance. A work, the first foundation whereof is laid by opening and illuminating the eye of Faith, because by Faith are discovered the principles of this action, whereunto unless the understanding do first assent, there can follow in the will towards Penitency no inclination at all. Contrariwise, the resurrection of the dead, the judgment of the world to come, and the endless misery of sinners, being apprehended, this worketh Fear; such as theirs was who, feeling their own distress and perplexity in that passion, besought our Lord's Apostles earnestly to give (Acts

xvi. 30.) them counsel what they should do. For fear is impotent and unable to advise itself; yet this good it hath, that men are thereby made desirous to prevent, if possibly they may, whatsoever evil they dread. The first thing that wrought the Ninevites' Repentance, was fear of destruction within forty days: signs and miraculous works of God, being extraordinary representations of divine power, are commonly wont to stir any the most wicked with terror, lest the same power should bend itself against them. And because tractable minds, though guilty of much sin, are hereby moved to forsake those evil ways which make his power in such sort their astonishment and fear, therefore our Saviour denounced (Matt.

xi. 21.] his curse against Chorazin and Bethsaida, saying, that, if Tyre and Sidon had seen that which they did, those signs which prevailed little with the one would have brought the others to Repentance: as the like thereunto did in the men given to curious arts, of whom the Apostolic History saith, that “ fear came upon them, and many which had followed (Acts vain sciences, burnt openly the very books out of which 19.1 they had learned the same. As fear of contumely and disgrace amongst men, together with other civil punishments, are a bridle to restrain from any heinous acts whereinto men's outrage would otherwise break; so the fear of divine revenge and punishment, where it taketh place, doth make men desirous to be rid likewise from that inward guiltiness of sin wherein they would else securely continue. Howbeit, when Faith hath wrought a fear of the event of sin, yet Repentance hereupon ensueth not, unless our belief conceive both the possibility and means to avert evil: the possibility, inasmuch as God is merciful and most willing to have sin

xix. 17,


ii. 4.]

cured; the means, because he hath plainly taught what is requisite and shall suffice unto that purpose. The nature of all wicked men is, for fear of revenge to hate whom they most wrong; the nature of hatred, to wish that destroyed which it cannot brook; and from hence arise the furious endeavours of godless and obdurate sinners to extinguish in themselves the opinion of God, because they would not have him to be, whom execution of endless wo doth not suffer them to love. Every sin against God abateth, and continuance in sin extinguisheth, our love towards him. It was therefore said to the Angel of Ephesus having sinned, “ Thou art fallen away from thy first love;" so that, as we never decay in love till we sin, in like sort neither can we possibly forsake sin, unless we first begin again to love. What is love towards God, but a desire of union with God? And shall we imagine a sinner converting himself to God, in whom there is no desire of union with God presupposed ? I therefore conclude, That Fear worketh no man's inclination to Repentance, till somewhat else have wrought in us Love also. Our love and desire of union with God ariseth from the strong conceit which we have of his admirable goodness : the goodness of God which particularly moveth unto Repentance is, his mercy towards mankind, notwithstanding sin: for, let it once sink deeply into the mind of man, that howsoever we have injured God, his very nature is averse from revenge, except unto sin we add obstinacy, otherwise always ready to accept our submission as a full discharge or recompence for all wrongs; and can we choose but begin to love him whom we have offended ? or can we but begin to grieve that we have offended him whom we love? Repentance considereth sin as a breach of the Law of God, an act obnoxious to that revenge, which notwithstanding may be prevented if we pacify God in time.

The root and beginning of Penitency, therefore, is the consideration of our own sin, as a cause which hath procured the wrath, and a subject which doth need the mercy, of God.

For unto man's understanding there being presented, on the (Rom.

one side, “ tribulation and anguish upon every soul that (Ver. 7.)

doth evil;” on the other, “eternal life unto them which by

continuance in well-doing seek glory, and honour, and im(Eph. mortality:" on the one hand, a curse to the children of Ver.o.) disobedience; on the other, to lovers of righteousness all

ii. 9.]

grace and benediction: yet between these extremes that eternal God, from whose unspotted justice and undeserved mercy the lot of each inheritance proceedeth, is so inclinable (Com.

i. 12.) rather to shew compassion than to take revenge, that all his speeches in Holy Scripture are almost nothing else but entreaties of men to prevent destruction by amendment of their wicked lives; all the works of his providence little other than mere allurements of the just to continue stedfast, and of the unrighteous to change their course; all his dealings and proceedings towards true converts, (such] as have even filled the grave writings of holy men with these and the like most sweet sentences: Repentance (if I may so speak) stop- Cassian. peth God in his way, when being provoked by crimes past c. 4. he cometh to revenge them with most just punishments; yea, it tieth as it were the hands of the avenger, and doth not suffer him to have his will. Again, The merciful eye of God towards men hath no power to withstand Penitency, at what time soever it comes in presence.* And again, God doth not take it so in evil part, though we wound that which he hath required us to keep whole, as that after we have taken hurt there should be in us no desire to receive his help. Finally, lest I be carried too far in so large a sea, There was never any man condemned of God but for neglect, nor justified except he had care, of Repentance. From these considerations, setting before our eyes our inexcusable both unthankfulness in disobeying so merciful, foolishness in provoking so powerful, a God, there ariseth necessarily a pensive and corrosive desire that we had done otherwise; a desire which suffereth us to foreslow no time, to feel no quietness within ourselves, to take neither sleep nor food with contentment, never to give over supplications, confessions, and other penitent duties, till the light of God's reconciled favour shine in our darkened soul.

Fulgentius asking the question, Why David's confession Fulg. de should be held for effectual Penitence, and not Saul's? an- Peccat. swereth, “ That the one hated sin, the other feared only cap. 16. punishment in this world: Saul's acknowledgment of sin was fear; David's, both fear and also love." This was the fountain of Peter's tears, this the life and spirit of David's

* Basil. Epist. Seleuc. p. 106. φιλάνθρωπον βλέμμα προσιούσαν αιδείται μετάνοιαν. Chry. in 1 Cor. Ηom. viii. Ου το τρωθήναι ούτω δεινόν, ώς το τρωθέντα μή βούλεσθαι θεραπεύεσθαι. Μarc. Erem. [de Penit.] Ουδείς κατεκρίθη, ει μή μετανοίας κατεφρόνησε, και ουδείς εδικαιώθη, ει μή ταύτης επεμελήσατο.

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