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collected should be entirely lost; as he feels himself culpable for putting off this business to so advanced a period of life, as to leave him but small hopes of accomplishing his intentions.'

In the year 1825 appeared another volume, written by Ethan Smith, Pastor of a Church in Poultney, 2nd Edn. entitled, View of the Hebrews or the Tribes of Israel in America. The great objection to these works, and especially the last, is their lengthyness, the profusion of matter which they contain, frequent repetitions, much of it foreign to the subject, and the disposition shewn to intermis religious views and party zeal, which cannot but be offensive many

readers. The object of the present work is to extract from these and from other sources, as well as from the incidental remarks of our historians, Josephus, Prideaux, Gibbon, Robertson and others, such materials as bear directly upon the point in question, and to arrange them in a clear and concise manner, so as to give a short but conspicuous view of the subject. This has been found by no means an easy task, and may no doubt be improved if another edition should be called for; the materials of a work not being seen in a clear light until they have appeared in a connected form. The Author esteems himself particularly happy in having obtained a sight of a little Hebrew volume, the contents of which are given in the tenth Chapter. They furnish a most satisfactory support and form a valuable conclusion to the materials offered before them.

One of the most respectable authorities, for the manners and customs of this people since the time that they have

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hecome the object of attention to the moderns, is Mr. Adair's, who wrote a History of the Indians about the year 1775. He appears to have paid much attention to them, lived forty years domesticated with the Southern Indians, was a man of great respectability and learning, and left the States soon after he had prepared his manuscript, and escaped to England, on account of the troubles then coming on. This work was afterwards examined by a member of the Congress, who had acted as Indian Agent to the Southward, without his knowing the design of enquiring his opinion of it, and by him found to be correct in all its leading facts. Of this Mr. Boudinot made much

use.

Charlevoix was a Clergyman of high respectability, who spent many years with them and travelled from Canada to the Mississippi at an early day. The Rev. Mr. Brainerd was a man of remarkable piety, and a Missionary to the Crosweek Indians to his death. Dr. Edwards was eminent for piety and learning and was intimately acquainted with them from his youth. Dr. Beatty, a Clergyman of note and established character. Bartram a man well known and respected, who travelled the country of the Southern Indians as a Botanist, a man of discernment and great means of knowledge: and M'Kenzie in the employment of the North-West company, an old trader, the first adventurous explorer of the country from the lake of the woods to the Southern Ocean.

It has been thought desirable to give in the first place a general outline of the character of the aborigines of America; which, to form a just opinion of them, should

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be taken from what was said or written about them by those persons who were acquainted with them in their original and pure state, before their alliance with Europeans induced new desires and new habits; and, from being the free unlicensed rangers in the vast woods and exten-, sive Savannahs of the new world, they became persecuted and hunted hordes scattered by the pursuits of their invaders, or submitting with an abject and servile spirit to their laws, yielding to the bribery of intoxicating liquors, before unknown among them, and sacrificing each other to the lust and the vengeance of Europeans. The modern character of these wretched people has been indeed widely different from what it was when Columbus first sought their friendship, when Penn forned with them a just and friendly alliance, and when the persecuted and distressed Independents fled from the tyranny of a British Monarch, to seek liberty of conscience and the consolations of religion among a people, who, it will be my business to shew, had themselves fled from a tyrant's grasp, and, in a wide uncultivated, but rich and abundant country, of which they had gained intelligence, hoped to escape the pollutions of an idolatrous people, and worship their God in peace. The first in point of time of these objects, was fully obtained. No tyrant's law could restrain the wandering tribes in a country without inhabitants, capable of supporting hundreds of millions of people. But this very

circumstance, of the wide range they were at liherty to take, was the cause of their being soon very widely scattered, as the tribes grew large and their families thickened, and of their losing that character of one people which marked them in the land of their captivity. Subject in their new abode to none but a patriarchal law, numerous circumstances would arise, many coincidences would take place, to give different characteristic features to the tribes and kingdoms which were formed among them; religious views and feelings would vary according as leaders of different minds rose up among thein; and it may well be imagined, that while many customs of former times would remain to shew the relationship between them, some practices and some opinions would particularize their societies ; so that after a lapse of some hulldred years, they may be thought to have arisen from different heads. If I am correct in the point I have to establish, what more probable, than that the larger proportion of these rambling tribes would hold the belief in One God, whom they might with a striking truth and beauty call, The Great Spirit: while one body of thein, retaining the Idolatrous impressions of their Assyrian master, would in the spirit of fear offer sacrifice to a Molock, the evil being, whom they had learned to regard as the Author of Evil and the power that had contaminated the beautiful creation and scattered curses over it: whom they must propitiate and such were the Mexicans—and another body of them, entertaining more delightful views of the world and the author of it, would adopt the system of the ancient Magians; and, regarding light and fire as the image of God, and the symbols both of his purity and his beneficence, would adopt the bright luminary of day as their Emblem of the Almighty; believing with those ancient Sages, thrat the Sun was the place of his abode, the body which his

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soul animated, and the great centre from which he scattered the rays of his love upon all the creatures of his formation--and such were the Peruvians: whose Incas were the Children of the Sun: the first of them, they had been taught to believe, had descended upon earth, a special gift of their God, whose person and all whose race were sacred, and received from them a subordinate worship. The three great classes of the aboriginal Americans, first and best known among them, bore these great and substantial marks of a Hebrew and an Assyrian origin. By these marks their forefathers in the land of Canaan had been distinctly known: for their leanings towards Idolatry and some especial features of it, which I shall have occasion to point out, are too plainly described in the scripture history to leave us in any doubt; while they still professed, in a defective manner, their belief in the One True God: and probably their residence in Media of some continuance, and how long we are not able with certainty to say, little tended to lessen the disposition they had always manifested to Idolatry, with its hateful and iniquitous customs. The Jews had never sunk so deep in that iniquity which the holy soul of Jehovah abhorred, that they could not be recovered: they were so to a great degree by their captivity in Babylon. But of the tribes of Israel we have never heard so good a character. Although the hands of their forefathers were not stained with the blood of him whom we, Christians, receive as the Messiah of God,---for they were removed to a great distance from the scene of his ministry, and did not fall under the temptation of thus striving against God,--their habits were so deeply rooted,

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