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442

GERMANY; VARIOUS PARTICULARS.

young men, and little children, and he wrote an entire epistle to an elect lady; but none to the Pope, the cardinals, or the sacrificing priesthood, who claim such superhuman powers. And now, in conclusion, I must bid your Reverence farewell. It is a little more than seven years since I had the pleasure of meeting you in Rome. I mentioned, at the time, that I did not much like your sermon; but I said then, and I say now, it was as good as could be expected from you.

Bonn, August 19th, 1853.

Farewell,

W. G.

XVI.-GERMANY; PECULIARITIES; VARIOUS

PARTICULARS.

An Evening Party.-The Germans are very social, and their friendships are deep and lasting; they kiss when they meet and part, like the Arabs, though their kiss is not threefold, on the forehead and each cheek, like that of the sons of the desert. It strikes me there is something barbarous in men kissing each other, especially when they have long beards. I have done it about half-a-dozen times in my life, and on each occasion I felt my flesh creep strangely. The German suppers are superb. The Scottish breakfast, the English dinner, and the German supper, if brought together, would surpass the imperial requirements of Vitellius. A German supper lasts three or four hours, has ten or twelve courses, and drinking, eating, and talking go on the whole time. The wines are light and healthful, and drunkenness nearly unknown.

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Pastor W.-There is just now come to Germany from England, a deputation to persuade us to adopt their religious liberties. I was formerly a favourer of these principles, but now I am cured; I prefer our present state to the English sects. We cannot have perfect liberty and an Established Church. The sects have cured me.

Mr. Graham.-I too am against the sects, and I detest the spirit of sectarianism; I am a member of three national churches, and defend the principle of establishments. I know the sects in Germany to which you refer, and, while I would oppose them, I would not persecute them. Mr. Oncken and the Baptists are bigoted, narrow-minded people, and on the subject of baptism they are nearly mad. Their principles of church-communion are false. They shut out from their communion the children of God, and the Lutheran receives the children of the devil. I can hardly say which practice is the worse. But why so angry with these people? They are Christians-they hold the fundamentals fast-they seek to conform their lives to the gospel. Oncken is nearly the only man in Germany I have found who has right views of the Word of God. I challenge you to name me four professors in Germany who admit the verbal inspiration of the Scriptures. Mr. Oncken has done more for the truth in Germany than any other man living. But, you say, he does not baptise children, and he separates from the state church! Admitted that these are errors-great errors-let me ask you to look at our own Established Church of Prussia; have we no errors there? Look at our professors in Bonn. One strenuously advocates the Apocrypha; Ritchel is a high Arian, in so far as he has any definite opinions at all; Rothe is sui generis, a true kind of Melchisedeck, without predecessor or successor -a very pious man, who believes as follows:-The whole doctrine of the Holy Trinity is a fiction; Paul never teaches

444

GERMANY; VARIOUS PARTICULARS.

the pre-existence of Christ; Jesus Christ is truly God because the true God dwells in Him; the Spirit of God is God himself; the Scriptures are of Divine authority, yet they contain many errors, and of various kinds. Sir, there are more errors in your own university than would make ten English sects. There is not one sect in England would admit Rothe to the Lord's Table, if we except, perhaps, the Unitarians; yet, with all this staring you in the face, you speak against the Baptists!

Dr. Kortis.-The pastors should be bound to a creed, the professors should be free; they must treat the subject of theology in a scientific manner. Would you banish literature out of the church ?-then we return to cloisters and convents of the middle ages. We have no pope to bind us together, and in the universities opinion should be free. The English universities are absolutely different from ours: the church rules them, the state rules ours; and to change ours now is plainly impossible, even if it were desirable, for the free spirit of the people would be entirely opposed to it.

Houses.-A German house is very like an English one. The rooms are more ornamented and glittering than ours, but they are not more comfortable. The English eye misses especially fireplaces and carpets; the first is supplanted by the stove, and the second forbidden by the fleas. In all other respects they are nearly alike. The gentlemen bow very formally, and the ladies never shake hands with gentlemen. The housewife visits the kitchen much more than in England, and in the general economy and business of the house and the family there is much less stiffness than in England. In England we are politically freer than other nations, but we are socially more custom-bound than any other people. The

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slave in Damascus has much more social liberty than a gentleman's servant in England.

Fields. Here there are no fields. In this respect Germany is like the East; and the Rhine and the Jordan flow into each other. The hedgerows of England are wanting, and the fine domestic cattle browsing there. Here you never see the face of cow-kind, save in the plough or on the dinner-table! This is a great want in the general aspect of the country. We want to see fields, and herds of cattle browsing, and plenty of pigs and sheep; but we find them not, and we hear them not. All nature has a still, dead, tranquil appearance. It is not the land of motion, progress, life. I believe the donkey does not move his ears so often here as in England!

Bonn, August 20th, 1853.

446

THE JEWS; STUMBLING.BLOCKS.

1

SEPTEMBER.

I. The Jews; Stumbling-blocks. II. God is near! III. A Peep into a German Meeting. IV. Faith and Opinions. V. The Countess of Wieland -The Blessings of the Bible. VI. What are the Characteristics of the Age? Politically: 1. The Yielding of Old Principles; 2. Democracy; 3. The Turkish Empire; 4. Gog and Magog; 5. The Three Leavens; 6. The Reconstructed Image. Ecclesiastically we have: 1. The Missionary Spirit; 2. The Two Poles or Parties; 3. The Papal Aggression; 4. The Study of Prophecy. VII. 'Enтà пνενμáтα, Seven Spirits, VIII. 'Ayáπη тоũ Пvεúμaros, the Love of the Spirit. IX. An Oriental Scene; the Blessings of Polygamy. X. Karánavois, the Rest. XI. The Hebrew Language. XII. The Dignity of Human Nature.

I. THE JEWS; STUMBLING-BLOCKS.

"Do you know," said Mr. He-ld, "what I heard since I last saw you? I was talking about the Messiah and the nature of His kingdom, when Captain G― gave me some new ideas. He is a learned man, has read much, and can stand over what he says. Now the matter is this. The Essenes were a powerful sect among the ancient Jews, and Jesus was intimately connected with them. He was in fact their teacher and head, and by their means he spread His doctrines in the nation. He was, nevertheless, suspected by the rulers, condemned to death, and nailed upon the cross. He did not die, however. His friends were at hand to take

Him from the cross, and remove Him for a time into some safe retreat, till the weakness and swoon were over.

He

continued among his Essene brethren secretly for fear of the

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