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1005

THEODOSIUS I., FLAVIUS.

THEOGNIS.

1000

who had no hold on the affections of the people, was dragged forth rius had been raised to the rank of Augustus, and the father had from his palace into the hands of the conqueror, who gave him up as shortly before his death given to Honorius the empire of the West, a victim to the rage of the soldiers. Victor, the son of Maximus, was while Arcadius was to occupy the throne of the East. The Roman killed in Gaul by the hand or at the command of Arbogastes, the empire henceforth remained divided into the Western and the Eastern Frank, who made himself master of Gaul (A.D. 388).

empire. After having thus easily and quickly terminated a war which had (S. Aurelius Victor, Epitome, c, 48; Orosius, vii, 34, 35; Sozomen, threatened the empire with long and serious calamities, Theodosius vii. 2; Paulus Diacon., ii.; Compare Gibbon, Hist. of the Decline and stayed for three years io Italy to regulate the state of the western Fall, c. 26, 27, and 28.) provinces, and it was in this period that he showed his great and THEODO'SIUS II., or the Younger, was the son of Arcadius, and auniable character in the most brilliant light. He not only spared the grandson of Theodosius the Great. He was born on the 10th of lives of the friends and relatives of Maximus, but afforded them every April, A.D. 401. His father died in A.D. 408 at Constantinople, and left support in their misfortunes, while, on the other hand, he restored to his son, then a child seven years old, at the head of the Eastern empire. the oppressed people of the west their lands, and gave them com. There is a statement that Arcadius in his will made Jezdegerd, king pensation in money for the losses they had sustained. In the year 389 of Persia, the guardian of his son and regent of the empire during his he entered Rome in triumph, together with his son Honorius and minority. (Jornandes 'De Bell. Pers.,' 1. 2.). This isolated account Valentinian.

however scarcely deserves credit, and it is a fact that Anthemius, the During the period of his stay in Italy an insurrection broke out at præfectus prætorio, from the very first assumed the government of the Antioch, in which the people demanded redress of several grievances, Eastern empire in the name of the young prince, and carried it on in especially a diminution of their heavy taxes. When these demands a praiseworthy manner down to the year A.D. 414, when he voluntarily were haughtily refused by the imperial officers, the populace destroyed resigned it to Pulcheria, the sister of Theodosius, who was only two the statues of Theodosius, his wife Flacilla, and of his sons Arcadius years older than her brother, and had shortly before received the title and Honorius. The insurrection however was soon put down, and of Augusta. This woman continued to exercise the sovereignty in the when Theodosius was informed of the occurrences, he sept Hellebricus name of her brother, not only after he had grown up to manhood and and Cæsarius to inflict the most severe punishment upon the city. down to his death, but even three years later, until she herself died. But when messengers came soliciting a milder treatment, and assuring During the early part of Theodosius's life Pulcheria herself conducted the emperor that the people sincerely repented of their crime, he and superintended his education; but the prince seemed to possess granted them a general pardon. But this generous act was followed no ambition, and not to aspire to the glory of a monarch: he passed his by another which was as rash as it was cruel. In 390 another in whole life in a perpetual infancy, surrounded by women and eunuchs, surrection broke out at Thessalonica, in which Botheric, the com- and he idled away his time in hunting, painting, carving, and making mander of the garrison, and several other officers, were cruelly mur- elegant transcripts of sacred books. The whole government was dered by the people, because they refused to give up a handsome carried on in his name; but whether its acts deserve praise or blame, boy to the unnatural lust of some dissolute favourite of the people. he can have no share in either, as he blindly acquiesced in all that his Theodosius was at first uncertain whether he should take vengeance sister did. She also persuaded him, in A.D. 421, to marry Eudocia upon the city or exercise clemency as he had done towards Antioch. (before her baptism her name was Athenais), the daughter of Leontius, Rufinus induced him to do the former, and commissioners were ac an Athenian sophist. This woman, who was no less distinguished cordingly sent to punish the criminal inhabitants. Theodosius however for her beauty than for intellectual powers, soon gave birth to a soon regretted his step, and countermanded his orders; but it was daughter, Eudoxia, after which she was raised to the rank of Augusta. too late : a general and indiscriminate massacre took place in the She lived with her husband till the year A.D. 444, when, after having devoted city, in which no less than 7000 lives were sacrificed to the drawn upon herself suspicion of some improper conduct, she was manes of Botheric. When Ambrose, the archbishop of Milan, was obliged to quit the court, and withdrew to Jerusalem. informed of this cruel massacre, he was seized with indignation and In A.D. 421 a war broke out with Varanes, king of Persia, which was grief; and eight months later, when the emperor, on Christmas-day, successfully concluded by Ardaburius, a general of Theodosius, and a wanted to attend the service in the great church of Milan, he was peace was concluded for a hundred years, which lasted at least for stopped in the porch by Ambrose, and was not admitted until he had thirty. With this exception the long reign of Theodosius was one of promised to do public penance for this monstrous cruelty. MBROSIUS, almost undisturbed peace. It was only during the last years of his ST.] It was not till after the lapse of eight months from that day that life that the European parts of the empire were harassed by Attila the emperor, who had performed all the acts of public penance which and his Huns. [ATTILA.] The Asiatic provinces, by far the most the archbishop had imposed upon him, was restored to the communion extensive, continued to enjoy a profound and permanent repose. of the faithful. An edict was at the same time issued that no capital Theodosius died on the 28th July, A. D. 450. punishment should henceforth be inflicted on any one till thirty days (Paulus Diacon., iv.; Socrates, Histor. Eccles., vii

. 1, &c. Compare after it had been pronounced. During his stay in Italy Theodosius Gibbon, History of the Decline and Fall, c. 32, 33, 34.) acted as a kind of guardian of the young emperor Valentinian, whom The reign of Theodosius II. is memorable in the history of juris. he might have deprived of his empire with the greatest facility and prudence through the collection of laws that was made in it, and bears perfect impunity if he had been less magnanimous. When he left the name of Codex Theodosianus. This code was completed and proItaly for Constantinople in 391, he left Valentinian in the apparently mulgated as law in the Eastern empire in the year 438. secure possession of the western part of the empire. It was one of THEODOʻSIUS III., surnamed Adramytenus, emperor of Conthe characteristic features of Theodosius to carry into effect his great stantinople. He succeeded Anastasius II. in the year a.d. 715, being plans with the utmost vigour and energy, but when the object was proclaimed emperor in the fleet of his predecessor near Adramyttium attained he sank into a state of indolence, and gave himself up to the in Troas. He was a man of obscure birth, and accepted the throne enjoyment of pleasures which, although harmless in themselves, in with reluctance. He is praised for his unblemished conduct, and for many cases prevented bim from deriving all the advantages from his the protection he afforded to the orthodox faith. He had not enjoyed successful undertakings that he might have done. This was also his elevation much more than one year, when Leo III., a man of the case after his return to Constantinople. The most important superior abilities, was proclaimed emperor. Theodosius willingly occurrence in the year of his arrival there was the final and total withdrew, and spent the remainder of his life, together with his sons, abolition of paganism throughout the Roman empire. In the following in a monastery. (Theophanes, Chronographia ; Georgius Cedrenus, year (392) Valentinian was murdered at Vienna, in Gaul, by Arbo-Compendium Historiarum ; Zonaras.) gastes, who raised Eugenius, a rhetorician, to the imperial throne, in THEODOPTION, of Ephesus, the author of a Greek version of the whose name he himself boped to wield the sceptre. Theodosius, who Old Testament, was an Ebionite, and lived in the former part of the had allowed himself to be deceived by the professed faithfulness of 2nd century after Christ. He is quoted by Justin Martyr, in his Arbogastes, was deeply moved when he heard of the fate of his dialogue with Tryphon (A.D. 160), and by Irenæus (A.D.) 177. His brother-in-law and of the elevation of Eugenius. But he was at that version appears to have been undertaken for the purpose of furnishing moment not prepared for a civil war, and the ambassadors of Eugenius the Ebionites with a more exact translation of the Hebrew text than were consequently received with apparent favour, and dismissed in a that of the Septuagint, and one therefore which would render them friendly

manner. Preparations for war however, which lasted for more service than the Septuagint in their disputes with the Jews. It almost two years, were immediately commenced, and Stilicho and agrees almost exactly with the Septuagint, except that it supplies the Timasius were charged with recruiting and disciplining the forces. In deficiencies of that version, and omits those parts of it which are not the spring of the year 394 Theodosius set out from Constantinople in the Hebrew text. Theodotion had not a competent knowledge of against Eugenius. The armies met in Pannonia, and, after a long and Hebrew. He has retained certain Hebrew words which appear to dubious contest, Eugenius was defeated on the banks of the Cold have been in use among the Ebionites. Theodotion's version of River, near Aquileia. Eugenius was put to death, and Arbogastes in Daniel was substituted by the ancient church for the Septuagint despair put an end to his own life. Theodosius was now sole emperor version of that book. This version occupied one column of Origen's of the Roman world, and was cheerfully acknowledged by all the 'Hexapla. [ORIGENES.] provinces, even by those who had recently paid homage to Eugenius. THÉOGNIS, an elegiac poet of Megara, the capital of the small The empire might now look forward to a period of peace and happi- state of Megaris, was living at the close of the 6th century B.C.; and it ness under the administration of Theodosius. But he was suffering appears from bis own writings that he lived to the date of the battl from dropsy, and his health was rapidly declining. He died on the of Salamis

, B.C. 480. In one of those revolutions which frequently 17th of January, 395, at Milan, whence his body was conveyed to occurred in the small Grecian states, the democratic body at Megara Constantinople and buried there. His two sons Arcadius and Hono. I overpowered the aristocratic, to which Theognis belonged. Theognis

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THEON.

THEOPHANES.

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who was then absent from his country, lost his landed property in works have been mentioned written by some Theon (there are many of this revolution, which, with the rest of the Megarian territory, was this name), but they are lost. This work consisted of four parts, partitioned among the successful party. It appears that he lived in treating on arithmetic, music, astronomy, and the harmony of the exile at Thebes. The fragments of Theognis abound in allusions to universe (Trepl Tîs èv kógum åpuovías). Bouillaud (Gr. Lat., 4to, Paris, the revolution by which he had suffered, and he expresses in bitter 1644), published the first two of these parts, or what he found of them, language his complaints against that base class which had usurped the from a manuscript which came from De Thou's library, together with station and property of the body to which he belonged. He had also what he supposed to be a fragment of the third, from the king's the mortification of seeing a rich rival of mean birth preferred to him library. Isaac Vossius assured Bouillaud that the third part was to by the parents of a girl whom he courted, though he was in some be found in the Ambrosian library at Milan, but it has never appeared. measure indemnified for his loss by retaining the affections of the girl Professor de Gelder, of Leyden, has recently (Gr. Lat., 8vo, Leyden, after she had married his ignoble rival.

1827) published the arithmetic, with ample notes and dissertations. It appears from his verses that he had been in Sicily, Euboea, and of the private life of THEON THE YOUNGER (who was also a Platonist) Sparta; and it was in Sicily that he wrote one of his elegies which was we know nothing, except that he professed the ancient heathen docaddressed to the Sicilian Megarians, who were a colony from his native trines, which led to the memorable fate of his daughter Hypatia (A.D. state. There seems no reason to doubt that his elegies were composed 415), a crime which will excite disgust and indignation to the end of on various occasions and on particular subjects, and that so far they time. (HYPATIA.) Theon of Alexandria is known as the commentator resembled the elegies of Tyrtæus, Archilochus, and Solon. But as of Ptolemy and the editor of Euclid. There is a commentary on these elegies contained numerous general maxims or lessons for con- Aratus which is said to have been his, but Grotius is of opinion that duct, it is conjectured that in the course of time nearly everything was it is the work of several hands, for which he gives good reasons. The omitted from them which had a particular application, and thus the whole of the commentary on the Syntaxis is preserved, except one or elegies of Theognis were formed into that general collection of gnomae two books. A full account of it is given in Delambre's History of such as we now have it, consisting of above fourteen hundred hexa. Ancient Astronomy,' who observes that it helps but little in the undermeter and pentameter verses. It is observed that nearly all the passages standing of the Syntaxis, and gives none of that additional information in this collection which have a political reference are addressed to a which is usually expected from a commentator. This commentary person named Cyrnus, the son of Polypas. Cyrnus appears to be a was first printed in Greek in the Basel edition of Ptolemy (1538). youth of noble family for whom Theognis has a tender regard, and J. Baptist Porta published two books only (Latin, Naples, first book whom he exhorts to the practice of virtue, to prudence in conduct, 1588, first and second 1605), and Halma gave an edition of these and to the enjoyment of life.

same books (Greek and French, 2 vols. 4to, Paris, 1821). Besides The verses of Theognis contain many allusions to the symposia, or the commentary, we have the kavoves apóXelpot, or manual tables, entertainments, of the Greeks, in which it was usual, after the libation described by Delambre from the manuscript, and since published by had been duly performed, for some of the guests to sing a poem, Halma (Greek and French, 2 vols. 4to, Paris, 1822-23). They contain accompanied by the flute. This poem, or elegy, was addressed either a description of the modes of astronomical calculation in use at the to all the company, or, as appears to have been always the case with time. the elegies of Theognis, it was addressed to a single person.

It only remains to speak of Theon as a commentator on Euclid, a The fragments of Theognis have been often printed. They were character which some still persist in giving him. The fact is, that first printed in the Collection of Gnomic poets by Aldus, Venice, Theon, as he himself informs us in the commentary on Ptolemy, gave 1495; and they are contained in Gaisford's Poetæ Minores Græci,' an edition of Euclid, with here and there an additional proposition. Oxford, 1814-20; and in Schneidewin's 'Delectus Poesis Græcorum,' Some manuscripts of Euclid call this a commentary, and our fathers Göttingen, 1838. One of the best editions is by F. T. Welcker, Frank of the middle ages got the notion that all the demonstrations were furt-on-the-Main, 1826; and there is an edition by J. C. Orellius, 4to, commentaries supplied by Theon, only the enunciations of the proTuric., 1840. They were translated into German verse, with short positions being Euclid's. For instance, in the folio of 1516 (Stephens), notes, by G. Thudichum (1828); and also by W. E. Weber (1834). in which the propositions are given twice, namely, Adelard's trans

(Müller, History of the Literature of Antient Greece, vol. i.; Hoff- lation (called Campanus's) from the Arabic, and Zamberti's, from the mann, Lexic. Bibliograph. ; Fabricius, Bibliotheca Greeca, vol. i.; Greek, in this work the enunciations are headed Euclides ex Campano Schneidewin, Proæmium, in bis Delectus Græc.)

and Euclides ex Zamberto, but the demonstrations are headed Campanus THEON, an eminent Greek painter, who was a native of Samos, and and Theon ex Zamberto. Again, in 'I quindici Libri degli Elementi appears to have lived in the time of Philip and Alexander of Macedonia. di Euclide, di Greco tradotti in Lingua Thoscana,' Rome, 1545, we He was reckoned one of the first masters of his age, on account of his find nothing but the enunciations of the propositions. The editor powers of invention and the gracefulness of his execution. (Quinc-has kept his word, and given all he believed to be Euclid's: had he tilian, xii. 10, 6.) We know the subjects of only a few of his works, meant to give demonstrations, his title would have been 'Euclid, with but the execution is spoken of in such a manner that the excellence of Theon's Commentary. Many editions professing to give Euclid in the artist cannot be doubted. Pliny, 'Hist. Nat.' xxxv. 40, $ 40, Greek and Latin, have the enunciations only in Greek, a necessary mentions two of them, the one representing Orestes in the act of warning to a person who wishes to buy Euclid in the original. Hence killing his mother compare Plutarch, De Audiendis Poet., p. 18, ed. arises the pertinacious continuance of the assertion that Theon comFrankf.), and the other Thamyris playing the cithara. A description mented Euclid : so late as the article Theon' in the Biographie of a splendid painting by Theon representing a youthful warrior, who, Universelle' we find this statement made; and even more, namely, animated by a martial spirit and eager to fight, is hastening to meet that the commentary by Theon was published at the end of the Basel the enemy, is given by Aelian ( Var. Hist.,' ii. 44).

edition of 1533, in Greek, that it was translated into Latin by ComTHEON, ÆLIUS, a rhetorician and grammarian of Alexandria, mandine, and has been often republished. Any one who looks into who, according to some critics, lived about A.D. 500, but, according to the Basel edition will see that the commentary at the end is by Proclus, & more probable opinion, about A.D. 315. According to Suidas he not by Theod. wrote a commentary on Xenophon, on the orations of Demosthenes Robert Simson, and other editors who alter according to their own and Isocrates, & work on rhetoric, one on the structure of language, ideas of perfection, and then declare that they have restored Euclid, • Progymnasmata,' and several other books. With the exception of the always lay the blame of the supposed alterations upon Theon; Progymnasmata' (Tipo yuuvdo para), or practical rules on rhetoric, Simson's phrase is, “Theon, or some unskilful commentator.” There derived from the examples of the best Greek orators, there is no work is no reason to suppose that Theon altered Euclid: all that is known extant that can be ascribed to him with certainty. Theon's 'Progym is that he added occasionally, and, if we look at those additions which nasmata' excel those of Aphthonius in elegance, precision, and clear- it is certain he made, judiciously. ness, and were, like those of Aphthonius, long used as a text-book in THEOʻPHANES, a native of Mitylene, was a contemporary and schools. The first edition appeared at Rome, 4to, 1520; that of D. friend of Pompey the Great. During the war between Rome and Heinsius at Leyden, 8vo, 1626. Scheffer's edition (Upsala, 1670 and Mithridates, when the Mitylenæans supported the king and delivered 1680), is incorrect. The best edition of the text, accompanied by up to him the Roman general Manius Aquilius, Theophanes, who Greek scholia, is in Walz’s ‘Rhetores Græci,'

vol. i., pp. 145-262. refused to take any part in the revolt, was expelled, and went to the Kuster (on Suidas, ii., p. 182) ascribes to Theon also the still extant camp of Sulla. (Velleius Pat., ii. 18.) In Italy Theophanes became scholia on Aratus, Apollonius Rhodius, Lycophron, and Theocritus. acquainted with Pompey, formed an intimate friendship with him, The èTUOTONIKO TÚNO, which are contained in Aldus's and Cujacius's and henceforth accompanied him in all his expeditions. After the collections of epistles, are likewise attributed by some writers to termination of the war against Mithridates, Theophanes endeavoured Theon, while others assign them to Libanius or Proclus. A separate to perpetuate the exploits of his friend. His history, which is now edition of them appeared at Leyden in 1614, 12mo.

lost, appears to have been a work of no mean order, for Strabo calls (A. Westermann, Geschichte der Griech. Beredtsamkeit, p. 230, &c.) Theophanes the most distinguished Greek of his age. Although he is

THEON. Theon, the Elder, of Smyrna, was the contemporary of not charged with having sacrificed the truth, yet he was undoubtedly Ptolemy (who cites one of his observations), but a little older. Theon, anxious to wipe off any stain that was attached to the family of his the Younger, of Alexandria, the commentator on Ptolemy, and father friend. Pompey is said to have been so delighted with the performof Hypatia, lived in the latter half of the 4th century.

ance, that he procured Theophanes the rights of a Roman citizen of THEON THE ELDER, or Theon of Smyrna, we know nothivg but (Cicero, ‘Pro Archia,' 10.) Although Theophanes had been exiled that he was a follower of Plato, and bas left a work entitled Tôv sarà from Mitylene,

he bore no grudge against his country, and on the μαθεματικήν χρησίμων εις την του Πλάτωνος ανάγνωσιν, or on the parts | return of Pompey from Asia he availed himself of his influence with of mathematics which are useful towards a knowledge of Plato. Other the conqueror, and induced him to restore to the Lesbians their

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THEOPHANES NONNUS.

THEOPHILUS PROTOSPATHARIUS.

1010

liberty and the privileges of which they had been deprived for having thinks, from the barbarous words that he makes use of (such as supported the king of Pontus. In B.C. 59 Theopbanes was sent by the práalov, otououávikov, 'De Corp. Hum. Fabr.,' p. 177, 1. 1, 2, ed. Oxon.; senate of Rome as ambassador to Ptolemæus Auletes of Egypt, to étoxń, Tpáva, 'Ibid., p. 181, 1, 11, 12; årarla, 'Ibid., p. 193, 1. 11; carry to him the decree of the senate, which guaranteed him the xupevn, wuoßpastos, 'De Urin.,'c. 6, p. 266, 1. 34, ed. Ideler), that he sovereigpty of the country. His conduct on this mission is blamed, probably lived later. And, secondly, even if Theophilus was the because he is said to have endeavoured to direct events according to tutor of a person named Stephanus, still it seems probable that this the secret wishes of Pompey. During the civil war Theophanes con was not the alchemist of that name. [STEPHANUS ATHENIENSIS tinued faithful to his friend, and supported him with his advice, and His date is equally uncertain. Some persons ('Chronologia inconsulta, it was on his well-meant suggestion that after the battle of Pharsalus as Fabricius says, ' Biblioth. Græca,' vol. xii, p. 648, n., ed. vet.) think Pompey fled to Egypt, where he was murdered. After this event he was the person mentioned by St. Luke; others place him as early Theophanes returned to Rome, where he appears to have spent the as the second century after Christ, and others again as late as the last years of his life in retirement. After his death the Lesbians paid twelfth. He is generally supposed to have lived in the time of the divine honours to bis memory for the benefits which he had conferred Emperor Heraclius, who reigned from A.D. 610 to A.D. 641 ; but this upon them. His son, M. Pompeius Macer, held the office of prætor in opinion rests only on the conjecture of his having been the tutor of the time of Augustus, and was afterwards appointed governor of Asia; Stephanus Atheniensis. The Oxford editor thipks, from the barbarous but in the reign of Tiberius he and his daughter put an end to their words quoted above, that he may possibly be the same person who is own lives, in order to avoid the punishment of exile to which they addressed by the title Protospatharius, by Photius (Epist., 123, p. bad been condemned,

164, ed. Montac., Lond., 1651), and who therefore must have lived in Theophanes was the author of several works, both in prose and in the 9th century. He was a Christian, and a man of great piety, at verse, but very little of them has come down to us. Plutarch's Life appears from almost all his writings; in his physiological works espe. of Pompey is chiefly based on the historical work of Theophanes, and cially, he everywhere points out with admiration the wisdom, power, we may thus possess more of it than we are aware; but besides this and goodness of God as displayed in the human body. (See 'De Corp. we have four or five fragments of it in Strabo, Plutarch, and Stobæus. Hum. Fabr., pp. 1, 2, 25, 89, 127, 153, 185, 272; De Uria.,' Præf., The 'Anthologia Græca” (xv., n. 14 and 35) contains two epigrams of p. 262; c. 10, p. 273; c. 23, p. 283 ; “De Excrem.,' c. 19, p. 408; Theophanes, and Diogenes Laertius (ii. 104) mentions a work by De Puls.,' in fine, p. 77.) He appears to have embraced in some Theophanes on painting, but of its nature and contents nothing is degree the Peripatetic philosophy. (De Corp. Hum. Fabr.,' pp. 2, 3, known, and it is probable that the writer was a different Theopbanes 4, 103, 105, 222, &c.; Mart. Rota, Pref. to Philothei 'Comment. in to the friend of Pompey.

Hippocr. Aphor.) (Sevin, in the Mémoires de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Five of his works remain, of which the longest and most interesting Lettres, vol. xiv., p. 143, &c)

is an anatomical and physiological treatise, in five books, entitled 'Ilepl THEOʻPHANÈS NONNUS. [Nonnus.)

Tîs Toll 'Avēpánov Karaokevñs,' 'De Corporis Humani Fabrica.' it THEOʻPHILUS, a Constantinopolitan jurist, who lived in the reign contains very little original matter, as it is almost entirely abridged of the emperor Justinian (A.D. 527-565). He was a distinguished from Galen's great work, De Usu Partium Corporis Humani,' from teacher of jurisprudence at Constantinople (antecessor), and, at the whom however he now and then differs, and whom he sometimes command of the emperor, he was employed among those who com- appears to have misunderstood. In the fifth book he has inserted piled the Digest;' and afterwards he undertook, along with Dorotheus large extracts from Hippocrates, De Genitura,' and 'De Natura and Tribonian, to compose the Institutes,' that is, the elementary Pueri.' He recommends in several places the dissection of animals, treatise on jurisprudence, wbich was part of Justinian's plan. This but appears never to have examined a human body; in one passage Theophilus is generally supposed to be the author of the Greek para. he advises the student to dissect an ape, or else a bear, or, if neither phrase of the Institutes,' though it is maintained that the paraphrase of these animals can be procured, to take whatever he can get, "but is not the work of Theophilus himself, but was taken down from his by all means," adds he, let him dissect something.". The work was lectures by some pupils. It was discovered in the beginning of the first translated into Latin by J. P. Crassus, and published at Venice, 16th century by Viglius ab Aytta Zuichemius at Louvain, who pub- 8vo, 1536, together with Hippocrates, 'De Purgantibus Medicamentis.' lished and dedicated it to the Emperor Charles V. (fol., Basel, 1534). This translation was frequently reprinted, and is inserted by H. The work was frequently reprinted during the same century, but the Stephens in his "Medicæ Artis Principes, Paris, fol. 1567. The last and best edition is that of W. O. Reitz, in 2 vols. 4to, Hagæ, 1751. manuscript from which Crassus made his translation is probably lost; It contains a Latin translation and the notes of previous editors, but, though defective, it was more complete than that which was used together with those of Reitz; and also a very interesting dissertation by Guil. Morell in editing the original text, which was published at on the obscure and much disputed history of Theophilus. Theophilus Paris, 8vo, 1555, in a very beautiful type, but without preface or notes. also wrote a commentary on the first three parts of the 'Digest,' This edition is now become scarce, and was reprinted, together with which however is now lost, with the exception of a few fragments Crassus's translation, by Fabricius, in the twelfth volume of his which are incorporated in Reitz's edition of the Paraphrase of the Biblioth. Græca,' p. 783, sq., Hamb., 1724 and 1740. Two long Institutes. The value of the paraphrase of Theophilus in establishing passages wbich were missing in the fourth and fifth books were copied the text of the Institutes' may be estimated by an examination of from a manuscript at Venice, and inserted by Andr. Mustoxydes and the edition of the Institutes' of Gaius and Justinian by Klenze and Demetr. Schinas in their collection entitled 'Lulori 'AtoomapudTwv Böcking, Berlin, 1829.

'Avendórwv 'EXXTVIK@V metà Enueldrewv,' Venet., 8vo, 1817. The last (Institutionum D. Justiniani Sacrat. Princip. Proæmium ; P. B. and best edition of this work is that by Dr. Greenbill, which has lately Degen, Bemerkungen über das Zeitaltur des Theophilus, 8vo, Lüneburg, been printed at the Oxford University press, Gr. and Lat., 8vo, 1842. 1808; Zimmern, Geschichte des Röm. Privatrechts.)

Another of the works of Theophilus is entitled “Tróurnua eis TOÙS THEO'PHILUS PROTOSPATHA'RIUS, the author of several 'It Torpátous 'Apoptopovs,'Commentarii in Hippocratis Aphorismos,' Greek medical works, which are still extant, and some of which go which also seems to be taken in a great measure from Galen's Comunder the name of Philotheus' and 'Philaretus. Everything con- mentary on the same work. It was first published in a Latin translanected with his name, his titles, the events of his life, and the time tion by Ludov. Coradus, at Venice, 8vo, 1549, under the name of when he lived, is uncertain. He is generally styled 'Protospatbarius,' 'Pbilotheus.' The Greek text appeared for the first time in the which seems to have been originally a military title given to the second volume of F. R. Dietz's 'Scholia in Hippocratem et Galenum,' colonel of the body guard of the emperor of Constantinople ("Spa Regim. Pruss., 8vo, 1834. tharii,' or owuatoPÚMakes). Afterwards however it became also a His treatise Tepl Opwv,'De Urinis,' contains little or nothing that civil dignity, or at any rate it was associated with the government is original, but is a good compendium of what was known by the of provinces and the functions of a judge; they possessed great autho- ancients on the subject, and was highly esteemed in the middle ages. rity, and were reckoned among the Magnifici. In some manuscripts It first appeared in a Latin translation by Pontius (or Ponticus) Viruhowever he is called 'Philosophus' (Lambec., Biblioth. Vindob.;' pius (or Virmius), in several early editions of the collection known by lib. vii., p. 352, ed. Kollar.); in otbers, Monachus' (id., ibid., lib. vi., the name of tbe 'Articella.' It was first published in a separate form p. 244, 494); *Archiater' (Codd. MSS. Theoph. 'De Puls.' ap. Erme- at Basel, 8vo, 1533, translated by Albanus Torinus, together with the rips, 'Anecd. Med. Gr.'); or latrosophista' ('latpoo opLOTOÙ Tepl Oőpwv, treatise 'De Pulsibus;' and this version was reprinted at Strasburg, ed. Fed. Morell., 12mo, Paris, 1608.)

8vo, 1535, and inserted by H. Stephens in bis • Medicæ Artis PrinOf his personal bistory we are told nothing. If, as is generally cipes.' The Greek text was published without the name of Theophilus, done, we trust the titles of the manuscripts of his works, and so try under the title 'Iatrosophistæ de Urinis Liber Singularis,' &o.. at to learn the events of his life, we may conjecture that he lived in the Paris, 12mo, 1608, with a new Latin translation by Fed. Morell, which seventh century after Christ; that he was the tutor of Stephanus edition was inserted entire by Chartier in the eighth volume of his Atheniensis (Lambec., Ibid., lib. vi., pp. 198, 223, 492; lib. vii., p. edition of the works of Hippocrates and Galen. The best edition is 352), who dedicated bis work, De Chrysopæia,' to the emperor that by Thom. Guidot, Lugd. Bat., 8vo, 1703, Gr. and Lat.; and again Heraclius (Fabricius, Biblioth. Græca,' vol. xii, p. 695, ed. vet.); with a new title-page, 1731. The text is much improved by adopting that he arrived at bigh professional and political rank, and that at last the readings of a manuscript in the Bodleian Library at Oxford; there he embraced the monastic life. It must however be confessed that all is a new Latin version by the editor, and also copious and learned this is quite uncertain, for, in the first place, Freind, in his ‘History prolegomena and notes. The Greek text only, from Guidot's edition, of Physic' ('Opera,' pp. 448, 449, ed. Lood., 1733), after remarking is inserted by J. L. Ideler in his 'Physici et Medici Græci Minores, how little credit is sometimes due to the titles prefixed to manu. Berol., 8vo, 1841. scripts, doubts whether Theophilus was ever tutor to Stephanus, and A short treatise,“ riepl Alaxwpnuárwv,' 'De Excrementis Alvinis,' BIOG. DIV. VOL. V.

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was first published by Guidot, in Greek, with a Latin translation by most of his writings on these departments are now lost, and more himself, at the end of the edition 'De Urinis' mentioned above : the especially those on politics (IIoAtiká), on legislators (Tepl vouodeTwv), Greek text alone is inserted by Ideler in his “Physici et Medici Græci on laws, a work of which Cicero made great use, and his works on Minores.'

oratory, of which Theophrastus himself was so distinguished a master. The last of the works of Theophilus that remains is a treatise, A list of the lost books of Theophrastus is given in Fabricius * Tepl Spuyu@v, De Pulsibus,' which first appeared in a Latin trans- (Biblioth. Græca,' iii., p. 445, &c.)." Andronicus of Rhodes, a Perilation, under the name of Philaretus,' in several of the old editions patetic philosopher of the time of Lucullus, made a list of all the works of the Articella.' It was first published in a separate form at Basel, of Theophrastus, and arranged them in systematic order. The follow8vo, 1533; translated by Albanus Torinus, together with the treatise ing philosophical works of Theophrastus are still extant :

Dé Urinis' mentioned above. It was reprinted at Strasburg, 8vo, 1. Characteres,' or hoikol xapartîpes, consisting of thirty, or, ac1535, and inserted by H. Stephens in his 'Medicæ Artis Principes.' cording to Schneider's arrangement, of thirty-one chapters. In this The Gre k text was first published by F. Z. Ermerins in his 'Anecdota work the author gives thirty characteristic descriptions of vices, or Medica Græca,' Lugd. Bat., 8vo, 1840, together with a new Latin rather, of the manner in which they show themselves in man. The translation. The text is taken from one manuscript at Leyden and descriptions however are mere sketches, and form a gallery of bad or four at Paris, and differs very considerably from the older Latin ridiculous characters. Many modern critics have maintained that the translation going under the name of Philaretus.

work in its present form is not to be regarded as a production of Theo. (Guidot's Notes to Theoph. De Urinis; Fabricius, Biblioth. Græca ; phrastus, but that it is either an abridgment of a greater work of the Freind, Hist. of Physic; Haller, Biblioth. Anat, and Biblioth. Medic. philosopher, or a collection of descriptions of vicious characters, comPract.; Sprengel, Hist. de la Méd.; Dietz's Preface to the second piled either from the writings of Theophrastus, or from those of volume of his Scholia in Hippocr. et Gal.; Ermerin's Preface to his others. Neither of these opinions is incompatible with the statement Anecd. Med. Gr. ; Choulant, Handbuch der Bücherkunde für die of Diogenes Laertius, Suidas, and other late writers who mention Aeltere Medicin ; Greenhill's Notes to Theoph. De Corp. Hum. Fabr.) hOucol xapartîpes among the works of Theophrastus; for the Cha

THEOPHRASTUS was born at Eresus, in the island of Lesbos, but racteres' which we now possess may have been compiled and published the year of his birth is uncertain : some writers state it to be B.C. 371; under the name of Theophrastus long before their time. Either of others place it much earlier. According to Hieronymus (Epist.,' 2, these hypotheses would also account for the fact that nearly all the ad Nepotianum) he died in the year B.C. 285, and, as some say, at the definitions of the vices that occur in the book contain some error, age of eighty-five (Diogenes Laert., v. 40), or, according to others, at which it must be presumed, would not have been the case if the work the age of 106 years. These different accounts of bis age leave the had been written by Theophrastus. Other critics, on the contrary, date of his birth uncertain. When a youth his father Melantas sent have vindicated the Characteres' as a genuine work of Theophrastus, him to Athens for the purpose of studying. Here he was first a pupil and have attributed all its defects and inaccuracies to the bad manuof Plato, and became an intimate friend of Aristotle, who, charmed scripts upon which the text is based. This opinion has received conwith his talents and his beautiful pronunciation, is said to have given siderable support from the discovery of a Münich codex, part of bim the name of Theophrastus (one who speaks divinely): his real which was published by Fr. Thiersch in 1832, in the 'Acta Philologoname was Tyrtamus. (Quinctilian, x. 1, 83; Cicero, Orator.,' 19.) rum Monascensium' (vol. iii., fasc. 3). This manuscript contains the After the death of Plato, when Speusippus had placed himself at the titles of all the thirty chapters, but the text of only twenty-one. The head of the Academy, Theophrastus, with a number of the former first five chapters and the introduction, which were edited by Thiersch, disciples of Plato, left the Academy. Plutarch has preserved a bare are considerably shorter than the common text, the language is per account of an event in the life of Theophrastus, which must perhaps fectly pure, and there is very little doubt that this is the genuine text be assigned to the time which he spent away from Athens after his of the work of Theophrastus, and that the common one is only a withdrawal from the Academy. Plutarch says that he and Phidias paraphrase, made perhaps by Maximus Planudes, who is known to delivered their country twice from the oppression of tyrants. After have written a commentary on the Characteres' of Theophrastus. the battle of Chæronea, Theophrastus returned to Athens, from which The editio princeps of the Characteres’ is by Wilibald Pyrckheimer, he had been absent for many years; and as Aristotle had then just 8vo, Nürnberg, 1527. This edition, which contains only fifteen opened his school (the Lyceum), Theophrastus ranged himself among chapters, was reprinted with a Latin translation by A. Politianus, the hearers of his friend, and cultivated most zealously all the depart. 8vo, Basel, 1531, and fol, 1541. Chapters 16 to 23 were first added by ments of philosophy and science of which Aristotle was then the Camotius, who published the works of Theophrastus in the sixth great master. When Aristotle himself withdrew, Theophrastus volume of his edition of Aristotle (Venice, 1551-52). These twenty. became his successor in the Lyceum, and acquired great reputation in three chapters were increased by five new ones from a Heidelberg bis new sphere, not because he created any new system of philosophy, manuscript in the excellent edition of Casaubon, of 1599 (reprinted but because he combined the knowledge and profundity of Aristotle in 8vo, 1612 and 1617). The last two chapters were added in the with the fascinating eloquence of Plato. The number of his pupils edition which appeared at Parma, 4to, 1786. A still more perfect, and on one occasion is said to have amounted to two thousand (Diogenes in fact the first complete edition is that of J. P. Siebenkees, which Laert., v. 37), who flocked around him from all parts of Greece. This was edited by Goetz, 8vo, Nürnberg, 1798. In 1799 there appeared popularity, and the influence which it gave him in the public affairs of two new editions, the one by Coraes (8vo, Paris), and the other by Greece through the practical character of his philosophy, roused the Schneider (8vo, Jena). The last edition, which is very useful, is that indignation and envy of those who saw in him an obstacle to their of Fr. Ast, 8vo, Leipzig, 1816. The Characteres' have been transdesigns. The consequence was that Agonides, who probably acted on lated into French by Jean de la Bruyère (12mo, Paris, 1696, often rebehalf of many others, brought against him a charge of impiety. printed, and lastly edited by Schweighauser, Paris, 1802), and by Theophrastus pleaded his own cause before the Areopagus with his Levesque (12mo, Paris, 1782). The best German translations are usual eloquence, and convinced that court of his innocence. His those of C. Rommel (12mo, Prenzlau, 1827), and of J. J. Hottinger accuser would have fallen a victim to his own calumny, if Theo (8vo, Munchen, 1821). There are English translations by F. Howell, phrastus had not generously interfered and saved him. After this 8vo, London, 1824; by Eustace Budgell, 8vo, London, 1713; and by event he enjoyed undisturbed peace for several years, and he saw his Taylor. There is also a translation into modern Greek by Larbaris, school, which was visited by the most eminent men of the age, daily Svo, Vienna, 1815. increase. The tranquillity which he enjoyed was however chiefly 2. A fragment of a work on Metaphysics, which consists of one owing to the influence of Demetrius Phalereus, who had himself been book entire (Tv jetà tà quoikà årornaopátlov A, Bubalov á). This book a pupil of Theophrastus. After the fall of Demetrius the persecutions was not mentioned by Andronicus of Rhodes in his catalogue of the began afresh; and, in 305 B.C., Sophocles, son of Amphiclides, carried works of Theophrastus, but it is ascribed to him by Nicolaus Damasa law which forbade all philosophers, under pain of death, to give any cenus. It is printed in all the early editions of the works of Theopublic instruction without permission of the state. (Diogenes Laert., phrastus in connection with those of Aristotle, as in those of Venice V. 38 ; Athenæus, xiii., p. 610 ; J. Pollux, ix. 5.) Theophrastus left (1497), Basel (1541), Venice (1552), and in that of Sylburg (Frankfurt, Athens; but in the following year, the law being abolished, and the 1587). The best edition is that of Ch. A. Brandis, who annexed it to mover condemned to pay a fine of five talents, Theophrastus and his edition of Aristotle's Metaphysics,' 8vo, Berlin, 1823. several other philosophers returned to Athens, where he continued 3. A Dissertation Tepi alcohoews, that is, on the Senses and the his labours without interruption until his death. The whole popula- Imagination. There is a paraphrastic commentary on this work by tion of Athens is said to have followed his body to the grave. ' His Priscian, the Lydian, who lived in the 6th century of our era. It will, in which he disposed of his literary and other property, is pre-was first edited by Trincavelli (fol., Venice, 1536), with Priscian's served in Diogenes Laertius. His library was very valuable, as it paraphrase, and 'Quæstiones' by Alexander Aphrodisiensis. It is contained the works of Aristotle, which this philosopher had be also printed in the above-mentioned collections of the works of Theoqueathed to Theophrastus. Theophrastus bequeathed them, together phrastus, and in that published by Schneider, Leipzig, 1818-21. with his other literary property, to Neleus of Scepsis.

The fragments of other philosophical works are too brief and Theophrastus, as already observed, did not develope a new system numerous to be noticed here. of philosophy, but he confined himself to explaining that of his The History of Plants,' by Theophrastus, nepl Autûv loroplas, is master Aristotle. With this view he wrote numerous works on one of the earliest works on botany that was written with anything various branches of philosophy and on natural history. His philoso- like scientific precision. The work is divided into ten books, of the phical works may be divided into works on philosophy, in the narrower last of which only a fragment is preserved. The matter is arranged sense of the word, works on historical subjects, and works on certain upon a system by which plants are classed according to their modes of arts, such as oratory, poetry, and the like. It is to be lamented that generation, their localities, their size as trees or shrubs and herbs, and

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THEOPHYLACTUS SIMOCATTA,

THEOPOMPUS.

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according to their uses as furnishing juices, potherbs, and seeds which edition was published by Fabrotti, fol., Paris, 1648, reprinted 1729. may be eaten. The first book treats of the organs or parts of plants ; It is also contained in Niebuhr's collection of the Byzantine writers. the second of the reproduction of plants, and the times and mode of He also wrote eighty-five short letters, 'Epistolæ Morales, Rusticæ, sowing. Here he mentions the sexes of plants, and describes the et Amatoriæ,' which were published in the collections of Aldus, Cujacius, mode of reproduction in palms, and compares it with the caprification and Henry Stephens; and a work entitled Problems in Natural of figs. The third, fourth, and fifth books are devoted to a considera- History' ('Atopía puoikai, Quaestiones Physicae), which was published tion of trees, their various kinds, the places they come from, and the at Leyden, 1596, and at Leipzig, 1653. The two last-mentioned works econonical uses to which they may be applied. The sixth book treats have been edited by Boissonade, Paris, 1835. of undershrubs and spiny plants; the seventh of potherbs; the eighth (Fabricius, Bibliotheca Graeca ; Schöll

, Geschichte der Griech. Litt.) of plants yielding seeds used for food; and the ninth, of those plants THEOPHYLACTUS, a native of Constantinople, was Archbishop that yield useful juices, gums, resins, or other exudations. In this of Achris, the chief city of Bulgaria, about the year 1070 or 1077. work there is much original and valuable observation, but at the same He wrote a work on the 'Education of Princes' (Taidela Badiah), time it is intermixed with many absurd statements with regard to the for the perusal of Constantinus Porphyrogennetus, the son of functions and properties of plants. It is probable that much of the Michael VII. and the empress Maria. This work forms a part of the valuable matter recorded in this work was the result of his own collection of Byzantine writers. He was living as late as 1112. observation, as he is known to have travelled about Greece, and to Theophylactus is better known by his valuable commentaries on the have had a botanic garden of his own, whilst he was probably twelve minor prophets and the greater part of the New Testament, dependent on the statements of soldiers and others connected with which are chiefly compiled from the works of Chrysostom. He also the armies of Alexander for his information on Indian, Egyptian, and wrote seventy-five epistles and several tracts. These works were Arabian plants.

printed in Greek and Latin, at Venice, 1754-63, 4 vols., fol. Theophrastus wrote also another work, 'On the Causes of Plants, (Fabricius, Bibl. Graec., vii., p. 765; Lardner's Credibility, pt. ii., Tep! putâv altiĝv. This work was originally in eight books, six of c. 163; Schöll, Geschichte der Grierh. Litt., iii. 286.) which remain entire. It treats of the growth of plants; the causes

THEOPOMPUS, an eminent Greek historian, was a native of the which influence their fecundity; of the times at which they should be island of Chios, son of Damasistratus, and brother of Caucalus, the sown and reaped; the modes of preparing the soil, of manuring it, rhetorician. He was born about B.C. 380, and was instructed in rhe. and of the instruments used in agriculture; of the odours, tastes, and toric by Isocrates during his stay in Chios. (Plutarch, Vit. dec. Orat., properties of many kinds of plants. In this, as in the History of p. 837 C.; Photius, Cod. 260, p. 793.) Photius in another passage Plants,' the vegetable kingdom is considered more in reference to its states that Damasistratus and his son were obliged to quit their native economical than to its medical uses, although the latter are occasionally island on account of their partiality towards Sparta : this seems to referred to. In both works there is much valuable matter that deserves have occurred about B.C. 360, when Chios was distracted by two parties, the attention of the botanist, and a very little knowledge of botany the popular and the most powerful one being in favour of Thebes, will enable the reader to separate the chaff from the wheat. Both while a small number of aristocrats supported the interest of Sparta. Haller and Adanson complain of the errors which translators and To the latter belonged Theopompus and his father. The influence of editors of these works have fallen into for want of botanical knowledge. the instruction of Isocrates on Theopompus appears to have been very Both works have gone through several editions : they were printed great, for although he did not apply his oratorical powers to politics together by the sons of Aldus at Venice, 8vo, in 1552, and again by or to speaking in the courts of justice, yet he wrote, like his master, a Heinsius, at Leipzig, in 1613. The History of Plants' has been considerable number of orations, which were recited at rhetorical conpublished separately more frequently than the Causes. The best of tests, and in which he is said to have even excelled his master. When the old editions is that of Bodæus à Stapel, which was published by he was obliged to leave Chios, he went with his father to Asia Minor, his father after his death. It contains a preface by Corvinus ; the where he spent several years in travel and study, and acquired great Greek text, with various readings; the commentaries and remarks of celebrity for his eloquence. At the age of forty-tive he obtained leave Constantinus and J. C. Scaliger; the Latin translation of Gaza ; very to return to his country through the interference of Alexander the careful commentaries by Stapel; a very copious index; and the whole Great. After this event he took an active part in the political affairs is illustrated by wood-cuts. The cuts however are very inferior, and of his native island, and by his talents he became one of the principal are copies of those in the works of Dodonæus, which seem to have supports of the aristocratic party. So long as Alexander the Great been copied into nearly all the works published on botany at this lived, his adversaries could not venture anything openly against bim; period. "It appeared at Amsterdam in 1644, folio. An edition of this but no sooner had the king died than the popular party again expelled work was published at Oxford, in 1813, by Stackhouse. This edition Theopompus. He now took refuge in Egypt under the protection of is accompanied with a Syllabus of the genera

and species of the 500 Ptolemaeus,
the son of Lagus, during whose reign he remained

unplants described by Theophrastus, also a glossary, and notes, with a molested. But his successor Ptolemaeus Philadelphus was ill discatalogue of the editions of the botanical works of Theophrastus. It posed towards him, and if Theopompus had not been advised by some has also been edited by Schneider; but the most complete edition friends to quit the country, he would have been put to death. is that of F. Wimmer, Vrat., 8vo, 1842. The History of Plants' was Whither he now fled, what were his subsequent fortunes, and where translated into German by Kurt Sprengel, and published at Altona, he died, are questions to which no answer can be given, though it is 8vo, in 1822.

highly probable that he died about or shortly after 308 B.C. Besides his botanical works, Theophrastus wrote many others on The loss of the works of Theopompus, of which we now only posvarious subjects of natural history, which are enumerated with his sess numerous fragments, is one of the greatest that ancient history philosophical works in Diogenes Laertius (v. 42, &c.). One of them, has sustained. The following list contains the works he is known to on Stones (Tepl aidwr), from which Pliny, in his account of stones, have written : derived the greatest part of his information, is still extant. De Laet 1. An abridgment of the work of Herodotus ('EmiTou) Tây 'Hpodérou has prefixed it, with a Latin translation and notes, to his work 'De istopôv). This epitome is mentioned by Suidas and several other Gemmis et Lapidibus,' 8vo, Leyden, 1647. A separate edition, with grammarians, Modern critics think it highly improbable that Theoan English translation, was published by Hill, 8vo, London, 1746; pompus should have undertaken such a task, and that it was probably another, with a French translation, appeared at Paris, 8vo, 1754; and the work of some grammarian, who published it under the name of a third, with a German translation, by Baumgärtner, 8vo, Nürnberg, the historian. The reasons adduced for this opinion are not satis. 1770.

factory, and it is not improbable that Theopompus may have made Of his two books on Fire (Tepl mupós), only one is now extant; of this abridgment as a first attempt at historical composition. A few his other works on natural history, which are now lost, we possess a fragments of it are still extant. 2. A more important work was a considerable number of fragments.

history of Greece (Ελληνικαι ιστορίαι, Or Σύνταξις Ελληνικών.) It took The editio princeps of all the works of Theophrastus is that of up the history of Greece wbere Thucydides breaks off, B.c. 411, and Aldus, printed, together with the works of Aristotle, in 5 volg. fol., carried the events down to the battle of Cnidus, B.C. 394. The work Venice, 1495-98. Theodorus Gaza published a Latin translation, consisted of twelve books, and many fragments are still preserved. which was made from the same manuscript from which the Aldine 3. The history of Philip of Macedonia and his time (MIATTIKÁ, or text was taken. The first edition of this translation is without date simply 'la topla). It contained in fifty-eight books the history of Greece or place; a second appeared at Tarvisium in 1483. The last and best from the accession of Philip, or more properly from the foundation of edition is that of J. G. Schneider, 5 vols. 8vo, Leipzig, 1818-21, Philippi, down to his death. Five books of it were lost as early as the

(Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, tom. i., p. 31; Schulte, Geschichte der time of Diodorus Siculus (xvi. 3), and they were probably the same Botanik ; Adanson, Familles des Plantes , Bischoff, Lehrbuch der which Photius (Cod., 176, p. 390) mentions as being lost in his time, Botanik; Stackhouse, Theoph. Hist. Plant.; Fabricius, Biblioth. Græc, viz. books 6, 7, 9, 20, and 30. This voluminous work not only embraced iii., p. 408, &c.; Ritter, History of Philosophy ; Krug, Geschichte der the history of Greece in the widest sense of the word within the period Philosophie, $ 99.)

mentioned, but also treated of those earlier parts of Greek history and THEOPHYLACTUS SIMOCATTA, of Locri, an historian, sophist, of the bistory of such barbarous nations as he had occasion to mention, and natural philosopher, who was living about A.D. 610-629. He wroté These things formed numerous and long digressions in the work, and a ‘Universal History' in eight books, from the death of the emperor of their extent we may judge from the fact that Philip III. of MaceTiberius II., in 582, to the murder of Maurice and his children by donia, after cutting out these digressions, reduced the work from 58 to Phocas, in 602. This work is known by the Latin title of Historia 16 books. (Photius, Cod., 176.) We still possess many fragments of Rerum à Mauritio gestarum Libri VIII. It was printed, with a Latin the work, which the ancient writers refer to and quote. translation, by J. Pontanus, at Ingolstadt, 4to, 1604. An improved Besides these historical works, Theopompus wrote many orations,

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