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and we know that he also composed Panegyrics on Mausolus, Philip, and Thrasybulus had been commissioned by the Athenian generals to and Alexander. As regards his character as au historian, the ancients take care of the wrecks and to save the men, but they were prevented praise him as a lover of truth, but they also state that he was extra by a storm from accomplishing this object. The generals in their vagantly severe in his censure, and unbounded in his praise. His despatch to Athens concealed the commission they had given to ardent and vehement temper did not allow him to preserve that Theramenes and his colleague, as it was clear that the latter would be calmness which becomes the historian. He is also charged with baving severely punished for their apparent neglect. After the first report, been too fond of the marvellous, and with having for this reason dwelt the generals themselves were summoned to return to Athens, and in too much upon the mythical stories of Greece wherever be had occa- self-defence they were compelled to give an accurate account of the sion to mention them.
occurrence, and the more so as they had reason to believe that The fragments of Theopompus have been collected by Wichers: Theramenes and Thrasybulus were instigating the people against • Theopompi Chii Fragmenta, collegit, disposuit, et explicavit, ejus. them. That their suspicion was not unfounded became evident afterdemque de Vitâ et Scriptis Commentationem præmisit,' &c., Lugduni wards, for when six of the generals were actually brought to trial, Batavorum, 1829, 8vo. They are also contained in C. and J. Müller's Theramenes was base enough to appear foremost among their accusers. * Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum'' (Paris, 1841), p. 278--333. The generals defended themselves; and the late hour of the day Compare F. Kocb, Prolegomena ad Theopompum Chium, Stettin, 1803, rendering it impossible to take the votes of the assembly, the business 4to.; A. J. E. Plugk, De Theopompi Chii Vita et Scriptis, Berlin, 1827, was adjourned to another day. During the interval, Theramenes and 8vo.; Aschbach, Dissertatio de Theopompo Chio Historico, Frankfurt, the other enemies of the generals exerted themselves to excite the 1823, 4to.
indignation of the people. On the day appointed for the next meeting THEOTOCOPU’LI, DOMINICO, called El Greco, was painter, a number of persons hired by Theramenes appeared in the assembly sculptor, and architect. He is said to have been the scholar of Titian. dressed in mourning, to rouse the sympathies of the people for the In 1577 he was residing in Toledo, where he appears to have settled, loss of their friends and exasperate them against the alleged authors of though from his name and his surname of El Greco, the Greek, he their misfortune. After various debates eight of the generals were was doubtless a native of Greece. He painted many pictures in condemned to death, and six of them who were present at Athens, Toledo, and acquired a great reputation in Spain. El Greco made the were executed immediately. The blame of this act of cruelty falls marble decorations of the altar (retablo), and the altarpiece of the mainly upon Theramenes, " who had taken advantage of the uncomParting of Christ's Raiment before the Crucifixion, for the sacristy of mon forbearance and candour of his victims, and of his own reputathe cathedral of Toledo, on which he was occupied from 1577 until tion, which had never before been stained by any atrocious crime, to 1587, when he was paid for the whole work 319,600 maravedis, of effect their destruction." which 119,000 were for the picture; about 1001. sterling altogether, but Soon after the execution of the generals, the eyes of the Athenians owing to the change in the value of Spanish money it is now perhaps were opened, it is said, by Thrasybulus, to their innocence, and it was impossible to calculate the sum accurately. He was however not decided that those who had misled the people should be proceeded engaged exclusively on this work all this time; he painted other against, and that they should give security for their appearance at the works in the meanwhile, and for Philip II. an altarpiece of the trial. Theramenes however, either by his skill or by accident, not martyrdom of St. Maurice for the Escorial, which however Philip was only avoided the prosecution, but retained his place in the popular dissatisfied with. It is now in the chapel of the college; a picture by favour. In the following year (B.C. 405), shortly after the battle of Romulo Cincinnato was substituted for it over the altar of the chapel Ægos Potami, when an Athenian embassy had been rejected by the of St. Maurice in the Escorial. The objections to this picture were a Spartan ephori, Theramenes, who, though he belonged to the oligarcertain hardness of colour and extravagance of design which El Greco chical party, yet kept up the appearance of a friend of the people, is said to have introduced to prevent the picture being mistaken for a offered to go as ambassador to Lysander, who was blockading the work of Titian, which it seems had been the fate of some of his best city, while famine was raging within. Theramenes promised to pictures.
procure favourable terms, if the people would trust him. The As an architect he designed the Casa del Ayuntamiento, or mansion- majority readily acceded to his proposal, and he went to the camp house, of Toledo, and the churches of La Caridad and of the convent of Lysander. Here he stayed for upwards of three months, hoping of the bare-footed Franciscans at Illescas; and he executed also a great that in the meantime the city would be reduced to such a state of part of the paintings and sculptures of these churches. In 1590 he weakness as to accept any terms, or that in the interval the oligarchical designed the church of the Augustines at Madrid, called the Donna party would gain the ascendancy. There is moreover no doubt that Maria de Aragon, and painted the principal altarpiece of their college. he made Lysander acquainted with the plans of the oligarchs. When He designed also several monuments, which are among his best he returned to the city, he declared that he had been detained by works. He died at Toledo in 1625, according to Palomino, seventy- Lysander, who himself had no power to decide upon the terms of seven years of age; and was buried with great pomp in the church of peace with Athens, and that at last he had been directed by the St. Bartholomew.
Lacedæmonian general to apply to the government at Sparta. He El Greco's pictures were still very numerous at the end of the was accordingly sent thither with nine colleagues, and invested with last century ; Cean Bermudez enumerates a great many in Toledo, full power to negociate peace on any terms. Deputies of the Spartan Illescas, Escalona, Bayona, in Segovia, La Guarda, Mistoles, Casar- allies met the ambassadors, and several of them insisted upon the rubois, Siguenza, Medina Celi, Valencia, Leon, at the Escorial, and in total destruction of Athens; but the Spartans, with an air of generosity, Madrid. Many have probably since been removed. Mr. Ford, in his declared themselves willing to grant peace on condition that the long
Handbook of Spain,' notices only three pictures by this painter- walls and fortifications of Piræeus should be demolished, that all ships Christ bearing his Cross, and a Nativity, and an Adoration, in the of war with the exception of twelve should be delivered up to them, Salon de la Sacristia al Toledo. The pictures of El Greco are greatly and that Athens should join the Peloponnesian confederacy, and praised; his best works have been considered to be the Preparation for follow Sparta both by land and sea. Xenophon, 'Hellen.,' ii. 2.) the Crucifixion and the Parting of Christ's Raiment in the cathedral of When Theramenes and his colleagues returned to Athens with these Toledo; and the Entombment of Don Gonzalo Ruiz, Count Orgaz, tidings, the famine had reached its height, but there were still some in the church of Santo Tomé at Toledo. The burial of Conde de who refused to submit to the humiliating conditions. Theramenes Orgaz was painted in 1584 for the archbishop of Toledo, Cardinal Don and his party anxious to get rid of these few before the report was Gaspar de Quiroga, for the great sum of 2000 ducats according to laid before the assembly, gained over a man of the name of Agoratus Cumberland. The Count Orgaz was the founder of the Augustine to bring accusations against them and get them all arrested. The plan convent of San Estevan at Toledo, and this picture was painted in succeeded, and the assembly was held in the theatre of Piræeus, where honour of the foundation—the Saints Augustine and Stephen are Theramenes urged the necessity of concluding peace on the terms prorepresented depositing the count in his tomb, and the picture contains posed. Notwithstanding the opposition of some citizens to the treaty, the portraits of many distinguished persons of the time.
and the taunts of others, who saw through the plans of Theramenes, His son GEORGE MANUEL THEOTOCOPOLI, was also a sculptor and peace was ratified, and Lysander entered Piræeus. (LYSANDER.) architect of eminence. He was appointed sculptor and architect to the After the withdrawal of the Spartan general from Athens, Therachapter of the cathedral of Toledo in 1625 he died at Toledo in menes, Critias, and their associates, who had assumed the supreme 1631. He was the architect of the ochavo of the cathedral: it is an power, wishing to upset the democratical constitution, but to mainoctagon decorated with precious marbles and a painted dome, and is tain some appearance of decency, invited Lysander to attend the used as the treasury-house of the Virgin, where her splendid dresses assembly in which alterations in the Attic constitution were to be are kept, as well as many precious relics.
discussed. Theramenes undertook the management of the business, THERA'MENES was a native of Ceos, and the adopted son of and proposed that the supreme authority should for the present be Hagnon, or Agnon, an Athenian. He acted a very prominent part placed in thirty persons who should draw up a new code of laws. about the close and after the end of the Peloponnesian war. He The presence of Lysander and the neighbourhood of the Peloponnes first appears in the history of Greece as taking a part in public affairs sian troops overwhelmed all attempts of the friends of the people to in B.c. 411, wben, in conjunction with Antiphon, Phrynichus, and maintain their constitution, and the proposal of Theramenes was Pisander, he endeavoured to upset the democratical constitution of adopted. Theramenes himself was one of the Thirty, and he nomiAthens. In B.C. 410 he took part with Thrasybulus in the battle of nated ten of the others. The outrages and atrocities committed by Cyzicus, and, in B.c. 406, in the celebrated battle of Arginusae. On these Thirty spread general alarm in Attica, and the future was this occasion, on which the Athenians gained a glorious victory, many looked to with fearful apprehensions. Theramenes, perceiving the lives were lost in the wrecks of their ships, which it was thought state of feeling at Athens, remonstrated with Critias, the most cruel might have been saved if proper care had been taken. Theramenes among his colleagues. This was not from a feeling of humanity, but
THESIGER, SIR FREDERICK, M.P., D.C.L.
simply because he saw that the measures of the Thirty would ruin Theseus now ascended the throne of Athens. But his adventures them. Critias was unconcerned about all consequences, and Thera- were by no means concluded. He marched into the country of the menes gave way. Repeated warnings on his part created some fear Amazons, who dwelt on the Thermodon, according to some accounts lest be should betray them and join the popular party, for he was in the company of Hercules, and carried away their Queen Antiope. notorious for his political inconstancy, from which he is said to have The Amazons in revenge invaded Attica, and were with difficulty received the nickname of Cothurnus (the shoe which fits either foot). defeated by the Athenians. This battle was one of the most favourite At the same time the Thirty became sensible of their dangerous subjects of the ancient artists, and is commemorated in several works position, and in order to strengthen themselves they made out a list of of art that are still extant. Theseus also took part in the Argonautic 3000 Athenians on whom a kind of franchise was conferred, while all expedition and the Calydonian hunt. He assisted his friend Pirithous the remaiving Athenians were treated as outlaws. Theramenes again and the Lapitbæ in their contest with the Centaurs, and also accomwas dissatisfied with these proceedings, but the tyrants insisted upon panied the former in his descent to the lower world to carry off disarming the Athenians, with the exception of the three thousand Proserpine, the wife of Pluto. When Theseus was fifty years old, and the knights. The reckless cruelty and avarice of the Thirty grew according to tradition, he carried off Helen, the daughter of Leda, who worse every day, and it was determined that each of them should was then only nine years of age. But his territory was invaded in select out one rich alien who was to be put to death, and whose pro consequence by Castor and Pollux, the brothers of Leda; his own perty should be taken by his murderer. Tberamenes refused to have people rose against him; and at last, finding his affairs desperate, he any share in this crime. This refusal increased the fears of his col. withdrew to the island of Scyros, and there perished either by a fall leagues, and excited their hatred against him, and they resolved to get from the cliffs or through the treachery of Lycomedes, the king of rid of him before he could become a dangerous enemy. An accu- the island. For a long time his memory was forgotten by the Athesation was brought against him in the name of the Thirty by Critias nians, but he was subsequently honoured by them as the greatest of before the council. He was charged with being hostile to the exist their heroes. At the battle of Marathon they thought they saw him ing government, and with betraying its interests. Theramenes armed and bearing down upon the barbarians; and after the concludefended himself, and made such an impression upon the council, that sion of the Persian war, his bones were discovered at Scyros by Cimon, it appeared willing to acquit him. Critias perceiving this, called into who conveyed them to Athens, where they were received with great the council-chamber an armed band of his followers, whom he had pomp, and deposited in a temple built to his honour. A festival also kept in readiness outside, and conversed for a few moments with his was instituted, which was celebrated on the eighth day of every colleagues. Hereupon he declared that with the consent of his friends month, but more especially on the eighth of Pyanepsion. he erased Theramenes from the list of the Thirty and of the three The above is a brief account of the legends prevailing respecting thousand, and that he might now be condemned to death without Theseus. But he is moreover represented by ancient writers as the trial. Theramenes rushed to the Hestia (the altar of Vesta), and founder of the Attic commonwealth, and even of its democratical conjured the members of the council to protect him, and not to allow institutions. It would be waste of time to inquire whether there was Critias to dispose of the lives of citizens; but the herald of the an historical personage of this name who actually introduced the Thirty called in the Eleven (the executioners), who apprehended political changes ascribed to him : it will be convenient to adhere to Theramenes and led him away to punishment. The council was the ancient account in describing them as the work of Theseus. struck with amazement at this bold movement, and Theramenes was Before this time Attica contained many independent townships, hurried across the Agora by Statyrus and the Eleven to prison. When which were only nominally united. Theseus incorporated the people he bad drunk the poison which was administered to him, he dashed into one state, removed the principal courts for the administration of the cup with the last few drops to the ground, and said, “This is to justice to Athens, and greatly enlarged the city, which had hitherto the health of my dear Critias.' This happened in B.C. 404.
covered little more than the rock which afterwards formed the citadel. The manner in which Theramenes died has been admired by ancient To cement their union he instituted several festivals, and especially and modern writers. But his fortitude was not based on the con- changed the Athenea into the Panathenea, or the festivals of all the sciousness of a virtuous life, and he no more deserves admiration than Atticans. He encouraged the nobles to reside at Athens, and sur. a criminal to whom death is a matter of indifference. Thucydides rendered a part of his kingly prerogatives to them, for which reason (vii
. 68) says of him that he was not wanting in eloquence and ability, he is perhaps represented as the founder of the Athenian democracy, Whether he wrote any orations is uncertain. (Cicero, 'De Orat.,' ii. although the government which he established was, and continued to 22; Brut.' 7.). He is said to have instructed Isocrates (Dionysius be long after him, strictly aristocratical. For he divided the people Hal., Isocrat.,' i.), and to have written on rhetoric. It may be true into the tribes or classes of Eupatridæ, Geomori, and Demiurgi, of therefore, as Suidas says, that he wrote declamations; but it is much whom the first were nobles, the second agriculturists, the third more probable that Suidas confounds him with a late sophist, Thera- artisans. All the offices of state and those connected with religion menes of Ceos. (Eudocia, 231; Fabricius, * Biblioth. Græc.,' ii. 748; were exclusively in the hands of the first class. Each tribe was Ruhnken, Hist. Crit. Orat. Græc.,' p. 40, &c.)
divided, either in his time or shortly afterwards, into three phratriæ, (Xenophon, Hellen.,.ii. 3; Plutarch, Nicias, 2; Scholiast on Aristoph., and each phratria into thirty gentes (yérn). The members of the Nub., 360; Ranae, 47, 546;
Diodorus Sic., xiii
. 38, &c.; Tbirlwall; separate phratriæ and gentes had religious rites and festivals peculiar Grote; E. Ph. Hinrichs, De Theramenis, Critiae, et Thrasybuli Rebus et to themselves, which were preserved long after these communities had Ingenio, 4to, Hamburg, 1820.
lost their political importance by the democratical changes of CleisTHESEUS (ongeus), the great national hero of Athens, is said to thenes. (CLEISTHENES.] have been born at Trozen, where his father Ægeus, king of Athens, (Plutarch, Life of Theseus ; Meursius, Theseus, sive de ejus Vita slept one night with Æthra, the daughter of Pittheus, king of the Rebusque Gestis Liber
. Postumus, Ultraject., 1684, where all the authori. place. Ægeus, on his departure, hid his sword and shoes under a ties are quoted : Thirlwall, Grote, &c.) large stone, and charged Æthra if she brought forth a son, to send * THESIGER, SIR FREDERICK, M.P., D,C.L., is the youngest him to Athens with these tokens, as soon as he was able to roll away and only surviving son of Charles Thesiger, Esq., Collector of Customs the stone. She brought forth a son, to whom she gave the name of in the island of St. Vincent, and nephew of Sir Frederick Thesiger who Theseus, and when he was grown up, informed him of his origin and was aide-de-camp to Lord Nelson at the battle of Copenbagen. He told him to take up the tokens and sail to Athens, for the roads were was born in London in July 1794, and entered the navy in 1803 as infested by robbers and monsters. But Theseus, who was desirous of midshipman of the Cambrian frigate. His elder brother however emulating the glory of Hercules, refused to go by sea, and after dying while he was still a boy, and his father's West India property destroying various monsters who had been the terror of the country, having been destroyed by the eruption of a volcano, he abandoned arrived in safety at Athene. Here he was joyfully recognised by the navy for the legal profession, and after keeping the necessary Ægeus, but with difficulty escaped destruction from Medea and the terms was called to the bar at Gray's Inn in 1818. For many years he Pallantids, the sons and grandsons of Pallas, the brother of Ægeus. went the Home Circuit, of which he became the undisputed leader. These dangers however he finally surmounted, and slew the Pallantids His principal practice was in Westminster Hall and the Surrey in battle.
Sessions, where he was regularly retained by the parish of Christ Church. His next exploit was the destruction of the great Marathonian bull, He greatly distinguished himself before the committee on the Dublin which ravaged the neighbouring country; and shortly after he resolved Election in 1835, which sat daily for several months. On this occato deliver the Athenians from the tribute that they were obliged to sion he was counsel for Mr. O'Connell, and though unsuccessful in the pay to Minos, king of Crete. Every pinth year the Athenians had to issue, he conducted a hopeless case with a degree of perseverance and send seven young men and as many virgins to Crete to be devoured quiet confidence, and a readiness of resource which were the object of by the Minotaur in the Labyrinth. Theseus volunteered to go as one general admiration. In 1834 he became a King's counsel--and in of the victims, and through the assistance of Ariadne, the daughter of March 1840 entered parliament as M.P. for Woodstock, which he Minos who became enamoured of him, he slew the Minotaur and represented until 1844. In this year, he was elected for Abingdon, on escaped from the Labyrinth. He then sailed away with Ariadne, being appointed Solicitor-General under the administration of Sir whom he deserted in the island of Dia or Naxos, an event which Robert Peel, and in the following year succeeded the late Sir W. W. frequently forms the subject of ancient works of art. The sails of Follett as Attorney-General, but resigned on the retirement of his the sbip. in wbich Theseus left Athens were black, but he promised party in 1846. He continued to represent Abingdon down to the his father, if he returned in safety, to hoist white sails. This however dissolution in 1862, when he was returned for Stamford, a borough in he neglected to do, and Ægeus seeing the ship draw near with black which the influence of the Marquis of Exeter greatly preponderates. sails, supposed that his son had perished, and threw himself from He was re-appointed Attorney-General in 1852 under the Earl of & rock.
Derby, of whose political opinions he is a leading supporter. The
most effective of his parliamentary speeches was that which he de- the most insulting epithets; calling himself by the title ia povinns livered on the Chinese war soon after entering St. Stephen's. His (conqueror of physicians), because he thought that he himself sur. success as an advocate is thought to have depended less on his deep passed all his predecessors as much as medicine is superior to all acquaintance with the principles of jurisprudence than on his singu- other sciences; boasting that he could teach the art of healing in six larly persuasive eloquence, joined with great earnestness on behalf of months; and telling the emperor Nero, in the dedication of one of his client. (See SUPPLEMENT, CHELMSFORD, FREDERICK THESIGER, LORD.] his works, that none of those who had been before him had contri
THESPİS, a native of Icaria in Attica, who lived in the time of buted anything to the advancement of medical science. By bis Solon and Pisistratus, about 535 B.C. The ancient traditions unani- boasting he attracted a great number of pupils, whom he took with mously represent him as the inventor of tragedy. The manner in him for six months to visit his patients; but most of them are said to which this invention is said to have originated is stated differently. have been common artisans and persons of very low extraction. According to one account, which is also adopted by Horace, it arose Galen accuses him of knowing nothing of the action of drugs, though from Thespis travelling during the festival of Dionysus through he had written on the subject. He did not care for inquiring into the Attica upon a waggon, on which he performed comic plays. This causes of diseases, and was satisfied with certain problematical tradition however is based upon a confusion of tragedy with comedy, analogies; nor did he admit the value of prognostic signs. A further the invention of which is not ascribed to Thespis by any ancient account of his opinions may be found in Le Clerc, Hist. de la Méd. ; authority. The invention of Thespis consisted in nothing else than in Haller, ‘Biblioth. Medic. Pract. ;' Sprengel, Hist. de la Méd.'. introducing a person who at the Dionysiac festivals in the city of THÉʻVENOT, MELCHISEDEC, is said by all his biographers to Athens entered into conversation with the chorus, or related a story to have died at the age of seventy-one; and as his death happened in it. The designation of this actor was Hypocrites (OTOKPITńs), that is, 1692, this places his birth in the year 1621. An entry in the printed the answerer, because what he said or acted answered or corresponded catalogue of Thévenot's library informs us that he was uncle of the with the songs of the chorus. _By means of masks, the invention of traveller Jean Thévenot, but beyond this we know nothing of his which was likewise ascribed to Thespis, he was enabled to act different family or his circumstances. It is probable however, from the characters one after another. Some writers who considered the respectable missions to which he was appointed at an early age, from chorus itself as a second actor, speak of two actors in the time of the large library ho collected, and from his being able to devote himThespis, and consequently state that Æschylus introduced a third self to literary pursuits while apparently in the receipt of no pension, actor. (Themistius, Orat., xxvi., p. 382, edit. Dindorf.) Whether that his family was wealthy and well-connected. Thespis wrote his plays is not quite certain, although Donatus ('De It is stated that in his youth he visited several countries of Europe, Comoed. et Tragoed.,' in Gronovius' "Thesaurus,' viii.; p. 1387) ex. but the earliest incidents of bis life concerning which we have positive pressly says so, but the tragedies bearing the name of Thespis in the and authentic accounts are those mentioned in the brief autobiotime of the Alexandrines cannot be considered as genuine. It is an graphical sketch prefixed to the printed catalogue of his library. He historical fact that Heraclides Ponticus forged tragedies under the tells us that on his return from travelling in 1647, he was nominated pame of Thespis; and the few fragments of Thespis quoted by ancient resident at Genoa, but that the troubles of the Fronde interfering to writers are unquestionably passages of such supposititious works. prevent bis taking possession of the post, he continued to follow the The tragedies of Thespis must have fallen into oblivion and have court till 1652. He was then sent to Rome, where he continued perished at the time when the Attic drama reached its perfection : nearly three years; and being there at the commencement of the consome of his choral songs however appear to have been known as late clave which elected Alexander VII., the royal instructions respecting as the time of Aristophanes, as we may infer from the concluding the part France intended to take on that occasion were addressed to scene of the Wasps.' We know the titles of four of his tragedies : him till the time of M. de Lionne's arrival. Thévenot alludes in Pentheus,'The Funeral Games of Pelias or Phorbas,' The Priests,' mysterious phrase to a delicate and dangerous commission with which and The Youths ;' but of their construction nothing is known, he was entrusted after the termination of the conclave, which he except that each seems to have commenced with a prologue. (Themist., says he discharged to the perfect satisfaction of Mazarin and the "Orat.,' p. 382.)
other ministers. He attended Mazarin during the campaign in Respecting the history of Thespis very little is known. Solon was Flanders, 1655. present at the performance of one of Thespis's plays, and higbly dis On his return to Paris, Thévepot devoted himself entirely to study. approved of dramatic performances, as tending to lead men to false. Frenicle, a mathematician, and Stenon, a naturalist, resided with him; hood and hypocrisy. Towards the end of the career of Thespis tragic and in the house adjoining his own he entertained a person to concontests were introduced at Athens, and Thespis probably contended duct chemical experiments. The meetings of scientific men which for the prize with Choerilus and Phrydichus, who is called his disciple. had been held in the houses of Père Mersenne and Montmort were Thespis is also said to have distinguished himself in orchestic, or the transferred to Thévenot's mansion. The expenses thus incurred art of dancing (Athenæus, i., p. 22), which however can only refer to proved too heavy for his means, and he proposed to Colbert the his skill in instructing the chorus.
establishment of a public and permanent association of scientific men (Bode, Geschichte der Dramat. Dichtkunst der Hellenen, i., pp. 40-57; under the patronage of the king. The suggestion accorded with the Müller, Hist. of the Lit. of Greece, i., p. 292, &c.)
minister's inclinations, and a grand academy was projected, intended THE'SSALUS, an ancient Greek physician, son of the celebrated to embrace every branch of knowledge. The king's library was to be Hippocrates, appears to have lived at the court of Archelaus, king of the place of meeting : the historians were to assemble there on the Macedonia, who reigned 413-399, B.C.
one of the founders Mondays and Thursdays of every week; the amateurs of the bellesof the sect of the Dogmatici, who also took the name of the 'Hippo- lettres on the Tuesdays and Fridays; the mathematicians and cratic' school, because they professed to follow the doctrines of that natural philosophers on the Wednesdays and Saturdays; and general great man. However, both he and his brother Dracon, and his brother assemblies of all the three classes were to be held on the first in-law Polybus, are accused by Galen in several passages of not only Thursday of every month. The historical class was allowed to drop, mixing up with the opinions of Hippocrates the principles of later it being feared that its inquiries might occasion dangerous discussions; philosophers, but also of altering and interpolating his writings. the Académie Française, instituted by Richelieu, remonstrated against Several of the works that go under the name of Hippocrates are by the foundation of another literary academy; and the only part of many critics supposed to have been written by Thessalus, viz. 'De Colbert's plan that was realised was the Académie des Sciences,' Morbis,' the second, fifth, sixth, and seventh books De Morbis Vul- which commenced operations in the month of June 1666. Thévenot garibus,' and the second book of the 'Prædictiones,' or ' Prorrhetica;' did not become a member of the Academy till 1685. but this conjecture is uncertain.
He had in the mean time however been diligently prosecuting bis (Le Clerc, Hist. de la Méd.; Fabricius, Biblioth. Grceca ; Haller, favourite studies. " Each of our company,' he says, “ had his task Biblioth Medic. Pract.; Sprengel, Hist. de la Méd. ; Ackermann, Hist
. and occupation : mine was to collect and publish in French whatever Literar. Hippocr.; Choulant, Handbuch der Bücherkunde für die useful arts were practised among other nations. About this time I Æltere Medecin.)
invented an air-level, of which I caused the description to be printed, THESSALUS, one of the founders of the ancient medical sect of and it is now acknowledged to be the most accurate that has yet been the Methodici, was born at Tralles in Lydia, and lived in the reign of tried. To render geography more perfect, I collected and published the emperor Nero, in the first century after Christ. He was the son three large volumes of a collection of voyages, upon which I had been of a weaver, and followed the same trade bimself during his youth, by working for some time. I had the honour to present them to the which means he lost the opportunity of receiving a good education, king, who examined them for nearly half an hour, and, after asking and was never afterwards able to overcome this disadvantage. He several questions, commanded me to continue the work. M. Colbert appears however to have soon given up this employment, and applied informed me that he had his majesty's orders to furnish me with everyhimself to the study of medicine, by which he acquired a great repu- thing necessary to carry out the design." This distribution of tasks tation, and amassed a large fortune. His whole character however, took place about 1659, before the Academy had received its definitive both intellectual and moral, is everywhere represented by Galen in a constitution. The first volume of Thévenot's Voyages was published very unfavourable light; but it must be confessed that Galen himself at Paris, in 1662. The author's preface announces a translation of the appears to very little advantage in these passages, and goes beyond all Voyages and Travels published by Hakluyt and Purchas, with the bounds in his abuse of him.
addition of some translations from the Oriental languages. The Thessalus adopted the principles of the Methodici, but modified and second volume appeared in 1664 : the preface intimates that for developed them so much that he attributed to himself the invention the use of the numerous trading companies that have of late been of them. In fact on all occasions he appears to have tried to exalt formed in the kingdom, he has added an account of the present himself at the expense of his predecessors; lavishing upon the ancients state of the Indies, noting the principal commercial establishments
1022 and places of resort of the Dutch and Portuguese ; a report from one which have yet to be turned fully to account. His collection of of the factors of the Dutch East India Company to the directors; voyages too has been the means of preserving some curious and and an extract of a letter from the governor-general of the East India valuable narratives. If he did not make a good practical librarian, he Company of France. The third volume was published in 1666, and at least pointed out the way in which the library might be rendered the fourth in 1672. In the preface to the fourth volume Thévenot more complete; and besides preserving materials for geographers to informs the reader that the constant discovery of travels which had work upon, he directed attention to the means of rendering the science escaped his research has obliged him to abandon the attempt to more perfect. Some of his suggestions mentioned above were not classify the voyages inserted in his collection, so that all relating to without their influence in promoting the application of mathematics one quarter of the world should appear together. These four volumes and astronomy to geographical research ; and he was the first, by were in folio ; and during the remainder of his life Thévenot published directing attention to the line of communication between the Caspian in the same form a number of separate accounts of voyages, which, and China, and to the literature of China, to commence that series of together with some left half printed at bis death, were bulky enough investigations which has been so brilliantly carried on by the Jesuits to form a fifth volume. The edition of his collection printed after of the 17th, and by the Remusats and Klaproths of the past and his death at Paris, in 1696, professes to contain all these miscellanea, present century. but a complete copy is rarely to be met with. In 1683 Thévenot Sources from which this sketch has been compiled : published a small book in 12mo, entitled .Recueil de Voyages de 1. “Mémoire sur la Collection des grands et petits Voyages, et sur M. Thévenot.' It contains 'A Discourse on the Art of Navigation, la Collection des Voyages de Melchisedec Thévenot, par A. G. Camus, with some Problems which may supply in part the deficiencies of this Paris, 4to, 1802. Owing to the incomplete condition of most copies useful art.' Among these problems he has inserted an account of the of Thévenot's collection, this work is necessary to enable the reader level above alluded to. The same volume contains an account of the to know what he has published. 2. ‘Bibliotheca Thevenotiana sive museum of Swammerdam, with some memoirs by that naturalist, Catalogus Impressorum et Manuscriptorum Librorum Bibliothecæ viri said on the special title-page to be Extracted, together with the travels clarissimi D. Melchisedecis Thévenot, Lutetiæ Parisiorum, 12mo, 1694. which precede it, from the Transactions of the Society which met at This volume contains the autobiographical sketch above referred to: the house of M. Thévenot.' It will be advisable to conclude the the catalogue of Thévenot's library throws light upon his studies. narrative of Thévenot's life before attempting to pronounce judgment 3. “Recueil de Voyages de M. Thévenot,' Paris 1685. This volume on the merits of his publications.
contains the discourse on navigation, in which there are some incidental Colbert died in 1683, and Louvois succeeding to the office of super- notices of Thévenot's pursuits. 4. ‘Relations de divers Voyages intendent of buildings, succeeded likewise to the management of the curieux qui n'ont point été publiées ou qui ont été traduites de royal library, which was regarded as belonging to that minister's Hakluyt, &c., Paris, 1663–1672. The Avis' prefixed to the different department. Louvois appointed his son, afterwards known as the volumes of this edition contain matter for the biography of Thévenot. Abbé Louvois, who was then only nine years of age, librarian. It was 5. 'Histoire de l'Académie des Sciences.' Tome i. contains a corronecessary to find a deputy for so juvenile an officer: the Abbé Varés boration of Thévenot's assertions regarding his share in the institution was first appointed, but he dying in September, 1684, the office was of the Académie des Sciences. 6. Catalogue des Livres Imprimez de conferred upon Thévenot, on the understanding that such of his books la Bibliothèque du Roi : Théologie, première partie,' à Paris, 1739 : as were not already in the royal library were to be purchased for it. supplies the
dates of Thévenot's appointment as librarian, and of his The zeal which Colbert had manifested at the outset of his ministerial demission of the office. 7. Le Loug et Fontette; ‘Bibliothèque Hiscareer for the augmentation of the royal collection had abated for torique de la France,' iv. 66. some years before his death : from 1673 till his death no important THEYVENOT, JEAN, nephew of the preceding, was born at Paris acquisitions had been made. Thévenot found the library extremely the 7th of June, 1633. In the dedication of the first volume of his deficient in English, German, and Dutch works, and he obtained per travels to bis mother, he attributes to her exclusively the great care mission to make arrangements for procuring from those countries their bestowed upon his education ; and from this circumstance it may be histories, laws, and accounts of their customs; in short, everything inferred that his father died while he was a child. Thévenot distincalculated to convey information regarding their governments and guished himself as a student at the college of Navarre. The author transactions. The inquiry after Greek and Oriental MSS. in the of the sketch of his life, prefixed to the second volume of his travels, Levant, begun by Colbert, was .continued by Louvois; and Thévenot, states that his attainments in the languages, physics, geometry, astroby that minister's directions, prepared and transmitted instructions to nomy, and all the mathematical sciences, were respectable, and that Messrs. Girardin and Galland and the Père Besnier for the prosecution he had studied with particular attention the philosophy of Descartes. of the search. It was also at his suggestion that a native of China, But it is doubtful whether all these are to be understood as baring who had brought some Chinese books to Rome, was induced to visit been his college studies. Paris, and his books acquired for the king's library. On the death of He left the college of Navarre before he had completed his eighLouvois a new arrangement was made for the management of the teenth year. Possessing an independent fortune, his attention was for king's library, and about the same time Thévenot resigned or was dis- some time afterwards engrossed by the manly exercises wbich were missed from his appointment. There is reason to doubt whether he then deemed indispensable accomplishments in a gentleman; but had given satisfaction as librarian: the historical memoir in the first having contracted a taste for reading books of travels, he caught the volume of the printed catalogue of the king's library, which does contagious spirit of adventure, and commenced travelling himself in ample justice to other officials, merely notices his appointment and 1652. He visited in succession England, Holland, Germany, and resignation; and the notice of his life found in his own writing among Italy; and, making a prolonged stay at Rome (1654-55), witnessed the his papers after his death, has very much the appearance of a defensive solemnities of the installation of Alexander VII. He had taken the statement of his own merits.
pains to prepare an account of his observations during this tour, but Thévenot did not long survive the termination of his connection judiciously resisted all persuasions to publish it, partly on account with the king's library : he died on the 29th of October 1692. of his youth and partly on account of the want of novelty in the
Thévenot, in addition to most European languages, was able to read subject. Hebrew, Syriac, Arabic, Turkish, and Persian. He commenced a At Rome he became acquainted with the celebrated Orientalist series of observations on the variation of the magnetic needle in 1663, d'Herbelot, who, being a good many years his senior, and already and prosecuted them with great perseverance till 1681. He suggested distinguished for his learning, acquired considerable influence over in 1669 the measurement of several degrees of the meridian along the him. D'Herbelot freely communicated to his young friend the Gulf of Bothnia : he invented his air-level about 1660, and recom information he had collected regarding the East and its inhabitants, mended its adoption to facilitate observations of the latitude at sea, and the result of their conversations was that Thévenot determined to and he endeavoured to discover a natural unit of linear measurement devote himself to exploring Asia. D'Herbelot proposed at one time for all nations. He possessed however rather the taste than the talent to accompany him, but being prevented by some family matters, for strict scientific observation and reasoning, and this peculiarity was Thévenot set out alone. the cause in the first place of his anxiety to have men of science for Thévenot began his first journey from Malta on the 1st of November, habitual visitors, and of his eagerness to collect books of travels, 1655: he arrived at Leghorn, on his return, on the 8th of April, 1659. printed or in manuscript, such works being calculated to gratify á Having reached Constantinople in the beginning of December, 1655, mind which, without a capacity for severe labour, was fond of acquiring he remained there till the end of August, 1666. Travelling through knowledge. In books of travels he found information regarding statis- Brusa and Smyrna, and visiting Chio, Samos, and Rhodes, he arrived tics, history, commerce, natural history, and science; and he could at Alexandria on the 29th of December. He proceeded without loss relish all these branches of knowledge and appreciate their importance, of time to Cairo, which he made his head-quarters for two years, though he could not task himself to master any one of them. He making in the course of that time two excursions, the first to Suez undertook to publish a systematic collection of voyages and travels, as and Mount Sinai, the other to Jerusalem and some of the adjoining the task best suited to his turn of mind; but even this required more districts of Syria. During his stay at Constantinople and Cairo he continuous effort than he was capable of : in the fourth volume the made hin, self master of the Turkish and Arabic languages. On his systematic arrangement was abandoned, and only some fragments of way from Egypt to Italy he touched at Tunis. the fifth part were published at long intervals. Thévenot was one of From Leghorn Thévenot visited several parts of Italy which he had those who promote science by imparting a contagious spirit of activity not previously seen, and in particular resided for a short time at the to others more than by anything they accomplish themselves. His court of Savoy, before he returned to France. The first volume of taste for collecting books has been the means of supplying the king's his travels, he says, was prepared for the press to gratify his friends, library at Paris with some of its not least valuable Mss., some of and especially his mother; and these were not with him mere words
of course, for he was more intent upon travelling and observing than of F. Jukes in the aquatinting department; and they were published publishing. Before his book har passed through the press, and in London by Thew himself, in May 1785. Copies of them are prewithout giving his friends any warning of his intention, he left Paris served in the collection of George III., now in the British Museum. to renew his researches in the East, and sailed from Marseille on the In 1788 Thew was introduced to Alderman Bordell by the Marquis of 6th of November, 1663.
Caermarthen (afterwards duke of Leeds), whose patronage he had This time bis object was to visit Persia and the Indies. He arrived obtained by the construction of a camera obscura on a new principle; at Alexandria on the 4th of February 1664: from Alexandria he and Boydell immediately commissioned him to engrave Northcote's sailed in a few days to Sidon; and from Sidon he visited Damascus. picture of the interview between the young princes, from ‘Richard After a stay of twenty-four days in that city he went to Aleppo, III., act iii. sc. 1. This plate was published in 1791, at which time where he remained two months; and then, travelling by Bir and Orfa Thew held the appointment above alluded to, of engraver to the to Mosul, descended the Tigris to Baghdad. From Baghdad he travelled Prince of Wales. He subsequently engraved eighteen other plates to Ispahan, by the way of Hamadan. Having remained five months for the Shakspere Gallery, and part of a nineteenth. Several of these at Ispahan, he left it, in company with Tavernier, for Schiraz and are among the best in the collection, and display a high degree of Gombroon, intending to sail for India from that port, but the jealousy mechanical skill, as well as an unusual amount of spirit and expression. of the Dutch agents obliged him to return to Schiraz. After examining That of Cardinal Wolsey entering Leicester Abbey (Henry VIII.,' the ruins of Tshelminar (Persepolis) he proceeded to Basrah, and act iv., sc. 2), from a picture by Westall, is deservedly, celebrated as a embarked at that port for Surat, where he arrived on the 12th office specimen of the style known among artists as stipple engraving; January 1666. Surat continued his head-quarters till February 1667, and in consequence of its superior beauty, proof-impressions of it during which time he made excursions to Guzerat, the court of the were, according to the 'Gentleman's Magazine,' charged double the Mogul, and to the Deccan. On his return to Persia he spent five price of any other in the whole work. Thew died in July 1802, at months at Ispahan. He had several attacks of illness in India, and Stevenage (or Roxley, according to the 'Gentleman's Magazine') in having been wounded by the accidental discharge of one of his own Hertfordshire. (Gent. Mag., Oct. 1802, p. 971; Chalmers, Biog. Dict.) pistols at Gombroon, bis cure was tedious. His constitution was pro THIBAUT, fourth count of Champagne, and first king of Navarre bably undermined; for, attacked by fever on his way from Ispahan to of that name, occupies a respectable rank among the Troubadours. It Tabriz, he died at Miana, on the 28th of November 1667. * During has been pretty satisfactorily shown by recent writers on the subject this journey he had acquired a knowledge of the Persian language. that the scandalous stories told of this king by Matthew of Paris and
The parrative of Thévenot's first journey to the East was prepared others rest upon no satisfactory evidence. They have however been for the press by himself, but was not published till after his departure more successful in disproving the tales of their predecessors than in from Persia. The account of his travels in Persia, and that of his substituting anything in their place. They have rendered Thibaut's travels in India, were published (the former in 1674, the latter in biography in a great measure negative. 1684) by an editor who is called, in the 'Privilege du Roi,' the Sieur He was born about the beginning of the year 1201, and has been Luisandre, and who states that he was Thévenot's executor, and called Theobaldus Posthumus, on account of his father having died employs expressions which would lead us to believe that he had before his birth. His mother, Blanche, daughter of Sancho the Wise, married the traveller's mother. The editing of these two volumes king of Navarre, took charge of and governed his extensive territories has been respectably performed.
as regent for twenty years. A taste for literature was hereditary in Thévenot possessed a natural talent for observation, and the power the family of Thibaut. His grandmother, Marie of France, held, about of expressing himself accurately and unaffectedly. Nothing of import- the middle of the 12th century, one of the most celebrated Courts of ance appears to have escaped his notice: his manner of telling his Love,' and some of her judgments have been preserved by André le story impresses the reader with a confidence in his good faith, and his Chapelain. His mother Blanche induced by her commands Aubein statements have been corroborated on many material points. His de Sezane to compose several songs, after he had solemnly renounced mastery of the Turkish, Arabic, and Persian languages gave him an the practice of poetry. With such examples before bim it was natural advantage that scarcely any other Oriental traveller of his day pos- enough that the young Count of Champagne should contract a taste sessed. His practice of residing for some time in the principal towns for rhyming. of the countries he visited familiarised bim with the customs of the An attempt was made in the year 1214 to wrest the territories of natives. His descriptions of external objects are distinct, and his Champagne from the widow and her son. The father of Thibaut routes accurate. He had collected a Hortus Siccus in India, and had was a younger son : his elder brother Henry followed Philippe Auguste laid beside each specimen an account of the habitat and characteristics to the Holy Land, and, marrying there a sister of Baldwin IV., king of the plant, along with its name in the Portuguese, Persian, Malabar, of Cyprus and Jerusalem, had by her two daughters, Alice, queen of and (what bis biographer terms) the Indian and Banian languages. Cyprus, and Philippa, who married Airard de Brienne. The father This collection came into the possession of Melchisedec Thévenot, and of Thibaut IV., after his brother's departure for Palestine, took posis mentioned in the printed catalogue of his library. Jean Thévenot session of Champagne and Brie, which were held without challenge had also made a collection of Persian and Arabic manuscripts, of by him, and by his widow in name of her son, till 1214. Airard which Tavernier says the cadi of Miapa kept the best to himself. The de Brienne then claimed them in right of his wife. Philippe matured judgment, and talent for observation and description, displayed Auguste decided in favour of Tbibaut, and the sentence was confirmed in Thévenot's works, are astonishing in one who had been a wanderer by the peers of France, in July 1216, on the ground that Henry, from his twentieth year, and who died in his thirty-fourth. His when departing for the East, had ceded all his lands in France to his travels, originally published in three volumes, in quarto, which brother, in the event of his not returning. In November 1221, the appeared respectively in 1665, 1674, and 1684, were reprinted in seigneur of Brienne was persuaded to abandon his claims upon receiving Amsterdam, in five duodecimo volumes, in 1689, and at the same a compensation. place, in the same form, in 1705, 1725, and 1727. A Dutch translation In the same year Thibaut took upon himself the management of his of them was published in 1681, an English translation in 1687, and a domaids, which rendered him, by their extent, and the title of German translation in 1693.
count palatine, which they conferred upon their holder, the most This sketch has been compiled from the account of Thévenot's life powerful vassal of the crown. During the brief and troubled reign prefixed to the second volume of his travels, from the travels them. of Louis VIII. (July 1223, to November 1226), Thibaut distinguished selves, and from some incidental notices in Tavernier.
himself by nothing but the pertinacity with which he insisted upon THEW, ROBERT, was the son of an innkeeper at Patrington, in his feudal rights. At the siege of Rochelle he consented to remain the East Riding of Yorkshire, where he was born, in 1758. His edu till the town was taken, but exacted in return a declaration from the cation was neglected, and at a suitable age he was bound apprentice king that by so doing he did not render himself liable on any future to a cooper. After the expiration of bis appenticeship Thew continued occasion for more than the 40 days' service in arms due by the for a time to work at the business to which he was brought up; and vassals of the crown. In the crusade against the Albigenses induced Chalmers states that, during the American war of independence, he probably by regard for the Count of Toulouse, who was his kinsman) served as a private in the Northumberland militia. According to the he resisted every entreaty of the king to remain with the army after
Gentleman's Magazine,' his attention was first directed to engraving the 40 days bad expired; and his departure from it was one of the about the age of twenty-six; when, it is stated, he happened to see an foundations for the stories afterwards circulated to his disadvantage. engraver at work, and although he had never practised drawing, he On the death of Louis VIII. a league was formed by a number of procured a copper-plate, and engraved an old woman's head, from a the most powerful French nobles to prevent the queen from acting picture by Gerard Douw, with such extraordinary skill that he was, as regent. Thibaut was at the outset a party to this confederacy. on the recommendation of Charles Fox, the Duchess of Devonshire, There are extant letters of Pierre, duke of Bretagne, and Hugues de and Lady Duncannon, appointed historical engraver to the Prince of Lusignan (dated March 1226, which, as the year is now made to comWales. Whatever foundation there may be for this story, it must be mence, would be called 1227) authorising him to conclude in their received with some allowance, because a considerable degree of mecha- name a truce with the king.' The regent however found means to nical dexterity is indispensable for the production of a good copper. detach the Count of Champagne from his allies; for an attempt plate engraving. A more probable account is that about 1783 he which they made soon after to obtain possession of her person and settled at Hull, and became an engraver of shop-bills, cards, &c. the king's was frustrated by the opportune arrival of Thibaut at the Chalmers states that he engraved and published a plan of Hull, which head of a strong body of horse. The Duke of Bretagne and his coadis dated May 6, 1784; and that shortly afterwards he solicited sub- jutors were much incensed at the desertion of the Count of Chamscriptions for two views of the dock at that place. The latter are pagne, and appear to have soon after formed the project of harassing large aquatint prints, drawn and engraved by Thew, with the assistance hinu by supporting the claims of the Queen of Cyprus upon Cbam.