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1028 pagne and Brie. He was lowever, on account of his wealth, too wholesome fruit, and that Adam sinned by eating unripe fruit. desirable an ally to be lost without an endeavour to regain him. Thibaut's versification is correct and sweet. There is a spirit of Overtures of reconciliation were made, in consequence of which Count generosity about his poems that is creditable to himself: the neatness Thibaut engaged in 1231, to take to wife the daughter of Pierre of and finish of his verses are more attributable to the degree of perBretagne. Thibaut had been twice married before ; in his eighteenth fection to which the art had been previously carried by others than to year to Gertrude, daughter of the Count of Metz, from whom he the author's own talents. Altogether his literary productions leave a was divorced, and afterwards to Agnes de Beaujeau, by whom he more favourable impression of his character than the part he played had a daughter. The regent, fearing the consequences of this recon as a warrior and politician. ciliation, interfered to break it off. The marriage-day had been fixed, (Les Poësies du Roy de Navarre, par Levesque de la Ravalière, and the bridegroom was already on his way to the place where it was 12mo, Paris, 1742; Histoire de S. Loys, IX. du nom, Roy de France, to be celebrated, when letters from the king, forbidding him to con. par Messire Jean, Sire de Joinville; par M. Claude Menard, 4to, a clude the engagement, were delivered to him. He obeyed the royal Paris

, 1617; De Bello Sacro Continuata Historiæ Libri VI., Basilio mandate.

Johanne Herede authore, Basiliæ, fol. 1560; Bayle ; Moreri; and This insult determined the confederates to carry into execution Biographie Universelle, in voce “Thibaut.') their original project. They sent for the queen of Cyprus, and THIBAUT, ANTON JUSTUS FRIEDRICH, a celebrated German invaded Champagne, avowedly for the purpose of putting her in pos- jurist, was born on the 4th of January 1772, at Hameln in Hanover session of it. The king marched to the assistance of Thibaut, and In 1792 he went to Göttingen to study the law; he continued his under his auspices a compromise was arranged. Thibaut ceded to the studies at Königsberg; and he finished them at Kiel, where he became queen of Cyprus lands to the value of 2000 livres yearly, and paid her acquainted with Niebuhr. In this university he took the degree of in addition 20,000,000 of livres in money. This sum was advanced by D.C.L, and in 1796 was admitted as a junior teacher of the law. He the king, who received in return the estates of Sancerre and others soon rose to eminence, and at the age of twenty-seven was appointed which Thibaut's father had held before he acquired Champagne. ordinary professor of civil law. In 1802 he went in the same capacity

Here seems the proper place to notice the stories told by Matthew to Jena, where he published his ‘System des Pandekten-Rechts,' the of Paris regarding the loves of Thibaut and Queen Blanche, and the first systematical attempt of the kind that was written in the German poisoning of Louis VIII., laid to the charge of the former. Matthew language, the former works on that subject having been written in only mentions the accusation as a rumour he had beard. No other Latin. The merits of this excellent work were generally acknowhistorian of equal antiquity mentions them. Had Thibaut been sus- ledged, and Thibaut was chosen by the Emperor Alexander one of pected of being the murderer of the king, the charge would probably the foreign members of the commission of legislation for Russia, and have been urged against him by one or other of the rival factions, in 1805 he was invited to the university of Heidelberg, where he with whom he played fast and loose immediately after. There is not remained till his death. Though scarcely past thirty, he was cona passage in his poems that can be interpreted into a declaration of sidered to be the first civilian in Germany after Hugo, Savigny attachment to Blanche, who was moreover thirteen years his senior. having not yet attained bis great reputation. Twice Thibaut was But it is easy to see how the rumour mentioned by Matthew of Paris chosen prorector of the university of Heidelberg, and nine times he arose. A rhymed chronicle, apparently of the age of Thibaut, repre. filled the office of dean of the faculty. He was also chosen deputy of sents him as going about (1230) in disguise to learn how men spoke of the university in the first chamber of the States of Baden, but as his him, and discovering he had no friends. About this time there were new duties interfered with those of a teacher, he resigned the office. violent disputes between the University of Paris and the papal legate, In 1826 he was made a privy councillor. His fame and popularity and, the queen supporting the legate, the wild students made and among the students led to his receiving invitations from other universang ribald songs attributing this report to a guilty passion for his sities, as for instance from Leipzig, where the place of professor person. In times of civil dissension it is generally found that parties primarius of law was offered to him with a very large income, besides otherwise totally unconnected catch up and spread each other's scan- a prebend in the chapter of Merseburg; but nothing could induce him dalous reports when it suits their purpose. The queen, the legate, to leave Heidelberg. In 1830 he was knighted by the Grand-Duke of and the Count of Champagne were all unpopular; the dissolute Baden, his former pupil, who in 1834 appointed him judge for the students had circulated imputations against the chastity of the two grand-duchy, in the newly established tribunal of arbiters for the former; and the interference of the king to prevent the marriage of domestic affairs of Germany. In 1837 he was chosen Membre corresponthe last-mentioned with the daughter of the Duke of Bretagne would, dant de l'Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques, for the section under such circumstances, be easily interpreted into a plot of the of legislation and jurisprudence. Thibaut died on the 28th of March queen-mother to keep him for herself. It was amongst the students 1840, with the well-deserved reputation of being equal to Savigny as a that the first story was invented, and that is the quarter whence civilian, and superior to him as a teacher and a practical jurist. The Matthew of Paris most probably obtained much of his information great object of Thibaut was to distinguish clearly between the obsolete regarding French affairs.

portions of the Roman law, and those which were of real practical In 1232 Thibaut married a daughter of Archambaud VIII. of use. In his private life Thibaut was most amiable; to many a poor Bourbon. In April 1234, he succeeded to the throne of Navarre, on student he proved a kind father; to many who had talent a wise the death of Sancho the Strong. In 1235 he quarrelled with Saint friend. His house was open to all his pupils, whether introduced to Louis about the territories he had ceded to the king at the time of the him by others or by themselves; but he showed particular attention arrangement with the queen of Cyprus, representing them as merely to those who, besides their legal knowledge, showed proficiency in transferred to the king in security for the money he advanced, while the music, of which he was a profound judge. His little work on Purity latter asserted that they had been sold to him for that sum. It came of Music quoted below is a specimen of his refined taste in this to blows, and Thibaut was beaten. In 1239 Thibaut took the cross and respect. set out at the head of an expedition to the Holy Land. He displayed The principal work of Thibaut is his System des Pandekten. none of the talents of a general. Unable to procure ships to transport Rechts,' mentioned above, of which the eighth edition was published his forces to the scene of action, he marched through Hungary and at Heidelberg in 2 vols. 8vo, 1834; and a ninth edition was edited Thrace. Arrived in the neighbourhood of Byzantium, his treasure after the author's death, by Professor Buchholtz, Jena, 1846. This was so completely expended, that his followers had to support them work is in the hands of nine out of ten lawyers in Germany, but selves by plunder. In an engagement near Cæsarea the division of the though of the highest value, it is rather a difficult book to beginners. army under his immediate command was beaten, although the other The following are the other works of Thibaut according to the date was victorious. He got involved in the defiles of Taurus, and lost two of their publication :-1,De genuina Juris Personarum et Rerum thirds of his men. Lastly, at the final defeat at Ascalon, he fled Indole veroque hujus divisionis Pretio,' 8vo, Kiel, 1796, is a dissertaingloriously before the battle was ended, leaving his followers to their tio inauguralis which brought the young author the honour of being fate. He returned to Pampeluna, which he had made his capital, in attacked by Hugo. 2, Juristische Encyklopädie und Methodologie, 1242, and died in 1253, having done nothing worthy of notice in the 8vo, Altona, 1797. 3, Versuche über einzelne Theile der Theorie interim, leasing a widow and six children.

des Rechts' (Essays on several Branches of the Theory of the Law), The poems attributed to Thibaut are in number sixty-six, and there 2 vols. 8vo, Jena, 1798-1802; 2nd edit., 1817, translated into French appears no reason for questioning the authenticity of any of them. by De Sandt et De Chassat, Paris, 1811. 4, Ueber Besitz und VerjähThirty-eight are devoted to the expression of passionate complaints rung' (On Possession and Prescription), 8vo, Jena, 1802, a work and ecstasies; three recount his amorous adventures with peasant which caused a great sensation, but was afterwards thrown into the girls; twelve are what may be called rhymed law.cases in matters of shade by Savigny's work on Possession. 5, 'Civilistische Abhandlove; the rest are exhortations to engage in the Crusade, or invectives lungen Essays on Civil Law), 8vo, Heidelberg, 1814; 2nd edit., 1822. against the immorality of the age. The passion of the amorous 6, Ueber Reinheit der Tonkunst' (On Purity of Music), 8vo, Heidelpoems is not very intense : there scarcely needed the few lines berg, 1825; 2nd edit., 1826. 7. Ueber die Nothwendigkeit eines appended to most of them, addressed to some brother-troubadour, to Allgemeinen bürgerlichen Rechtes in Deutschland,' (On the Necessity show that they are mere displays of the author's cleverness. The of a Common Code of Laws for Germany), 8vo, Heidelberg, 1814. casus for the Court of Love are ingenious and insignificant, like all This work placed its author at the head of a great legislative moveother compositions of that kind. The fifty-fourth song, an exhortation ment, and a short explanation is necessary in order that the reader to join the Crusade, is spirited. The sixty-fifth, in which the God of may understand it. Ancient German laws and a large portion of the Christians is compared to the pelican feeding its young with its blood, Roman law exist there together, the former referring principally to is characterised by a blended tone of toleration and enthusiasm. In landed property, entailed estates, and others called "noble estates,' the sixty-sixth he starts a theory that the law of God is ripe and the different hereditary and temporal tenements of the peasantry, the BIOG. DIV. VOL. V.

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succession to such estates, the legal consequences of marriage inasmuch is the author of an exceedingly interesting · Histoire de la Gaule sous as it effects complete communion of property, personal and real, la domination romaine, 1826; of a "Regumé de l'Histoire de la between husband and wife, further the remnants of feudal institu- Guienne,' 1828; of a Histoire d'Attila de ses fils et de ses successeurs tions, and others; while contracts, the common succession to personal en Europe, suivi de legendes,' 1856 ; and a · Histoire des Gaulois ;' property and to land, except entailed estates either noble or villain, a "Recits de l'Hist. Romaine, 1860; Nouveaux Recits,' 1864; and testaments (in a great measure) and many other things are regulated * Tableau de l'Empire Romaine,' 1862. He is also the author of a series by the Roman law. In some parts of Germany the German and of interesting essays upon various characters and events connected with Roman elements of the law are knitted together by modern legisla- Gallia during the Frankish domination, which have appeared within tion into a regular code, civil and criminal, as the Austrian code; the the last few years in the ' Revue des deux mondes.' Prussian, which is in force in the greater portion of the kingdom of THIERRY, JACQUES-NICHOLAS-AUGUSTIN, the distinguished Prussia; the Bavarian criminal code, the work of Feuerbach, in historian, the elder brother of the preceding, was born at Blois on Bavaria and Oldenburg. But the civil law in the latter two countries May 10, 1795. In 1805 he commenced his studies in the college of and nearly the whole of Germany, except Austria and Prussia, is that his native town; in 1811 he entered the normal school; and in 1813 compound of Roman and German elements which has been mentioned he became a teacher in a provincial school. In 1814 he went to Paris, above. Besides the 'Common Law, by which is meant the Roman enlisting himself as an adherent of the socialist principles of the Count German compound aforesaid, there is a variety of provincial and local St. Simon, of whom he became the friend and assistant; and in 1816 laws, among which the laws of the cities of Magdeburg, Hamburg, and published Des nations et de leurs rapports mutuels.' He however Lübeck deserve a particular attention, especially the law of Lübeck, shortly penetrated the fallacy and shallowness of his master's doctrines, since it is not only shaped into the form of a code, but is the abjured them, and became with Comte and Dunoyer the editor, in common law of nearly all the towns of North-Eastern Germany as 1817, of the Censeur européen,' a liberal political journal. It was at well as those in the adjacent provinces of Eastern Prussia and the this time that he first formed the theory of the continued existence of so-called German provinces of Russia, Courland, Livonia, and Estho- two classes in England-the Norman masters and the Saxon servants, nią. To augment the difficulties, the French code became the common -whose successive struggles he traced down to the time of Charles I. law in the Rhenish provinces and in the grand-duchy of Baden. in an essay in this paper, and which, with much perverted ingenuity,

This sketch, however imperfect, may be sufficient to show that the but with perfect honesty, and a rare and conscientious industry and administration of the law in Germany is no easy matter; and that perseverance in historical investigations which he then commenced, he the difficulties increase in proportion to the extent of the jurisdiction has supported in all his subsequent works. On the suppression of of the different courts; and hence the strange, yet under such circum- the Censeur européen' in 1820 he proposed to the editors of the stances necessary fact, that the faculties of law in the various uni- 'Courrier Français' a series of letters on the history of France, for he versities were, and partly still are, so many courts of justice before says of himself that he had then found that history was his true which cases used to be brought which require more learning, especially vocation, and he was accepted as a contributor. With the second historical learning, than is generally possessed by the members of the letter commenced the official attacks on his writings. Much was common courts of justice. Thibaut's proposal was to fashion this erased, still he pursued his course; but on receiving several other legal chaos into a general code, as was done in France; and although letters of disapproval, the editors wished him to vary his subjects. he admitted that the task would be very difficult, he maintained that This he declined doing, and he ceased his contributions in January what had been done in France would diminish the difficulty. His 1821. He then returned to his bistorical studies, which however he plan soon became popular, but he also met with decided adversaries, had to pursue under increased difficulties as approaching blindness among whom Savigny took the lead, who contended that Germany rendered him unable to read, but he bore the deprivation with philowas not yet ripe "for a common legislation ; that the idea itself was sophical calmness. In 1825 he published his 'Histoire de la conquête good, but that there were so many scientific (rather theoretical) diffe- de l'Angleterre par les Normands,' a work which, despite his false rences among the jurists concerning the most important points, that theory of the ever-enduriog difference of classification of the two every attempt would prove abortive till matters had previously been races, is of a high merit, as displaying great power of acute discrimi. rettled scientifically." Savigny also could refer to an example, the nation, the result of vast labour digested by a well-regulated mind, Prussian code (Landrecht), which, though only an experiment upon a with pleasing and animated descriptions grouping the peculiarities of portion of Germany, is yet considered to be a failure : be avoided to the time, and an animated style. It has gone through many editions speak of the Austrian code. Thibaut has entered into many details and has been translated into English and German. In 1827 he issued concerning the important question of a common code for Germany, in his letters from the Courrier Français' in an extended and collected Beveral of his numerous essaye, dissertations, and treatises in the form under the title of Lettres sur l'histoire de France,' which have principal legal reviews of his country. He was the founder of the also been translated into English. In 1828 a nervous disorder, added Civilistisches Archiv,' and the ' Heidelberg Jahrbücher.'

to his now rapidly failing sight, occasioned his being sent by his (The Life of Thibaut, in Heidelberg Jahrbücher, year 1840.) medical adviser to Hyères, near Toulon, for the benefit of the sea-air

THIELEN, JAN PHILIP VAN, was born at Mechlin in 1618. He of the Mediterranean. While residing here for nearly two years, he was of a noble family, and lord of Cowenburg. Though he received was elected a member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Bellesan education suitable to his rank, and was instructed in every branch Lettres, and was created a member of the Legion of Honour, of of polite literature, bis predilection for the art of painting induced which subsequently he was made an officer. The years 1831 to him to become a disciple of Daniel Segers. Having voluntarily 1835 he passed partly at the warm baths of Luxeuil and partly placed himself under so able an instructor, his improvement, as might at Vesoul in Haute-Saône, during which ime, with the assistance have been expected, was rapid. His subjects were usually in the taste of his brother, he composed his “Dix ans d'études historiques, of Segers, garlands of flowers, with some historical design in the a series of excellent essays, the product of his previous investicentre, or festoons twining round vases enriched with representations gations, which was published in 1835. At this time, he was called in bas-relief. He always copied from nature, and chose his flowers in to Paris by Guizot, who was then minister of public instruction, the entire perfection of their beauty, grouping them with great taste. who confided to him the editing of a 'Recueil des documents inédits His pictures are very highly finished, with a light touch, perhaps less de l'histoire du tiers-états,' which forms a part of the Collection des spirited than the works of Segers; but it is sufficient praise to say documents inédits de l'histoire de France. In 1840 he published his that his performances rivalled those of his master. He was much Récits des temps Mérovingiens, précédés des considérations sur employed by Philip IV., king of Spain, for whom most of his finest l'histoire de France,' to which the Academy awarded their prize, and performances were painted. Two of his capital pictures were at of which also there is an English translation. A collected edition of Mechlin; they represented garlands and flowers, and many insects of his works was published in 1853, and he died on May 22, 1856. different kinds on the leaves, all finished with exquisite delicacy. The As an historian Thierry takes rank with Michelet and Guizot. Less figure of St. Bernard is in the centre of the one, and that of St. Agatha profound in philosophical disquisition than Guizot, less eloquent and in the other. Weyermann also highly commends one, which has in the imaginative than Michelet, he excels both in the power of grouping centre a nymph sleeping, watched by a satyr, the figures being painted large masses of detail, and of seizing and presenting every point of by Poelemburg. He died in 1667. Von Thielen seldom inscribed his interest or importance; he combines picturesque effects with minute name on any of his works; he generally marked them J. or P. knowledge; and his style is earnest and lucid though not always Couwenburg.

elegant. He had also the merit of remaining consistently devoted to * THIERRY, AMÉDÉE-SIMON-DOMINIQUE, was born at Blois, in his vocation. While nearly every French writer of eminence looked the department of Loir-et-Cher, on August 2, 1797. After receiving a forward to political influence or employment as his reward—and many careful education, he at first devoted himself to teaching, and received contrived to attain them, too often by a sacrifice of their previous prinfrom Vatimesnil the appointment of Professor of History at Besançon, ciples or opinions—Thierry held on his way undeviatingly. His consowhere, notwithstanding his moderation, his opinions were disapproved lation under various afflictions he has himself stated: "Blind and sufferof by the government, and he experienced many official persecutions. ing, without hope and without intermission, I will give this testimony Under the ministry of Poligpac bis lectures were suspended by order. which from me no one will disbelieve; there is something in the world After the revolution of July 1830, he was named prefect of the depart- better than physical enjoyments, better than property, better even ment of Haute-Saône. In 1831' he was elected a member of the than health ; it is a devoted attachment to a science.” Académie des Sciences. During the last ten years of the reign of JULIE THIERRY, whose maiden name was Quérangal, became Louis Philippe he filled the office of master of requests in the council the wife of the subject of the preceding notice in 1831, and was or of state, and he has been continued in the office under the Empire. In the most essential service to him in his then state of total blindness. addition to the assistance afforded by him to his brother Augustin, he In 1836 she published 'Scènes de mæurs aux 18me et 19me siècles,





for which her husband wrote an introduction. She was also the author These are the expressions of a satirist, and the same might be said of of a number of clever essays in the 'Revue des deux mondes.' She many other men who have been eminent in France since 1830. There died on June 10, 1844.

can be no doubt that Thiers contributed powerfully to the preparation * THIERS, LOUIS-ADOLPHE, French statesman and historian, for the Revolution. Both in consequence of his history and of his was born at Marseille on the 16th of April 1797. His father was a writings as a journalist he was already recognised some time before the working locksmith ; his mother was of a mercantile family of the Revolution as one of the most active men of the revolutionary party town which had fallen in circumstances, but could boast of having among the French liberals, as distinct from the doctrinaire' party, of given birth to Joseph and Andrew Chenier. Through the influence of which the Duc de Broglie, M. de Remusat, Duvergie de Hausanne, and his mother's family, Thiers was admitted when a boy to the Lyceum Guizot were the heads. He was on intimate terms with Lafitte, of Marseille, where he was one of those who received a gratuitous Manuel, Beranger, and Armand Carrell; and when the last of these education at the imperial expense. It was intended that he should projected the famous journal called the National,' as an organ of the proceed from the school to the École Polytechnique, in order to be more revolutionary form of liberalism, he associated Thiers and educated for the military service of the empire; but the fall of the Mignet with him.self for the purpose of carrying it on. It was agreed empire and the restoration of the Bourbons having put an end to this that the three should be editors in turn, each for a year; and Thiers design, he resolved to become an 'avocat' and went to Aix to study was chosen editor for the first year. The first number appeared on jurisprudence. It was at the college of Aix that he formed his the 1st of January 1830, and no journal did more to damage the cause acquaintance with M. Mignet, then also a student of law there, and of Bourbon legitimacy during the first half of that year. The main between whom and M. Thiers there has ever since been a close in idea of the journal under the management of Thiers, say the French timacy both personal and political. At Aix young Thiers distinguished writers, was "guerre à la royauté, mais guerre légale, guerre constihimself by bis vivacity and talent, and his fondness for historical and tutionelle, guerre au nom de la charte." In other words, the opinions economical studies. A curious story is told illustrative of his clever- of M. Thiers were not those of the Republic; and what he wanted was ness while at college. The authorities of the college had offered a something in France that should be tantamount to the Revolution of prize for the best éloge on Vauvenargues ; and Thiers had given in 1688 in England-i.e., that should secure constitutional sovereignty an éloge which was found to be the best. At that time, however, with a change of person. The natural issue of such views was political feeling ran high among the authorities of the college-some Orleanism; and, accordingly, after the three days of July (during being eager liberals, and others eager royalists; and, it having trans- which the office of the National' was the headquarters of the oppopired, before the opening of the sealed packets containing the com- sition to government, though M. Thiers was afterwards accused of petitors' names, that the author of the successful éloge was the having consulted his personal safety when affairs were at the worst by young liberal M. Thiers, the royalist party among the judges were withdrawing from the immediate scene of danger), M. Thiers had an strong enough to prevent the prize being awarded. No prize was important share with Lafitte and others in the arrangements which given, and the same subject was prescribed for competition in the brought Louis Philippe to the throne. This solution exactly answered following year. That year Thiers again sent in the identical éloge his views, which were as adverse to a pure Republic as to legitimacy; which had in his opinion been unfairly treated in the former year. he prepared the public mind for it by placards and the like; and It was pronounced to be second in merit, the prize being awarded to it was he who undertook the mission to Neuilly to invite Louis another essay which had been sent from Paris. It remained to ascer Philippe to assume the government. tain who was the author of this piece; and greatly to the discomfi M. Thiers was, of course, a prominent man in the new system of ture of the judges, when the sealed packet containing the name was things wbich he had helped to bring about. He first held an office opened, it was found that the writer of this éloge also was M. Thiers, in the Finance ministry under his old patron M. le Baron Louis, and who had resorted to this trick, partly by way of revenge, partly by showed such talent in the office that, when this first cabinet of Louisway of frolic.

Philippe resigned in November 1830, the minister recommended His education having been finished, M. Thiers began practice as an Thiers as his successor. M. Thiers prudently declined so sudden a Savocat,' but bad little success. He therefore, turned his attention promotion, and contented himself with an under-secretaryship in the to literature, and removed to Paris. Many stories are told of his Lafitte ministry, which lasted from November 1830 till March 1831. extreme poverty at this time, and of the shifts to which he was put; In this ministry he still made financial administration his speciality ; but these are contradicted by his friends, who assert them to be the while as deputy for Aix he began his career as a parliamentary orator. calumnies of political animosity. At all events, about the year 1823, At first his attempts in this latter character were not very successful, M. Thiers having made the acquaintance of M. Manuel, whose political his extremely diminutive, and even odd and mean appearance operating influence was then at its highest, was by him introduced to M. Etienne, to his prejudice in the tribune; but very soon he acquired that the conductor of the Constitutionnel, and began to contribute re wonderful volubility and that power of easy, familiar, anecdotic and gularly to that journal on political and other subjects. While thus amusing, and yet bold and incisive rhetoric which have characterised earning a moderate livelihood as a liberal journalist under the his oratory since, and which contrast so markedly with the graver and Restoration, he was privately engaged in authorship of a more ambi- more earnest eloquence of Guizot. On the accession of the Casimir. tious kind. As early as 1823 he had written a sketch entitled The Perier ministry in March 1831, M. Thiers went out of office, and had Pyrenees and the South of France during the months of November even to contest the election at Aix with an adherent of the ministry; and December 1822,' of which a translation appeared in English ; and but very soon he deserted the opposition and astounded the Chamber about the same time, assisted by information on financial subjects by a speech against its policy. The consequence was, on the one supplied him by M. le Baron Louis, a great authority on such matters, hand, that he was appointed chief of the commission on the budget, he wrote an account of Law and his schemes, which appeared in a in whose name he presented the report; and that, on the other hand, review. But the work which he had prescribed for his leisure was a he lost his popularity, and was assailed everywhere as a traitor to History of the French Revolution. He had diligently gathered liberalism and a mere political charlatan. It was at this time that he documentary materials; and, in order to inform himself on special visited Italy on a political mission, and conceived the idea of writing topics, he made it his business to become acquainted with survivors a history of Florence. On the accession of the Soult ministry in who had acted special parts in that great crisis. The first volume October 1832 it was with some difficulty that M. Thiers was placed to appeared in 1823, and the others were successively published, till the his mind: at last however he was fixed in the Ministry of the work was completed in 1830. At first the work did not attract much Interior, M. Guizot being appointed Minister of Public Instruction, attention ; but before it was concluded, it had produced a powerful and M. le Duc de Broglie being also in the cabinet. As Minister of sensation. Since that time there have been many histories of the the Interior M. Thiers planned and executed the arrest of the Duchess French Revolution; but, published as the work of M. Thiers was de Berry. On the subdivision of the Ministry of the Interior he chose during the Restoration, the sympathies which it showed with the the Ministry of Commerce and Public Works; and it was while holdRevolution, and the boldness with which it endeavoured to revive the ing this office that he declared himself in various important questions reputations of the great actors in that extraordinary drama, were affecting the internal politics of France. His interest in the railway something original in French historical literature. Even now, though system and in the question of tariff reform led him to visit England; its accuracy has been assailed in many points, and though there are and the result was that though he advocated a political alliance with many rival-histories of the Revolution, characterised by merits of a England, he deprecated a commercial alliance, and declared in favour different kind, the work, by reason of its fullness of detail, and its of a Protectionist policy. “As for freedom of commerce," says ono vivacity of style, retains a high place both in France and in other of his biographers, * M. Thiers had little faith in the theories of the countries.

cosmopolite dreamers." He also favoured all measures tending to cenIt was the Revolution of 1830 however that brought M. Thiers into tralisation in France. “M. Thiers," says the same biographer, "loves prominence in the active politics of France. M. Cormenin, one of his to cite those two acts of his life which he regards as great services bitterest critics, thus sarcastically sums up the tenor of the life of M. rendered to his country-his having saved the national industry by Thiers prior to this epoch, in one of his well-known sketches published maintaining the protective system, and the French unity by centraliunder the name of Timon. “Born poor, he required fortune; born sation." In general politics the part taken by M. Thiers was such obscure, he required a name; an unsuccessful avocat' he became a that he was no longer regarded as a popular liberal, but rather as a ·litérrateur,' and threw himself into the liberal party rather from decided Orleanist and therefore Conservative, His hostility to political necessity than from conviction." At the Revolution of 1830, he con-associations increased his unpopularity with the Republican or ad. tinues, M. Thiers was nothing, “neither elector nor eligible, neither vanced liberal party. In short, Thiers had made up his mind to live deputy nor minister, nor even academician:” and but for this event, and die as a minister of Louis-Philippe. This position he retained he says, " he would have grown old in the esteem of a literary clique. after the re-construction of the Soult ministry in April 1834. He





then resumed the Ministry of the Interior, in which capacity he had was then sent as commissioner from Bavaria to demand the restitution to direct measures for the suppression of the Lyon insurrection. He of the objects of art of which it had been despoiled. He also, at this retained the same ministry, under Marshal Gerard and M. le Duc time, took a warm interest in the re-establishment and liberation of de Broglie till February 1836; and he was at the side of Marshal Greece, endeavouring to promote a scientific union with Germany by Mortier when that general lost his life by the explosion of Fieschi's means of the Münich Academy, and by the constitution of an Atheinfernal machine (July 28, 1835). At length, on the dissolution of næum in which young Greeks might be educated. To further his the Broglie ministry, Thiers attained the highest political position to object he visited Count Capo d'Istria at Vienna in 1815, but took no which he could aspire, in being named by Louis Philippe to the part in his political designs. At this time all his literary activity took presidency of the council and the ministry for Foreign Affairs (Feb. this direction, either in reference to the language or the antiquities of 22, 1836). He remained at the head of the government till August that country. In 1812 he published a Greek grammar, particularly 1836, when a difference with the king on Spanish affairs obliged him of the Homeric dialect, in which the syntax is explained from its to resign. He was again chief minister in 1840, and then showed simplest to the most complicated forms, and which has gone through himself rather against the English alliance and eager for a war-policy several editions. In 1820 he published an edition of Pindar's Odes, which would gratify the military passions of France; but Guizot at with an introduction, explanatory potes, and a German translation in length succeeded in adapting himself to the tastes and wishes of Louis- verse, a work that was received with great approbation, as was also Philippe, and during the last years of this king's reign, the Thiers that 'Ueber die Epochen des bildenden Kunst unter den Griechen' (On party was one of the elements of the opposition-in its own opinion, the Epochs of the Plastic Art among the Greeks), between 1816 and the inost powerful element, though not in reality such. It was at this 1825, in 4 vols., and which has been since reprinted. To extend and time that M. Thiers, relieved from official duty, returned to author improve his archæological knowledge he visited Italy in 1822, and the ship and produced, in continuation of his former work, his well-known result was given to the world in 1826 in his 'Reisen nach Italien,' in *History of the Consulate and the Empire' (1845). While the literary which he was assisted by Schorn, Gerhard, and Klenze. In 1831 he merits of this work are acknowledged, its accuracy has been impeached made a jour ey to Greece, where he was warmly welcomed, and his on various hands.

exertions had no doubt considerable influence in procuring the settleThe revolution of 1848, proving as it did that there were deeper ment of the crown of Greece on the head of Otho, the son of the king forces at work in France than were represented by the alternative of a of Bavaria. On his return, he published in 2 vols., in 1833, ‘De l'état Thiers ministry or a Guizot ministry, seems to have terminated the actuel de la Grèce et des moyens d'arriver à sa restoration,' a work political existence of M. Thiers as well as that of his rival. During written in French, of which language he was by no means a complete the Revolution, indeed, Thiers was for a moment seen exertiog himself master. The first volume contains an account of the adminis. as the man to whom it fell of right to be called in when Guizot had tration of Capo d'Istria, and of his own proceedings for the prodisappeared; but he was immediately swept away along with the motion of Otho's election, both the facts and the opinions propounded Orleanism which he represented, and the Republicans had the use of therein being liable to considerable doubt. In the second volume, the victory which the people had gained. While the republic lasted, On the situation of Greece, and the Means to be adopted to restore Thiers, so far as his influence was openly exerted at all, appeared it to tranquillity,' the most valuable parts are those in which he chiefly as the opponent of the Socialist party, and of the tendencies treats of the antiquities, his political schemes being very vague and of the Republic generally. He spoke against the "right to labour" indefinite. and the “atéliers nationaux " in the National Assembly (of which, In the meantime he had become involved in a fresh subject of con. as well as of the Constituent Assembly, he was a member); and he troversy. He had been commissioned to make an investigation of the wrote at the same time his treatises 'Du Droit de Propriété” (1848) state of the Gymnasiums (or higher schools) in Bavaria, and in 1826 he and 'Da Communisme' (1849) by way of answer to the theories of published his first not very favourable report of them- Ueber ge. the Socialists. His real political aim at this time was doubtless the lehrte Schulen, mit besonderen Rücksicht auf Baiern' (On Classical restoration of the Orleans dynasty in some form or other; and, it was Schools, particularly as to those of Bavaria), and which by 1837 was supposed to be in the interest of this aim that in 1851, during the increased to three volumes, and to which another, Ueber die neuesten Presidency of Louis Napoleon, he visited the exiled Orleans family in Angriffe auf die Universitäten' (On the latest Attacks on the UniversiEngland. The coup d'état came to destroy all Orleanist schemes as ties), forms a necessary appendix, for there he warmly supports the old well as those of the Republicans and the Legitimists; and M. Thiers classical studies, and he has had a host of antagonists who advocate in found himself an exile for a time. He resided first in Brussels; and preference the Real schools. [The Real schools, it may be necessary to was afterwards again in London. He now resides in Paris, acquiescing state, are schools in which the study of the classics is not made imperain the Empire like so many others once prominent in active French tive, and to some extent they resemble the proprietary or commercial politics, but not reconciled to it so as either to be offered or to accept schools of England, in which what is called a more generally useful employment under it. He is understood to be engaged in literary system of instruction is pursued.] It is not necessary to detail this labour, like his old rival Guizot; for whom however now that the lives controversy, which is not ended, though Thiersch continues to maintain of both are seen in retrospect, men in general seem to entertain on his position. In 1847 he rendered considerable service by repressing, the whole a far higher degree of respect than they accord to the by his influence and advice, an outbreak of the ultramontane party nimble and volatile Thiers. Want of earnest principle is a common among the students of the University. Thiersch, in addition to the charge against politicians; but against no politician of modern times has works above mentioned, has been a frequent and valuable contributor the charge been so incessantly repeated both by French and by foreign to the publications of the Münich Akademie der Wissenschaften, and writers as against M. Thiers; and among numerous French sketches has written and published pamphlets on some subjects of exciting of his life and character there are few friendly in spirit. (See Supp.) though temporary interest; one, in which he supported the exemption

THIERSCH, FRIEDRICH WILHELM, privy counsellor and of Protestants from the necessity of bowing the knee on certain cereprofessor of ancient literature in the University of Münich, was monials, is highly valued by his fellow-believers. His contributions to born on June 17, 1784, at Kirschcheidungen near Freiburg, in the classical literature, his activity in advocating the freedom of Greece, Grand Duchy of Baden. After being prepared at school he was sent and his strenuous exertions for the promotion of education of a high to the college at Naumberg. He then went to the University of order, not only in Bavaria but throughout the whole of Germany, have Leipzic in 1804, where he studied theology and philosophy, which last acquired him a high and well-deserved estimation among the whole of became his favourite pursuit. In 1807 he removed to Göttingen, his fellow-countrymen. (See SUPPLEMENT.] studied under Heyne, and received a degree in 1808 after delivering THION DE LA CHAUME, CLAUDE-ESPRIT, an eminent French an essay, 'Specimen editionis Symposii Platonis,' and was appointed a physician, was born at Paris, January 16, 1750. His father, who was teacher in the Gymnasium of that town. The remarkable talent for a banker, gave him an excellent education, and destined him originally instruction which he here displayed occasioned his being appointed for the bar, but he himself preferred the study of medicine. He professor in the newly-established Gymnasium at Münich, where he commenced his studies at Paris with great success, but, for some became, by his active exertions, the great promoter of philological unknown reason, took his Doctor's degree at Rheims. In 1773 he was studies in Bavaria. The appointment however of a foreigner as he appointed physician to the military hospital at Monaco in Italy, was then considered, caused much dislike among many, and the oppo- which was then occupied by a French garrison; and in 1778 to that sition was carried on with extreme virulence, while a paper which he at Ajaccio in Corsica. His zeal and talents were rewarded by the published in 1810 on the recognised difference between North and rank of chief physician to the troops destined to lay siege to Minorca South Germany, increased it to such an extent that it is asserted his and shortly afterwards to Gibraltar. Here he had to treat a fatal life was attempted, and it no doubt disturbed, though it could not epidemic which prevailed among the combined French and Spanish altogether impede, his exertions. Of this contest, which however he forces in a typhoid form, the description of which same disease lived down, Jacobs has given a trustworthy account in his 'Persona- immortalised the name of Pringle towards the middle of the last lien,' published in 1840. Towards the end of this unworthy quarrel he century. This same squadron had already put ashore and left at established a philological institute, which in 1812 was united with Cadiz a great number of Frenchmen that had been attacked by the the Münich Academy, and at the same time, to unite the talent of the disease, when, in the beginning of September 1782, it came to the bay scholars, he commenced publishing the 'Acta philologorum monacen- of Algesiras.' Here the naval hospital could only receive fifty of their sium,' which contained papers by several eminent men besides him- sick, while as many as five hundred were in want of admission; and self, and was continued from 1811 to 1825, forming three volumes, to place these in private houses was not only a very difficult, but also During the war of Liberation he took an active part in the military an undesirable proceeding. In these embarrassing circumstances organisation of the students. In 1813 he journeyed to Paris, where he Thion de la Chaume conceived the happy idea of making the sick formed an intimacy with Visconti; thence he visited England; and encamp under tents as soon as they landed, an arrangement which was

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dictated by the climate, the season, and the nature of the disease, and translated also the second volume, but the third volume, published in of which the boldness was justified by success. La Chaume himself | 1852, after Niebuhr's death, was translated by Dr. W. Smith and Dr. was attacked by the epidemic, and a great number of medical officers L. Schmitz. In 1835 Mr. Thirlwall published in ‘Lardner's Cabinet of all ranks, as well as the nurses, were carried off by it. When peace Cyclopædia' the first volume of his “ History of Greece,' and the was concluded La Chaume returned to France, and was received with work was completed in 8 vols. 12mo. It commences with a series of distinction by the Comte d'Artois (afterwards Charles X.), who had learned inquiries into the early history and antiquities of Greece, and been a witness of his self-devotion and success at Algesiras, and who extends to the capture of Corinth by Mummius, B.C. 146, and the transappointed him to be one of his own physicians. Shortly afterwards formation of Greece into a Roman province. A few pages on the future he married, but in the winter of 1785-86 he found that, in consequence state of the country completes the work. In 1840 he took the degrees of the rapid progress made by a pulmonary disease which had for of B.D. and D.D., and in the same year was created Bishop of St. some time threatened him, it was necessary for him to go to the south David's. He was formerly an Examiner of the University of London, of France. Here he met with the kindest attentions from the officers and is now Visitor of St. David's College, Lampeter, of the regiment which he had formerly taken charge of at Ajaccio, In 1845 Bishop Thirlwall commenced the publication of a new who were at this time in garrison at Montpellier ; at which place he edition of his History of Greece,' the plan of the work being consider. died, October

28, 1786, at the early age of thirty-six. Thion de la ably enlarged, as well as the materials improved and expanded - The Chaume wrote but little, though he is said to have carefully noted History of Greece,' by Connop Thirlwall, D.D., Bishop of St. Davids, down every night whatever he had seen during the day worth record. 8 vols. 8vo, 1845-52. In 1851 was published A History of Greece, ing; he nevertheless occupies a high rank in the list of army surgeons. from the Earliest Times to the Destruction of Corinth, B.C. 146, mainly His writings consist almost entirely of articles in medical dictionaries based upon that of Connop Thirlwall, D.D., Bishop of St. David's,' by and periodicals, of which the most interesting is the account of the Leonhard Schmitz, F.R.S. È., Rector of the High School of Edinburgh, epidemic at Algesiras, which was published in the second volume of 12mo, London. In the preface to this work Dr. Schmitz makes the the Journal de Médicine Militaire.' (Biographie Médicale.)

following remarks :-“ Within the last fifty years more has been done *THIRLWALL, RT. REV. CONNOP, Bishop of St. David's, was by both English and foreign scholars to elucidate the history of born in 1797, at Stepney, in Middlesex. His father was rector of Greece than at any former period since the revival of learning; and Bowers-Gifford, Essex. He was educated at Trinity College, Cam- the results of all these labours are two English works on the history bridge, where he took his degree of B.A. in 1818, and M.A. in 1821, of Greece such as no other nation can boast of." These two works, and of which he became a Fellow. He was called to the bar of he observes, " have been executed by Bishop Thirlwall and Mr. Grote Lincoln's Inn in 1825, but withdrew from the legal profession, was in a manner which throws all previous attempts of a similar nature ordained, and became rector of Kirby-under-Dale, Yorkshire. In into the shade.” 1828 appeared the first volume of 'The History of Rome,' by G. B. Bishop Thirlwall has not written any other work of importance. A Niebuhr, translated by Julius Charles Hare, M.A., and Thirl- few of his Sermons and of his Charges to the clergy of his diocese wall, M.A., Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge, 8vo, and they have been published in a separate form.



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