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critical edition of the Krakamal,' the celebrated death-song of the stantly recurring in the literary history of Denmark for an entire half pirate Ragnar Lodbrok, said to have been sung by him when, being century, was born at Copenhagen on the 18th of December 1760. taken prisoner by Ella, king of Northumberland, he was shut up in a His father, who "held the office of "Toll-inspector, gave him an barrel with snakes, and concluding with the famous line “ Laughing excellent education, sending him to the school of Herlufsholm and the will I die.” Rafn has of course had much to do as secretary with the University. His father's maternal uncle, Knud Lyne, after whom he publication of the Transactions' of the Society of which he is the was named, had made a fortune of what is called in Denmark "a ton of founder, and with the issue of the volumes of Mémoires, in which gold "-20,000 rix-dollars, or about 2,4001.—and of this he bequeathed select essays from the number are translated in German, French, or 12,000 to his namesake, who proposed to live on the interest and English. It is to his exertions, commencing as early as 1818, that the spend his time in literature, and in the theatre, to which he was Icelanders are indebted for the foundation of a public library for their ardently attached. The scheme turned out impracticable, and the benefit at Reikiavik; he also carried out in 1827 the establishment money oozed through his hands, but he obtained in 1790 the proof a library at Thorshavn, the capital of the Feroe Islands, and in fessorship of Æsthetics at the University of Copenhagen ; from 1798 1829 of another at Godthaab in Greenland. He is a doctor of philosophy, to 1805 he was teacher of history at an institute, and from 1806 to has the title of Etatsraad or State Counsellor' and has been since 1816 he was lecturer to the actors at the theatre on the dramatic art, 1828 a knight of the order of Dannebrog. (See SUPPLEMENT.] becoming afterwards an active member of the managing committee.
RAGLAN, JAMES HENRY FITZROY, BARON (previously Lord Above all he was indefatigable with his pen. By these means comFITZROY SOMERSET), was the younger son of Henry, fifth duke of Beau bined, he obtained a position which enabled him to extend a goodfort, by Elizabeth, daughter of Admiral the Hon. E. Boscawen, and natured hospitality to nearly all the literary men of the capital, to was born in 1788. He received his early education at Westminster whom the " Bakkehuus," as it was called, or “House on the Hill,” School, but before completing his sixteenth year obtained a commission Rahbek's résidence, just outside of the gates of Copenhagen, became in the 4th Light Dragoons. In 1807 he attended the late Sir Arthur the ordinary point of assemblage. The honours were done by his Paget in his embassy to Constantinople; and was in the same year placed wife, Karen Margrethe Heger, or Camma,' as he called her from the on the staff of the Duke of Wellington. Two years later he became first two syllables of her Christian name. Oehlenschläger (OEHLENaide-de-camp to the duke, in which capacity Lord Fitzroy Somerset SCHLÄGER), who married Camma's sister, first saw her at the Bakkewas present in every engagement throughout the Peninsular campaign. huus. From 1798 to 1829 it continued to be the “Holland-House” He was wounded at Busaco, and he was among the first who mounted of Copenhagen; it was then deprived of one of its chief attractions by the breach at the storming of Badajoz. Having been promoted to the the death of Camma, and in about a twelvemonth after, on the 22nd rank of lieutenant-colonel, he attended the Duke of Wellington as of April 1830, Rahbek followed her to the grave in his seventieth aide-de-camp at Waterloo, where he lost his right arm; and in conse- year. quence of his military services he was made a K.C.B. and a colonel in Rahbek's works are very numerous. That which is generally conthe army. In 1814 he had acted for a short time as secretary to the sidered the best is the 'Danske Tilskuer,' or 'Davish Spectator,' an embassy at Paris, and so great was the confidence reposed in him that imitation of its English namesake. It lasted from 1791 to 1806. A he remained in that city as minister plenipotentiary ad interim from magazine, called ' Minerva,' which he commenced in 1785, was for a the following January to March. He continued to act as secretary to long period a leading periodical-in it Rahbek had an opportunity of the embassy at Paris until 1819, when he was appointed by the Duke developing his political sentiments, which, strange as they were, were of Wellington, then master of the ordnance, to be his military secre- shared by many Danes;-an equally ardent attachment to Jacobinism tary. This post he retained until 1827, when he accompanied the in France and to despotism in Denmark. His Lectures on the Drama duke to the Horse Guards as military secretary. Here he remained delivered to actors are couched in a tone of somewhat ludicrous until after the duke's death in September 1852. He had accompanied solemnity; his own plays are not considered of much value; his tales the duke to the congresses of Vienna and Verona in 1822, and to St. and lyric poems have a higher reputation. His Erindringer,' or Petersburg in 1826, and on another occasion was sent on a special Recollections,' written late in life, are, for a book of biography, far mission to Madrid. He also represented the borough of Truro in the from entertaining. Some specimens will be found in William and parliaments of 1818 and 1826.
Mary Howitt's ‘Literature and Romance of Northern Europe.' Rahbek Upon the death of the Duke of Wellington, and the promotion of wrote a whole library of translations; among those from the English Viscount Hardinge to the command of the army, Lord Fitzroy we remark Shakspere's 'Macbeth, and Merchant of Venice, Somerset was appointed Master-General of the Ordnance, and Colman's Jealous Wife,' Byron's Marino Faliero,' Scott's 'Halidon raised to the peerage as Baron Raglan, a title derived from Raglan Hill,' &c. Castle, a ruin in possession of the ducal family of Beaufort. He had RAIKES, ROBERT, was born at Gloucester in 1735. His father been little more than a year at the head of the Ordnance when war was a printer and conductor of the Gloucester Journal,' who, after broke out between England and Russia, and Lord Raglan was giving his son a liberal education, brought him up to his own business, appointed to command the forces sent out to the east, with the rank in which after a time he succeeded his father, and by care and diligence of full general. He left England in March 1854, and after spending rendered the business prosperous. The events of his life present some months at Varna and Constantinople, during which time the nothing beyond those of a successful tradesman in general; but as army suffered very severely from sickness, he landed on the shores of conductor of a newspaper he could not but have his attention frethe Crimea in the September following. In conjunction with Marshal quently directed to peculiar conditions of society. The state of the St. Arnaud, who commanded the forces of our French allies, he fought County Bridewell was the first in which he prominently interfered. the battle of the Alma on the 20th of that month. It has been He found in it the indiscriminate mixture of offenders of all degrees stated that he wished to attempt carrying Sebastopol by a coup-de- of criminality, unprovided with food, clothing, or instruction of any main, but this not being agreed to by his colleagues, it was determined kind, except what was bestowed in charity by the curious or benevothat it should be invested. Unfortunately, the siege proved one of lent who visited the prison. To remedy these evils he called attention longer duration than either of the generals had calculated. Diffi- to them in his newspaper, and he furnished means to provide the culties in furnishing provisions and clothing for the troops, which inmates with instruction and the means of labour from his own appear to have been for a long time but feebly attempted to be over resources. As regarded Gloucester prison his efforts were in a great come, resulted in a large portion of both the English and French degree successful, but the evils against which he contended are unfor. troops perishing in the trenches before Sebastopol during the sub-tunately not yet uniformly removed from our places of confinement. Bequent winter, 1854-55. The failure of more than one assault in 1781, as he relates himself in a letter written in 1784, he was upon that city, and the consequent loss of his men, for whose struck with the number of wretched children whom he found in the sufferings he felt most tenderly, together with the censures of the suburbs, chiefly in the neighbourhood of a pin-manufactory where English press upon his line of conduct, unbappily increased the their parents were employed, wholly abandoned to themselves, balfsymptoms of diarrhea, by which he was attacked in the following clothed, half-fed, and growing up in the practice of the most degrading June, and he died in camp before Sebastopol on the 28th of that vices. The state of the streets, he was told, was always worst on the month, leaving behind him the memory of an able and brave soldier Sunday, as of course children of somewhat advanced ages were employed and a general of high ability, who commanded at once the confidence in the factory, and on Sunday joined their old associates. Mr. Raikes and respect of his men. The general orders issued by the commander- determined to make an effort at some improvement. He began in in-chief
at home, and by Marshal Pelissier, his colleague in the divided a very unpretending manner. He found three or four decent women command over the allied troops in the Crimea, bore testimony to his in the neighbourhood who were capable of teaching children to read, great and important services. His body was carried back to England, to each of whom he agreed to give a shilling for the day's employment; and interred in the church of Badminton, Gloucestershire. A life and then, with the assistance of the clergyman, endeavoured to induce pension of 10001. a year was settled on his widow, and 20001. a year the children to go to the schools so established. The success was on his son, who succeeded him in his title. He married, in 1814, extraordinary ; children were not only eager to learn to read, but, on Harriet, daughter of the third earl of Mornington, and piece of the being supplied with Testaments, they began of their own accord to Duke of Wellington, by whom he left two daughters and an only son, frequent places of religious worship. At first, he says, many children Richard Henry Fitzroy, now second Lord Raglan, who was formerly were deterred from attending the schools by want of decent clothing; in the civil service at Ceylon, and afterwards held the post of secretary to such he represented that "clean hands, clean faces, and combed to the King of Hanover. His eldest son, a major in the army, was hair," were all that was required at the school. The beneficial effects killed in the first Punjab campaign, while serving on the staff of Lord were so evident, that in a very short time Sunday-schools were Gough, in December 1845.
established in all directions; and Mr. Raikes, before his death on RAHBEK, KNUD LYNE, a Danish author, whose name is con- April 5, 1811, had the satisfaction of seeing his first humble endeavour
RALEIGH, SIR WALTER.
at the improvement of a few children in his own town, become the top-was a favourite mark of many artists, as may be seen on the most efficient means of educating the children of the poor throughout works of Van Assen, Dolendo, Krugen, Saelert, and Voghter. the kingdom. It was, we hope, only the first step'; a second was the After quitting Venice, Marc Antonio proceeded to Rome, where he establishment of daily schools supported by the public; but farther was soon noticed by Raffaelle, who employed him in engraving from advances are yet urgently required.
his designs, and, it is said, in some instances even traced the outlines RAIMBACH, ABRAHAM, a distinguished English line-engraver, on the plates, that the correctness of the drawing might be more was born in London in 1776. His father was a Swiss by birth, but he perfectly preserved. His first plate after Raffaelle was the Death of settled in England at the early age of twelve, and never afterwards Lucretia, which is neatly engraved, but is not one of his best works. quitted it; his mother was the daughter of an English farmer in His next print, after the same master, was a Judgment of Paris, exeWarwickshire. When an infant, Raimbach fell from the arms of his cuted in a more bold and spirited style. These were followed by many nurse from a second-floor window; but his life was saved, partly by more, and amongst them the Murder of the Innocents, after Raffaelle, the inflation of his long clothes, and partly by his fall being broken by who was so perfectly satisfied with the efforts of the engraver, that some leads below. He showed an early disposition to excel in the he sent many specimens of his works as complimentary presents to arts, and his father apprenticed him in 1789 to J. Hall, the engraver : Albert Dürer himself, by whom they were thought well worthy of Sharp and J. Heath had both declined to take him. The first work acceptance. After the death of Raffaelle, which occurred in 1520, engraved by the young apprentice was the explanatory key to Giulio Romano engaged Marc Antonio to engrave from his designs. Copley's 'Death of Chatham,' in the National Gallery. After his Amongst these works are a set of disgusting plates of subjects for term of apprenticeship was over he entered as a student in the Royal which Aretino composed the verses, and which so greatly excited the Academy, doing at the same time what work he could for the book- indignation of Pope Clement VII., that he ordered the engraver to be sellers. By attention and assiduity he was enabled to unite miniature thrown into prison, from wbich he was only released at the earnest painting with engraving; and he prospered in a short period so well intercession of some of the cardinals and of Baccio Bandinelli. Moved in both that he was under the necessity of giving one of them up, and by gratitude for the services of Bandinelli, Marc Antonio engraved his confining himself to the other : he chose engraving for his profession. celebrated print of the Martyrdom of St. Lawrence from a picture by In 1802, through some prints he executed for Smirke and Forster's him, which, besides greatly conducing to the engraver's high reputaillustrated edition of the Arabian Nights,' he was in such circum: tion, procured him not only the entire pardon of the pope, but his stances as enabled him to take advantage of the temporary peace, and active protection and support. On the sacking of Rome by the Spaniards, he paid a visit to Paris to view the works of art which the victories of in 1527, he was obliged to fly, having lost all he had acquired by his Napoleon I. had collected together in the Louvre. He bas himself art. He returned to his native place, where he continued to engrave given a long account of this tour in his autobiography, published by until the year 1539, which is the date affixed to his last plate, reprehis son. In 1805 he married, and established himself in a house given senting the Battle of the Lapithæ, after Giulio Romano. He is said by to him by his father in Warren-street, Fitzroy-square, in which he Malvasia to have been assassinated by a Roman nobleman for having, lived twenty-six years, and executed all his great works. In this year contrary to his engagement, engraved a second plate of the Murder of he made the acquaintance of Wilkie, and soon became that painter's the Innocents, from the design of Raffaelle. intimate friend. In 1812 he became Wilkie's engraver, supplanting This engraver may be considered one of the most eminent artists in Burnet, who had already engraved some of Wilkie's pictures in an that branch that has ever appeared. His outlines are pure; the chaadmirable manner. [BURNET, JOHN.] The first fruit of this partner-racter and expression of his heads beautiful; while the exact and ship was the celebrated print of the Village Politicians.' This print correct drawing of his works, particularly in the extremities of his at first went off slowly; but eventually the sale was large and steady, figures, evidence that he was in all respects a complete master both of and a proof, of which there were 274, has sometimes been sold at drawing and design. He was one of the first Italian engravers of auctions for fourteen or fifteen pounds. The next print was "The Rent distinction. The high reputation of Raffaelle, and the happy chance Day,' published in 1816, after which Wilkie and Raimbach made a tour which conduced to the engagement of Marc Antonio as the engraver together in the Netherlands. The rest appeared in the following of his chief works, contribute as well to his reputation as to the high order - The Cut Finger,'_" The Errand-Boy,' 'Blindman’s Buff,' value which is ever set upon his engravings, and the great price they
Distraining for Rent,'The Parish Beadle,' and in 1836 The Spanish always obtain. Berghem paid sixty florins for an impression of his Mother and Child. The last prints, compared with The Village Murder of the Innocents; and one of Saint Cecilia was sold at the sale Politicians' and .The Rent Day,' were very unsuccessful speculations. of St. Yves for six hundred and nineteen francs. M. Ponce has given Raimbach never employed an assistant, but executed the whole of the date of his death as 1546; but M. Heinecken seems to consider the plate himself. “The Rent Day' cost him two years and a half of that the date upon the Battle of the Lapithæ was about the period at incessant labour. His prints are very masterly works, and possess which he ceased to work. Some of his prints are marked with an A. almost every quality but colour. He died on the 17th of January and an M. joined, and others with M. A. F. also joined, the F. being 1843, in very easy circumstances. His autobiography was published used in consequence of the cognomen La Francia having been given to by his son in the same year, under the following title:-Memoirs and him from his successful study under Raibolini; and some are marked Recollections of the late Abraham Raimbach ; including a Memoir of with the tablet mentioned by Heinecken. Sir David Wilkie.'
The works of Marc Antonio are exceedingly numerous. A very RAIMONDI, MARC ANTONIO, commonly called by his baptismal copious catalogue of them is given by Heinecken, which extends to a names Marc Antonio only, was born at Bologna about 1487 or 1488. hundred and twenty-five pages. Mr. Bryan observes, that in the prints He was instructed in the art of design by Francesco Maria Raibolini, of this eminent artist great attention should be paid to the different known as Francesco Francia; but having seen some prints by Albert impressions of the plates, which have been greatly retouched and Dürer, he determined on adopting engraving as a profession. It does altered by the different printsellers through whose hands they have not appear by whom he was instructed in that art, though most pro- passed. The best impressions are without the name of any publisher. bably it was by some goldsmith, for his first essays with the graver After the plates were taken from the stock of Tommaso Barlacchi, were the embellishment of silver ornaments worn at that period. One they came into the possession of Antonio Salamanca; afterwards they of his earliest engravings on copper was a plate from a picture by passed through the hands of Antonio Laferri, thence to Nicholas van Francia, representing Pyramus and Thisbe, dated 1502, and exe- Aelst, and lastly became the property of Rossi, or De Rubeis, at a time cuted, with some others, it is supposed, after the same artist, before when they were nearly worn out. Raimondi's departure from Bologna. At Venice, whither he removed, In the Print Room of the British Museum there is a very fine he purchased, with all the money he had taken with him from home, collection of the works of Marc Antonio. They amount to above five a set of thirty-six prints engraved on wood by Albert Dürer, repre- hundred, the whole of his labours enumerated by Bartsch being six senting the Life and Passion of Our Saviour. Charmed with the hundred and fifty-two; but it must be recollected that the works of correctness of the design and the precision of the execution, he two of his principal pupils, Agostino Veneziano and Marco da Ravenna, imitated them on copper, according to Vasari, with such exactness, are counted with them. Amongst those of the greatest rarity are the that they sold in Italy for the originals--from the difference of the Transgression of Adam and Eve; David cutting off the head of Goliath, methods a very unlikely circumstance. The same authority states before the monogram of Mare Antonio was added, a copy of which that Dürer, having seen one of them at Nürnberg, complained to the produced 45l. at the sale of the late Sir M. M. Sykes, Part., in 1824; senate at Venice of the fraud that had been practised, and that Marc the Madonna lamenting over the dead body of Christ, called 'La Antonio was forbidden to use his signature, which was the only Vierge au bras nud,' from the circumstance of having one arm naked, redress he could obtain. It seems that Vasari must have fallen into a print of much value, a copy of which fetched at the same sale 251., an error in this story, and mistaken the Life of Our Saviour' for whereas the other print of the same subject, which has the arm draped, the ‘Life of the Virgin,' as Marc Antonio copied both sets from the engraved also by Marc Antonio, produced only 21.; the Massacre of cuts of Albert Dürer, to the latter and not to the former of which he the Innocents, with the chicot-tree; the Martyrdom of St. Lawrence, affixed the mark of that great artist. M. Heinecken also points out a subject mentioned above, a first impression with the two forks, of that, besides the tablet which Dürer used as his mark, Marc Antonio the estimated value of a hundred guineas, a very inferior copy of added within it his own initials joined, and that he also used the whic as to condition, produced at the above sale 461.; the Pest, a tablet without any mark at all. Indeed there seems altogether very proof taken before the letters were engraved, of which only three little probability in the story told by Vasari. Persons acquainted copies are known to exist; and the Dance of Cupids, a small plate, with the subject of engravers' monogramas are aware that the tablet for 571. At the sale of Mr. Johnson's prints, 1860, a fine proof of the of the peculiar form adopted by these two great rivals-vamely, an Judgment of Paris,' obtained 3201. volong square, with a small arched piece on the centre portion of the RALEIGH, SIR WALTER, was born in 1552 at Hayes, in the
RALEIGH, SIR WALTER,
RALEIGH, SIR WALTER.
parish of Budleigh, near the coast of Devonshire. He was the second interior of South America, in the existence of which he firmly believed. son of Walter Raleigh and his third wife Catherine, daughter of Sir On the 5th of February 1595 Raleigh sailed from Plymouth with five Philip Champernon and widow of Otho Gilbert, Esq., of Compton, vessels, and arrived at Trinidad about the end of March. He surprised Devon. Sir Humphry Gilbert, whose name is connected with the the newly-founded town of San Josef, and took prisoner the governor, attempts to discover a north-west passage, was Sir Walter Raleigh's Don Antonio Berrio, from whom he extracted information which half-brother. In the retired neighbourhood of Budleigh, Raleigh enabled him to ascend the Orinoco about sixty leagues, when he was received the rudiments of his education. He was entered a commoner forced to return. He arrived in England towards the end of the of Oriel College, Oxford, in or about 1568, where, to use the words of summer of 1595. Raleigh published an account of this voyage, under Anthony Wood, " he was worthily esteemed a proficient in oratory the sounding title of The Discovery of the Large, Rich, and Beautiful and philosophy." In 1569 Raleigh accompanied his relative, Henry Empire of Guiana,' a work which had not the merit of any methodical Champernon, with a volunteer corps to France in aid of the Huguenots. arrangement of the matter, though it contains numerous vigorous He served in France five years, and subsequently in the Netherlands passages, such as characterise the style of Raleigh. His restoration to as a volunteer under the Prince of Orange. In 1576 Sir Humphry favour at court, which took place shortly after, prevented any further Gilbert obtained a patent to colonise any parts of North America not prosecution of his designs on Guiana during the reign of Elizabeth. settled by the allies of England. Raleigh and Gilbert attempted a In 1596 he was employed, with the rank of rear-admiral, at the taking joint expedition, from which Raleigh returned unsuccessful in 1579. of Cadiz, where he greatly distinguished himself, and was severely In the next year we find him commanding a company of the royal wounded in the leg. In 1597 he took Fayal. About this time he troops in Ireland during the rebellion raised by the Earl of Desmond. was restored to his post of captain of the guard, and appointed governor Some difference arising between the Lord Deputy Gray and Raleigh, of Jersey. He now became deeply engaged in court intrigue, and the latter was called upon to defend himself before the council, which combined with Cecil, who afterwards crushed him, to destroy the he did with so much ability and grace that he gained the queen's ear. Earl of Essex. He strongly urged Cecil, in a remarkable letter which The romantic incident which tradition gives as the origin of his favour appears among his works, to put down the earl, and not to fear " the with the queen is well known. In two or three years from the time after revenges” of his friends or his son; but it is doubtful whether he was introduced at court he was knighted, made captain of the guard, this letter was written before or after the condemnation of Essex, as seneschal of the county of Cornwall, and lord warden of the stannaries; it has no date. Raleigh turned his influence with the queen to good and he received a grant of 12,000 acres of the forfeited estates of the account, by procuring a remission of the sentence for such of Essex's Earl of Desmond, and a lucrative patent for licensing the vendors of adherents as could afford to purchase his good offices. One of these, wine in England.
Mr. Littleton, paid Raleigh 10,0001. A transaction so shameless has In 1583 Sir Humphry Gilbert sailed on a second expedition to North no other apology than that it was not condemned by the opinion of America, towards which Raleigh, now too much engaged at court to the age. But if in such a matter Raleigh did not possess a higher accompany it himself, subscribed 20001. This attempt also proved standard of morality than his contemporaries, in the House of abortive, and Gilbert perished on his return in a storm in which his Commons, of which he had been elected a member some years prior, ship foundered. Raleigh, undismayed, obtained for himself in 1584 a he made himself conspicuous by advocating principles far before his patent investing him with power to appropriate, plant, and govern any age : he maintained that every man should be left at liberty to employ territories that he might acquire in North America. In 1585 the his capital and labour where and how he liked, and that all restrictions first body of colonists landed, under the government of Mr. Lane, in on the trade in corn should be removed. Virginia, so called in honour of the virgin queen. Harriott, a cele After the death of Elizabeth, Raleigh's fortunes fell. His haughtibrated mathematician of the day, went out to survey the colony; bis ness and rapacity, with the share he had in the ruin of Essex, had survey and report, and the introduction of the potato and the tobacco made him universally disliked; and Cecil, his former friend and plant into England for the first time, were almost the only fruits of associate, had completely poisoned James's mind against him. The this attempt. (HARRIOTT.) The misconduct of the colonists brought post of captain of the guard was speedily given to another, and his the hostility of the Indians upon them; and they re-embarked within wine-patent was withdrawn. An opening soon offered for a more a year on board Sir Francis Drake's squadron, who visited the serious attack. James had not long been seated on the throne before Chesapeake on his homeward voyage. A second body went out in two or three plots against him were discovered. Among these was 1587 with instructions to form an agricultural colony, on the Bay of one named the Spanish or Lord Cobham's treason. Lord Cobham Chesapeake, where was to be founded the City of Raleigh.' The being intimate with Raleigh, the idea of his participation instantly colonists landed on Roanoke Island, in what is now the state of North suggested itself. Raleigh being examined before the council, declared Carolina; but they were disheartened, and this expedition also failed. his utter ignorance of any plot; but admitted that he was aware of The governor returned home for fresh forces, which were very difficult some intercourse having taken place between Cobham and the Count to obtain, as he arrived in the height of the preparations for the Spanish D'Aremberg, the Flemish ambassador, and he recommended that La invasion. Raleigh however despatched two small vessels, which were Renzi, one of that nobleman's suite, should be examined. This being plundered at sea, and forced to put back; and when at length assist-made known to Cobham, he flew into a violent rage, declared that in ance was sent out, the colonists had been murdered by the Indians. all his intrigues he had been instigated by Raleigh, and that the money In 1589, having expended 40,0001. in the attempt, and finding that to be paid by Spain was to be lodged in the island of Jersey, of which his resources were unequal to the forming of a colony, he made over island Raleigh was governor. He shortly afterwards fully and solemnly his patent to a company of merchants. Raleigh has been charged retracted all that he had said against Sir Walter, who was neverthewith neglecting those wretched men who were left among the Indians; less committed to the Tower on a charge of high-treason in July 1602. but it appears from Purchas that previous to the year 1602 he had While there he made an attempt at suicide by stabbing himself. In sent five several times, at his own charge, to find these people, who September 1603 Raleigh was tried at Winchester, and found guilty. were left in Virginia in 1587 (iv., p. 1653). In America the memory Doubts have frequently been thrown on the whole of the facts conof Raleigh has always been cherished, and Mr. Bancroft thus concludes nected with Raleigh's accusation. That his condemnation was procured his notice of these abortive attempts to form a settlement:-"After a by the power of his enemies, and that the verdict of the jury was pot lapse of nearly two centuries (in 1792) the state of North Carolina, justified by the evidence, there can be no doubt; but it is certain that by a solemn act of legislation, revived in its capital 'the City of such a plot did exist for placing Lady Arabella Stuart on the throne, Raleigh ;' thus expressing its grateful respect for the memory of the that the archduke knew of it, and that his minister Aremberg had extraordinary man who united in himself as many kinds of glory as corresponded with Cobham on the subject, and had promised a sum were ever combined in an individual.” (* History of America,' vol. ii., of money in support of it. It seems at least probable that Raleigh chap. 3.)
was aware of Cobham's correspondence, although he might not be an In 1587 Raleigh had been appointed one of a council of war to put actual participator in the plot. The best account of this celebrated the forces of the realm in the best order to withstand any invasion, trial will be found in Mr. Jardine's Criminal Trials.' and had command of the forces in Cornwall, of which county he was Raleigh's conduct during his trial entirely changed the general lieutenant-general. In July 1588, after the Armada had passed up the feeling of dislike entertained towards him : an eyewitness observed, channel, he joined the British fleet with a small squadron, and greatly “In half a day, the mind of all the company changed from the distinguished himself in the several engagernents which ended in the extremest hate to the greatest pity. He was reprieved and sent to the discomfiture of the Spaniards. As a reward for these services he Tower, where he was confined for thirteen years. His family suffered received an augmentation to his patent of wines, and the right to levy severely by his attainder; he bad some years before conveyed his tonnage and poundage on them. In 1589 he accompanied the Lisbon estate of Sherborne to his son, reserving his own life-interest, which expedition under Drake and Norris, the object of which was to place was now forfeited, and a slight flaw being discovered in the deed of Don Antonio on the throne of Portugal. (ANTONIO.] In 1591 he conveyance, Carr, the king's vile favourite, afterwards notorious as sailed on an expedition to intercept the plate fleet, which was unsuc- the Duke of Somerset, petitioned for and obtained the estate for bimcessful; and during his absence, the queen having discovered that an self, reserving only 8000l. as a compensation for Raleigh's family: intrigue existed between Raleigh and Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Raleigh's lands of Pinford, Primesly, and Barton, were also escheated Nicholas Tbrockmorton, one of the maids of honour, he was immedi- and made over to the king's minion. ately on his return thrown into the Tower. Raleigh married Miss During his long imprisonment Raleigh turned to intellectual purThrockmorton, and on being released after a short confinement, retired suits, and with many minor pieces, executed his greatest work, The to his estate of Sherborne in Dorsetsbire. It was during this retire. History of the World,' a project of such vast extent, that the bare Inent that he formed his scheme for the discovery and conquest of idea of his undertaking it excites our admiration. As an author, El Dorado, that fabulous land of gold and unbounded wealth in the Hume says," he is the best model of our ancient style," and Hallam
BZOG, DIV, VOL
RAMAZZINI, BERNARDO. observes that he is “less pedantic than most of his contemporaries, he was master of the French and Latin languages, and not altogether reldom low, and never affected." The first part of the History of the ignorant of the Italian; and was in truth a very ingenious prose World,' which is all that Sir Walter Raleigh completed, is contained writer, although he did not succeed as a poet.” His dramatic in five books, commencing with the creation, and ending with the writings areThe Fashionable Lady, or Harlequin's Opera,' prosecond Macedonian war, about 150 years before Christ. It was his duced at the theatre in Goodman's Fields, in 1730, with some success. intention to continue the history in two more volumes, which he The Fall of the Earl of Essex,' a tragedy (altered from the Unhappy says, "I also intended, and have hewn out;" but the death of Prince Favourite' of John Bankes), brought out at the same house in 1731 ; Henry, to whom the book was ‘directed,' and who had always shown the 'Lawyer's Feast,' a farce, performed at Drury-Lane in 1744; and a warm interest in his fortunes," besides many other discourage the 'Astrologer,' a comedy, " once acted,” says the title-page "at ments, persuaded him to silence."
Drury.Lane," also in 1744. The Astrologer' was only an alteration In 1615, Cecil being dead, and Somerset disgraced, Raleigh bribed of an old play, called Albumazar,' written by a Mr. Tomkis, of the uncles of Buckingham, the new favourite, and induced Sir Ralph Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1615. Another of his latter publicaWinwood to recommend his project of opening a mine in Guiana. tions was a tract, entitled “The Case of Authors;' it was probably Upon this he was released conditionally. He equipped thirteen an argument for the protection of dramatic copyrights; though his vessels for this expedition, which, from the magnitude of the under own do not seem to have been in much danger of infringement. taking and the celebrity of his name, attracted much attention, and Most of Ralph's publications however were political pamphlets Raleigh's ship was visited by all the foreign ambassadors. The fleet on the topics of the day; and he is also supposed to have continued reached the coast of Guiana about the middle of November 1617. to be an active contributor to the public journals to the end of his life. Raleigh was so unwell that he could not ascend the Orinoco in person. He attached himself latterly to the faction of the Prince of Wales, Captain Keymis, the steady follower of Raleigh, led the exploring and frequent mention of him may be found in Bubb Dodington's party, consisting of five companies of fifty soldiers each. A conflict Diary: Horace Walpole, in bis Memoirs of the Last Ten Years of took place with the Spaniards near St. Thomas, a small town recently George II., also under date of 2nd of June 1753, gives an account of built, in which the Spanish governor and Raleigh's eldest son Walter his journalising. According to this statement, Ralph “had the good were slain ; after which Keymis, having spent about twenty days in fortune to be bought off from his last journal, the Protester," for the a fruitless search for the mine, and suffered considerable loss, returned only paper that he did not write in it.” Other accounts however to the fleet. Keymis, meeting with nothing but reproaches for his make him to have been taken off' by a pension towards the end of ill success, committed suicide. Raleigh sailed for Newfoundland to Sir Robert Walpole's time, in consequence of having then made himvictual and refit; intending possibly to return to Guiana, but cer- self so formidable to the ministry. The death of Prince Frederick tainly in the meantime to attack the Spanish plate fleet, if he could in March 1751) was an annihilating blow for the moment to Ralph, as fall in with it. Before he could reach Newfoundland the fleet sepa. well as to his patron Dodington, who had promised to make him his rated, and on his arriving there, his own crew mutinied, and the secretary if he should live to have the seals of secretary of state for majority declaring for a return to England, he was forced to accom the southern department, which the prince had engaged to give him pany them. He arrived at Plymouth in July 1618, and a proclamation (Diary,' July 18 and 19, 1749); but it is said that he obtained a conbeing issued by the king against him, he was shortly after arrested by siderable sum from the government for the surrender of an important Sir Lewis Stukely, vice-admiral of Devonshire. He was conveyed to manuscript written by the prince, or under his royal highness's London, and on bis journey made some ineffectual attempts to escape, direction, which had come into his possession. On the accession of and at Salisbury he feigned sickness. James, strongly urged by the George III., he got another pension, which however he did not long king of Spain to punish Raleigh for his attack on St. Thomas, and enjoy, for he died of gout at his house in Chiswick, 24th January 1762. being anxious to gratify that monarch, in order to advance the of his political pamphlets, the only one which is now remembered is marriage of his son Charles with the infanta, laid the case before his his answer to the Duchess of Marlborough's famous Account of her council, when it was argued that Raleigh, being under an unpardoned Conduct,' an octavo volume of four hundred and sixty-seven pages, sentence for treason, was civilly dead, and accordingly could not be entitled . The Other Side of the Question, or an Attempt to rescue tried again. James, bent on somehow sacrificing Raleigh, readily the Characters of the Two Royal Sisters, Queen Mary and Queen adopted this view, and resolved to carry into execution a sentence Anne, out of the hands of the D-D-- of —, in which all sixteen years old, which had been followed by an imprisonment of the Remarkables in her Grace's late Account are stated in their full thirteen years. Raleigh was brought up before the Court of King's strength, and as fully answered; the conduct of several noble persons Bench to receive sentence on the 28th of October 1618, and beheaded is justified; and all the necessary lights are thrown on our Court the next morning, in the sixty-sixth year of his age. His conduct history from the Revolution to the change in the ministry in 1710 : after his committal to the Tower, and up to the moment of his death, in a letter to her Grace, by a Woman of Quality,' London, 1742. was so calm and resigned, as to move the sympathy even of bis This is the ablest and most important of the various answers and enemies.
defences which her grace's publication drew forth; and some things in Of Sir Walter Raleigh's character and personal appearance, Aubrey it appear to have been supplied by the family of the late Earl of says," he was a tall, handsome, and bold man, but his næve was that Oxford (the lord-treasurer Harley). Ralph is also the author of he was damnable proud : he had a most remarkable aspect, an exceed another anonymous work (published indeed without the name of either ing high forehead, long-faced, and sour eie-lidded, à kind of pigge- printer or bookseller) entitled 'Of the Use and Abuse of Parliaments; in eie.'” In an age of magoificence in dress, Raleigh was conspicuous Two Discourses, viz. 1, A General View of Government in Europe; 2, for his splendour. Of an original and versatile genius, an eminent A Detection of the Parliaments of England from the year 1660.' 2 vols. commander by sea and land, a navigator and discoverer of new 8vo, London, 1744. In an advertisement we are informed that the countries, an accomplished courtier, a statesman, a proficient in the first of the two discourses, which however fills only seventy-eight mechanical arts, a poet of no mean ability, Sir Walter Raleigh was pages of the first volume, is from the pen of Algernon Sydney. The one of the most remarkable characters of an age celebrated for its rest of the book is a hasty performance, and of little value. But eminent men. Not much perhaps can be said in favour of his moral his principal work, also anonymous, is bis continuation of Guthrie's character : he was crafty and rapacious, and his conduct was not History, entitled a History of England during the Reigns of King regulated by truth and probity; but he had kindly affections, and was William, Queen Anne, and King George I.; with an Introductory much beloved by his dependants. Sir Walter was the author of many Review of the Reigns of the Royal Brothers, Charles and James; in smaller pieces on a variety of subjects, philosophical, political, naval, which are to be found the seeds of the Revolution. By a Lover of military, geographical, besides letters, and a collection of small poems. Truth and Liberty :'2 vols. fol., London, 1744-46. Notwithstanding He had two sons by his wife : the elder was killed in South America; a systematic depreciation of King William, which runs through a the second, Carew, who was born in the Tower, survived bim. great part of it, this work is written with spirit and acuteness, and
RALPH, JAMES, was born at Philadelpbia, in what year is not contains many new facts and corrections of the views of the preceding recorded, and passed the earlier part of his life there as a school historians. master. In 1725 he came to England in company with his townsman RAMAZZI'NI, BERNARDO, was born at Carpi, near Modena, in Benjamin Franklin. What was the nature of his occupation is 1633. He studied medicine at Parma, and took his doctor's degree unknown. He has been supposed to have had some employment there in 1659. He practised successively at Carpi and at Modena ; about the court, but he more probably got his living by writing in and when the university of the latter place was instituted, he was the newspapers. In the first book of the 'Dunciad, published in appointed professor of the theory of medicine by the Duke Francis II. 1728, Pope mentions him as one of Walpole's "gazetteers. This same In 1700 he was invited to the second professorsbip of medicine at year appeared Ralph's first separate and acknowledged literary per. Padua, and in 1708 was raised to the principal chair there, though formance, a poem, entitled 'Night.' It is to this work that Pope blind and so infirm that he earnestly desired to decline that honour. alludes in the third book of the 'Dunciad,' where he exclaims
He died November 5, 1714. “Silence, ye wolves, while Ralph to Cynthia howls,
Ramazzini was a frequent writer and a very warm controversialist And makes night hideous; answer him,
both in medical and literary subjects. His first work was a series of owls!”
letters in an acrimonious controversy with Moneglia, a physician of To this passage is appended a note, in which Ralph is denounced as Modena. The works by which Ramazzini is now best known are 'De the author of "a swearing piece called 'Sawney,” which it appears morbis artificum diatriba,' Mutin., 1770, and 'De abusu chiva-china was an attack upon Pope and his two friends Swift and Gay. In this diss. epist. The former was translated into several languages, and note he is declared to be wholly illiterate as well as venal, but an among them into English in 1725. It contains a description of all admirer in the ‘Biograpbia Dramatica' says, “It is very certain that the diseases to which each class of artificers is liable, -as far as they
were then known, the descriptions being carefully drawn up both and Sant' Agostino agli Scopettini, in Bologna. He died at Bologna in from the writings of his predecessors and from his own observations. 1542, according to documents discovered by Baruffaldi. Giovanni The latter was intended to detract from the extravagant reputation Battista Bagnacavallo, who assisted Vasari at Rome, and Primaticcio which the Peruvian bark at that time enjoyed. The whole of Ramaz- at Fontainebleau, was the son of Bartolomeo Ramenghi. (Baruffaldi, zini's writings were published collectively at Cologne, in 1689, at Le Vite de' più insigni Pittori e Scultori Ferraresi ; Lanzi
, &c.) London in 1717, and at several other places at nearly the same time. RAMIRO II, son of Ordoño II, succeeded to the throne of Asturias They are still held in high repute by the Italian physicians, who seem and Leon by the abdication of his elder brother Alfonso IV., surto regard their author with almost as much reverence as they did, namedel Monge' (the monk), who, in 930, renounced the vanities of who in his life-time honoured him with the title of Hippocrates III. the world, and retired into the monastery of Sahagun. Ramiro
RAMEAU, JEAN-PHILIPPE, a very celebrated musician, equally rendered himself illustrious by his wars with the Mohammedans, distinguished by his compositions and by his numerous writings on from whom he wrested many considerable districts and towns. Soon the science, was born at Dijon, in 1683. His father who was organist after his accession to the
throne (932), Ramiro, profiting by the internal in the Sainte-Chapelle of Dijon, tanght his children to play from notes troubles which at that time agitated the Mohammedan empire, made before they could read from letters, and his eldest son, the subject of a successful irruption into the states of Abd-er-rabmàn, the reigning the present notice, when only seven years of age was thought an able kalif, destroying Madrid, Talavera, and other towns;
and when Alperformer on the harpsichord. He pursued the usual studies at the mudaffer, the kalif's uncle, arrived at the head of considerable forces college with considerable success, but an invincible desire, or instinct, to revenge the outrage, he defeated him with dreadful carnage on the as his biographer calls it, led him to music, to which he at length banks of the Duero, not far from the town of Osma. In 938 Ramiro wholly devoted himself. At eighteen he set out for Italy, but pro- invaded Aragon, or Thagher' (as that province was then called by ceeded not farther than Milan, where he became acquainted with a the Arabs), and laid siege to its capital, Saragossa, which he would musical professor with whom he returned to France, and together have reduced if the governor had not hastened to pay him homage and they visited several of the principal cities, exercising their talents at acknowledge himself a feudatory of his crown; though these advantages each with pecuniary views. Soon, however, tired of a wandering life, seem to have been counterbalanced by the victory gained by the that allowed him no opportunity for indulging in those speculative Mohammedans over his troops in 938, near a village called Sotusco bas. inquiries to which he was prone, he went to Paris, and there added Ramiro was again victorious in a battle fought under the walls of largely to his stock of information. Afterwards he became organist Ramora, in which the Moslems, according to their own authorities, of the cathedral of Clermont, in Auvergne, and continued long in lost upwards of 40,000 men. Ramiro, like most of his predecessors, that city, in which he wrote his Traité de l'Harmonie;' but not had often to contend with internal enemies. Scarcely had he ascended finding the means for printing a large quarto volume in a provincial the throne when his brother Alfonso, growing weary of monastic life, town, he proceeded to the capital of France, where in 1722 he forsook his cell, and with a considerable force bastened to Leon to published his great work, and finally fixed himself. He was soon reclaim his throne. He was there invested by Ramiro, who compelled appointed organist of Sainte Croix de la Bretonnerie, and employed him to surrender, and again consigned him to his monastery, where he his spare time in writing in various theoretical treatises, in composing was soon after deprived of his eyes. The dependent count of Castile, his harpsichord lessons, and in teaching. He did not distinguish him. Ferran-Gonzalez, and Diego Nuñez, a count also in the same province, self in that line in which he was destined to excel till the year 1733, next revolted against Ramiro, but he marched against them, seized when, at fifty years of age, he produced the opera of 'Hippolyte et their persons, and confined them to a dungeon ; though he soon after Aricie,' the drama by the Abbé Pellegrin. The success of this pro- pardoned them, and even married his eldest son Ordoño to Urraca, voked much professional envy, if not national discord, and a feud was daughter of Ferran. Ramiro died on the 5th of January 950; having raised among the admirers of Lulli [LULLI) and Rameau, similar to some time before his death abdicated in favour of his son Ordoño, that which in after times was carried to greater excess by the Gluckists and, assuming the penitential garb, passed the remainder of his days and Piccinists. Till the production of Hippolyte, Voltaire almost in religious retirement. alone had discovered Rameau's genius for composition. He previously RAMLER, KARL WILHELM, a lyric poet, translator, and critic, gave him his tragedy of 'Samson' to set, and discerned the beauty of was born at Kolberg in Prussian Pomerania, on February 15, 1725. the music; but its performance was prohibited under the pretext that He was educated at the University of Halle, and in 1748 was made it prostituted a sacred subject.
professor of fine arts to the cadet corps in Berlin, which office he held Of the many operas by Rameau, his Castor and Pollux,' produced till 1790, when he resigned it in order to devote himself more entirely at the Académie Royale de Musique in 1737, is the best : it was repre- to the management of the Berlin national theatre, which he had undersented one hundred times. A chorus in this, of Spartans, Que tout taken in 1787. He retired from all business in 1796, and died on gemisse,' bas but few rivals, in either ancient or modern theatrical April 11, 1798. His works do not display any great poetical genius, music. His Dardanus,' his ' Zoroaster,' and other pieces, were equally but have the merit of correctness, refined taste, and purity of language. successful. From 1733 to 1760 he produced twenty-one operas and He translated Martial, Catullus, and Horace. Among his original ballets, besides harpsichord and other compositions ; together with poems the most successful is 'The Death of Jesus,' and some other many theoretical and controversial works. His merit was at length lyrical productions. A collection of his poetical works was published generally acknowledged. The king created for him the office of in 1800-1, in two volumes. cabinet composer. Afterwards he granted him letters of nobility, and RAMMOHUN ROY, Rajah, was born about 1774, in the district of named him Chevalier de Saint-Michel
. The Academy of Dijon had Burdwan, in Bengal, Hindustan. His paternal ancestors were Brahmins previously received him among their members, and the magistrates of of a high order, and were devoted to the religious duties of their race, that city exempted him, and his family, in perpetuity, from the tax till about the beginning of the 17th century, when they gave up called "La Taille.' He died in 1764, leaving a son and a daughter, spiritual exercises for worldly pursuits. His maternal ancestors, also and was interred with every mark of respect
of high Brahminical rank, and priests by profession as well as by birth, As a theorist Rameau is best known by his large and laboured work uniformly adhered to a life of religious observances. Rammohan Roy on the basse fondamentale,' which he and his advocates treat as a was taught Persian under his father's roof, was sent to Patna to be discovery. But under other dames the inversions of the perfect chord, instructed in Arabic, and afterwards, at the request of his maternal or triad, and the chord of the seventh were known long before Rameau relations, went to Benares, in order to acquire the Sanskrit. entered on the subject. Brossard, in 1702, in defining Trias Harmo A Brahmin by birth, Rammohun Roy was trained by his father in nica,' calls the under-note basse,' or 'son fondamentale;' and after the doctrines and observances of his sect; but his opinions seem to wards remarks that among the three sounds which compose the have become heretical at an early age. “When about the age of sixteen," * triade Harmonique,' the lowest is called "basis,' or 'sonus fundamen- he says, “I wrote a manuscript calling in question the validity of the talis. But our limits do not allow us to go further into a subject idolatrous system of the Hindus. This, together with my known which, to explain clearly, would fill many pages with arguments and sentiments on that subject, having produced a coolness between me examples. Rameau's style of writing is not remarkable for perspicuity. and my immediate kindred, I proceeded on my travels, and passed This was felt and acknowledged by his most zealous partisan, D'Alem- through different countries, chiefly within, but some beyond, the bounds bert, who, in his "Elémens de Musique, théorique et pratique, suivant of Hindustan. When I had reached the age of twenty my father les Principes de M. Rameau,' has endeavoured to clear the work from recalled me, and restored me to his favour.” Afterwards he says, "My the obscurity in which it undeniably is involved; but the great continued controversies with the Brahmins on the subject of their French geometrician has only partially succeeded in his attempt. idolatry and superstition, and my interference with their custom of
RAMENGHI, BARTOLOMEO, called IL BAGNACAVALLO, from the burning widows, and other pernicious practices, revived and increased place of his birth, Bagnacavallo, on the road from Ravenna to Lugo, their animosity against me; and through their influence with my where he was born in 1484. He was a pupil of Raffaelle, and one of family, my father was again obliged to withdraw bis countenance his principal assistants in the Vatican; and after the death of his great openly, though his limited pecuniary support was still continued to master he carried the principles of his style to Bologna, and assisted me." His father died in 1803, and he then published various books to enlarge the character of that school. Raffaelle was his model and and pamphlets against the errors of the Brahmins, in the native and test of excellence, and he did not attempt to look beyond him. foreign languages." The ground which I took in all my controversies Though possessing less vigour than Giulio Romano or Perino del Vaga, was, not that of opposition to Brahminism, but to a perversion of it, Bagnacavallo acquired more of the peculiar grace of Raffaelle's style, and I endeavoured to show that the idolatry of the Brahmins was con especially in his infants, and his works were much studied by the great trary to the practice of their ancestors, and to the principles of the scholars of the Carracci. There are, or rather were, works by Bagna ancient books and authorities which they professed to revere and cavallo in San Michele in Bosco, San Martino, Santa Maria Maggiore, obey." In order to deprive him of caste, the Brahmins commenced a