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160 from the schools. Through the influence of his friend Mr. Strickland, painted in various characters, as Iphigenia, St. Cecilia, Sensibility, a he obtained considerable employment from the gentlemen of West. Bacchante, Alope, the Spinstress, Cassandra, Calypso, Magdalene, Joan moreland, in some of whose portraits he introduced dogs, painted of Arc, and Pythian Priestess. with great spirit and truth. Besides portraits he painted many fancy Romney's ambition appears to have increased with his years, and pieces, twenty of which he exhibited in the town hall of Kendal, and in his later days he devoted himself more ardently to fancy subjects disposed of afterwards by lottery, for which he issued eighty tickets than ever. Milton and his Daughters, and Newton making Experi. at half-a-guinea each. After exercising his talents for about five years ments with the Prism, as a companion to it, were the most popular in the north, bis ambition directed his views towards the capital; and of these later productions. He sent 100.. to Flaxman, then studying in the spring of 1762, he set out alone for London, leaving his wife in Rome, to purchase casts from the antique for him, who sent him and two young children in Kendal, who, according to the painter's "the cream of the finest things in Rome;" —the group of the Laocoon, son, were to join him when he had established himself in the metro the Niobe, the Apollo Belvidere, the Apollo Sauroctonos, groups of polis; but the sequel casts a shade over the moral character of the Castor and Pollux, and Cupid and Psyche, the relief on the Romney. He rose rapidly to fame and fortune, and, with Reynolds Borghese vase, several busts, and the best fragments of legs and arms and Gainsborough, divided the patronage of the great and the wealthy; that could be found. These splendid monuments of ancient genius but his young wife was never called to share the fortunes of her hus- tended only still further to excite the emulation and ambition of band; he concealed his marriage from his friends, and only returned Romney; he conceived grand designs of painting the Seven Ages,' to the neglected mother of his children when he was old and feeble, the Visions of Adam with the Angel,''the Flood, and the opening of and required a nurse to administer to his wants and bear with his the Ark,' and many from Milton, some of Adam and Eve, and others weaknesses.

having Satan as their hero. Romney commenced his metropolitan career by painting heads for This constant excitement seems to have been too much for the four guineas in the city. In 1763 he obtained a second prize of fifty painter's nerves, and his mind was gradually giving way under it. His guineas from the Society of Arts for a picture of the Death of observations called forth by the melancholy fate of his friend Cowper Wolfe,' but, it is said through the influence of Reynolds, the decision seem to have been almost foreboding of the similar fate that awaited was revised, and reversed in favour of Mortimer, for his picture of himself :-"If there is a situation more deplorable than any other in

Edward the Confessor seizing the Treasures of bis Mother. Romney nature, it is the horrible decline of reason, and the derangement of received a present of twenty-five guineas. This circumstance is sup- that power we have been blest with.” The health of his faculties was posed by some to have been the principal cause of the ill-feeling which now rapidly declining, but the return of his friend Flaxman from ever after subsisted between Romney and Reynolds.

Rome, of whose talents he had a very high opinion, cheered him for a Romney seems to have met with considerable and early encourage- season. He shortly however became possessed with an idea that his ment. He soon moved from the city to the west end, and raised his house in Cavendish-square was not sufficiently spacious to admit of price for a head to five guineas. At this time he paid a short visit to the execution of the magnificent designs he had in contemplation, and Paris, where he was much struck with the great Mary de' Medici he accordingly had a house and gallery constructed at Hampstead, series of pictures by Rubens, in the Luxembourg. Upon his return upon his own plans and under his own direction. He left Cavendishhe painted the portrait of Sir Joseph Yates, one of the judges of the square in 1797, after a residence there of twenty-one years, and repaired court of King's Bench, a picture which procured him a valuable con to his new studio at Hampstead, but not to revel in the dreams of his nection amongst lawyers. Shortly afterwards he obtained a fifty- wild genius, for he was soon oppressed with a degree of nervous guinea premium from the Society of Arts for a picture of the 'Death dejection that deprived him of all energy. After one or two efforts of King Edmund.' In 1767, in consequence of bis rapidly increasing upon the canvass, he complained of a swimming in the head, and a practice, he removed to Great Newport-street, within a few doors of paralytic numbness in his right hand, and then renounced the pencil the former residence of Reynolds. Here he added greatly to his for ever. reputation by a portrait of Sir George Warren and his Lady, with a In the summer of 1799 he was seized with a sudden impulse, and little girl caressing a bullfinch. He now not only ranked with the started abruptly for the north, where, in Kendal, his amiable wife still first painters of fancy subjects, but he bid fair to rival the President resided, surviving the cold neglect and long estrangement of her in portrait.

husband, and in whom he found an attentive and affectionate nurse, Romney's intercourse with men of taste and learning was now such "who had never been irritated to an act of unkindness or an expression as to make him feel the necessity of an acquaintance with the works of reproach” by thirty-seven years of absence and neglect, during of art upon the Continent. He accordingly set out for Italy in 1773, which long interval he had paid but two visits to the north. The with a letter of introduction to the pope from that great patron of the kind attentions of this exemplary woman awakened feelings of intense arts, the Duke of Richmond. In Rome he paid particular attention gratitude in the heart of Romney, and he once again enjoyed real to the works of Michel Angelo and Raffaelle; and during his stay there happiness, to which in the long years of his prosperity he had been a produced one of his most beautiful pictures, the Wood Nymph,' | total stranger. He gave orders for the sale of his property at Hamprepresenting a naked female reposing upon the ground, with her back stead, and purchased a house at Kendal, where he had resolved to towards the spectator. From Rome he went to Venice, where he remain. But this bright period was of short duration, for upon the painted the portrait of Wortley Montagu in a Turkish dress. He return of his brother, Colonel Romney, from India, which was little returned to London in the summer of 1775, greatly improved in more than a year after his arrival at Kendal, he suddenly fell into a every respect by his continental tour.

state of utter imbecility, and he lingered on for nearly two years, Shortly after his return to London, he took a house in Cavendish unconscious of existence, until the 15th of November 1802, when he Square, and, under the auspices of the Duke of Richmond, recom- died, in the sixty-eighth year of his age. He was buried at Dalton, the menced his career as a portrait-painter, charging 15 guineas for a head, place of his birth. 30 for a half-length, and 60 for a whole length; the President's price Romney attained to considerable eminence both in history and being at that time 35 guineas for a head. But Romney soon found it portrait. According to Flaxman—a warm friend and admirer of necessary to raise his prices, for sitters of all ranks crowded to his Romney-he surpassed all British painters in poetic dignity of concepstudio; and, notwithstanding they were still comparatively low, in a tion; and in portrait he was the acknowledged rival of Sir Joshua few years he realised an income of nearly four thousand a year by Reynolds. His productions in poetic and historic art, finished and portraits alone. He subsequently raised his prices considerably: in unfinished, are extraordinarily numerous, comprising every variety of 1787 to 25 guineas ; in 1789, to 30; and in 1793, to 35 guineas for a subject—from the illustration of the most simple historical fact to the head, which continued to be his charge during the remainder of his endeavour to embody the wildest fictions of the poets. Some of these life, the other sizes being charged in proportion.

designs were presented in 1817 by the painter's son to the University Romney was now the acknowledged rival of the President in of Cambridge, to be deposited in the Fitzwilliam Museum ; and the portrait. Lord Thurlow is reported to have said, " Reynolds and Cartoons, so much admired by Flaxman, were by the same gentleman Romney divide the town; I am of the Romney faction." Notwith presented in 1823 to the Royal Institution of Liverpool. They consist standing Romney's great employment in portraiture, he found abund- of eight from the story of Cupid and Psyche, two from that of Orpheus ant leisure to‘lay in' fancy pieces, many of which however were left and Eurydice, and one from each of the following subjects :-Promeunfinished. The most remarkable of those of the earlier part of his theus chained, Descent of Odin,' Medea,' Birth of Shakspere,' career were, The Tempest;' "Tragedy and Comedy nursing Shak: 'Infant Shakspere,' 'Death of Cordelia,' Ghost of Darius,' and spere;' the 'Infant Shakspere attended by the Passions;' the 'Alope;''Atossa's Dream.' Children in a Boat drifted out to Sea ;'. Shepherd Boy asleep, The following examples will serve to show how extensively Romney watched by his Dog, at the approach of a Thunder-storm; Nature was patronised in portrait :-the Duke of Richmond, the Duke of unveiling herself to Shakspere,' &c. Romney is said to have been the Portland, the Duke of Grafton, Lord Chancellor Thurlow, Warren originator of Boydell's 'Shakspere Gallery. The Tempest and the Hastings, Cowper, Earl of Chatham, William Pitt, Gibbon, David Infant Sbakspere attended by the Passions were painted for that collec- Hartley, Sir Hyde Parker, Lord Melville, Lord Ellenborough, the tion. He made sketches also for five other subjects, but they were Archbishops of Canterbury, York, and Dublin, Dr. Parr, Dr. Paley, never executed; the Banquet and the Cavern Scene in "Macbeth;' John Wesley, Thomas Paine, Mrs. Fitzherbert, Mrs. Jordan, and Mrs. Ford and Mrs. Page; Bolingbroke and Margery Jourdain con- Flaxman modelling the bust of Hayley. juring up the Fiend; and the Maid of Orleans. Romney was an enthu Romney was not a member of the Royal Academy, and he never siastic admirer of the celebrated Lady Hamilton, then the beautiful sent any of his works to its exhibitions. He has had several biograEmma Lyon. According to his son, he made no less than twenty-three phers : Cumberland, the dramatist, wrote a short account of him ; his pictures from her, some of which however were never finished. She was friend Hayley, the poet, published an elaborate life, for which Flaxman





wrote the character of his works; another was afterwards written by leaped over them; and Romulus punished his brother's insolence by bis son the Rev. John Romney; and there is an interesting memoir of putting him to death, him in Allan Cunningham's 'Lives of the British Painters,' &c.

The population of the new city being very small, the gates were ROMULUS. The numerous legends about Romulus, the founder thrown open to strangers. Exiles, robbers, runaway slaves, and of Rome, may be distributed into two principal classes. One of these criminals Alocked to the city as an asylum, and found a welcome represents him as closely connected with the royal family of Alba, and reception. The only thing they now wanted was women, but none of may be considered as the native legend which probably originated the neighbouring people were willing to form matrimonial connections among the Romans themselves, and was almost universally believed with the new settlers. Romulus therefore had recourse to a stratagem: by the Romans. The second, which connects Romulus with Aeneas he proclaimed that festive solemnities and games should be held in the and the Trojans, is manifestly of Greek origin, and did not become city, and he invited his neighbours the Latins and Sabines to attend current until a comparatively late period of the history of Rome. them with their daughters. In the midst of the solemnities the females According to the latter story, Romulus was sometimes described as were forcibly carried off: the number thus taken was said to have the son of Aeneas, and sometimes as his grandson; and while some been thirty. The three nearest Latin towns, Antemna, Cænina, and writers mention Romulus alone, others represent him as having a Crustumerium, now took up arms against Roise; but Romulus defeated brother (Remus), or several brothers. . (See the various modifications them successively, and having slain Acron, king of Cænina, he dediof this legend, or rather Greek fabrication, in Festus, 8. v. 'Roma;' cated the first spolia opima to Jupiter Feretrius. The Sabines, under Plut., “Romul. 2; and Dionys. Hal., i. 73; comp. Niebuhr, i., p. 210, their king Titus Tatius, likewise made war upon Rome; and the &c.) This story leaves a vacuum in the history of Rome, which treachery of Tarpeia, a Roman woman, opened to them the gates of amounts to about three centuries and a half, that is, from the return the fortress on the Capitol. The Sabines attempted to storm the city; of the heroes from Troy till the middle of the eighth century before and Romulus in this emergency vowed a temple to Jupiter Stator, in Christ, and various means were devised by ancient writers, such as the order to inspire his men with courage, and to prevent them from flying building of a second, and even of a third Rome, for filling up this gap. before the enemy. The war was continued with doubtful success, and But this story, notwithstanding its incongruities, has sometimes been finally terminated by the Sabine women throwing themselves between adopted even by Roman writers, such as Sallust, who states that Rome the combatants, and thus restoring peace between their fathers and was founded by Trojans, under the guidance of Aeneas. The genuine husbands. Romulus rewarded the women of Rome for their services Roman legend made Romulus and Remus the twin-sons of Silvia, by the grant of various privileges, and the thirty curiæ were called daughter of the Alban king Procas. The royal house of Alba was in after the names of the thirty Sabine women. The two nations, the later times represented as descended from Aeneas, while others, pre- Romans on the Palatine, and the Sabines on the Capitoline and the Ferving the legend more in its original purity, made no mention of its Quirinal, were united as one nation, though each continued to have Trojan descent. The main features of the Roman legend which are its own king. preserved in Livy (i. 3, &c.; Cic., 'De Republ.,' ii, 5; comp. Plut., The two kings and the citizens of the two states met in the valley Romul.,' 3, &c.; Dionys. Hal., i. p. 61, &c.) are these :

between the Capitoline and Palatine (comitium), whenever it was When Procas, king of Alba, died, he left two sons, Numitor and necessary to transact business which was of importance to both nations. Amulius. The latter wrested the government from his elder brother, This union however did not last long, for Tatius was killed during a who yielded without a struggle, and lived as a private person in quiet national sacrifice at Lavinium, and Romulus henceforth ruled alone retirement. But Amulius, fearing that the descendants of his brother over the two nations. might punish him for his usurpation, had the son of Numitor mur During the period that Romulus was sole king he is said to have dered, and made his daughter Silvia a priestess of Vesta, an office carried on two wars, one against Fidence and another against Veii. which obliged her to perpetual celibacy. One day however, when Fidena commenced the war from fear of the growing strength of its Silvia went into the sacred grove to draw water from the well for the neighbour; but Romulus got a victory over them by stratagem, and service of Vesta, an eclipse of the sun took place, and the maid, took possession of their town. The war against Veii rose out of that frightened by the appearance of a wolf, fled into a cave. Here she against Fidenæ, for both were Etruscan towns. Veii was likewise was overpowered by Mars, who promised her a glorious offspring. She humbled, but it obtained a truce of one hundred years, after was delivered of twins, but the god apparently forsook her, for she surrendering part of its territory to Rome. was condemned and put to death by Amulius, and it was determined Such are the fortunes and achievements which the old Roman legend that the two children should be drowned in the river Anio. But the ascribed to the founder of the city. He is said to have died after a river carried the cradle, with the children in it, into the Tiber, which reign of thirty-seven years (B.6. 716). His death is represented in as at the time had overflowed its banks. The cradle was driven into marvellous a light as his birth. On the nones of Quinctilis, or on the shallow water to a wild fig-tree (Ficus Ruminalis) at the foot of the Quirinalia, the king, while reviewing his people near the marsh of Palatine Hill. A she-wolf, which came to the water to drink, heard Capra, was taken up by his father Mars, and carried to heaven. The the cries of the children, and suckled them; whilst a woodpecker, people in terror fled from the spot; but Romulus soon afterwards which was, like the wolf, an animal sacred to Mars, brought them appeared as a glorified hero to Proculus Julius, and bade him inform other food whenever they wanted it. This marvellous

spectacle was his people that in future he would watch over them as the god observed by Faustulus, the herdsman of the flocks of King Amulius, Quirinus. and he took the children and carried them to his wife Acca Laurentia Such are the main features of the story of the founder of Rome, or Lupa. Thus they grew up in the shepherd's straw huts on the which was handed down by tradition, and commemorated in national Palatine : that in which Romulus was said to have lived was kept up songs to the time of Dionysius. (Dionys. Hal., 1., p. 66.) Writers both to the time of the Emperor Nero. The two youths became the ancient and modern have attempted to elicit historical truth from this stoutest and bravest among their comrades, with whom they shared beautiful and in most parts poetical legend, or have struck out some their booty. The followers of Romulus were called Quinctilii, and parts of the narrative as altogether fabulous, and retained others which those of Remus, Fabii. A quarrel one day broke out between the two are more in accordance with the events of real history. The misbrothers and the shepherds of the wealthy Numitor. Remus was chievous results of such perverse criticism have been clearly shown by taken by a stratagem, and led to Alba before Numitor, who, struck by Niebuhr (i., p. 235, &c.) his appearance and the circumstance of the age of the two brothers, * RONGE, JOHANNES, the leader of the so-called 'Catholic moveordered Romulus likewise to be brought before him. Faustulus now ment' which agitated Germany in 1845 and subsequent years, and disclosed to the young men the secret of their birth, and, with the which for the time threatened a schism in the Roman Catholic Church assistance of the faithful comrades who had accompanied them to in Germany, was born at Birchofswalde, a village in Silesia, on the Alba, they slew Amulius, and their grandfather Numitor was restored 16th of October 1813. His father was a farmer in humble circumto the government of Alba.

stances, and with a large family, and it was with some difficulty that The love of their humble home however drew the youths back to the boy, after receiving some rudiments of education at the villagethe banks of the Tiber, to found a new city. The district assigned to school, was sent to the gymnasium of Neisse. He attended the gym. them for this purpose by Numitor extended in the direction of Alba nasium from 1827 to 1836, and in 1837 he went to the University of as far as the sixth milestone, which was the frontier of the original Breslau ; in 1839 he served for a twelvemonth as a volunteer in a rifle Ager Romanus, and where, down to a very late period, the Ambarvalia battalion. To satisfy his friends, he devoted himself to theology, with were solemnised. A dispute arising between the brothers as to the a view to becoming a Roman Catholic priest. After receiving the site and name of the new city, it was agreed that it should be decided necessary education at the Roman Catholic seminary of Breslau, he was by augury, Romulus took his station on the Palatine, and Remus on appointed in 1841 to a clerical charge at Grottkau. Here he was active the Aventine. Remus had the first augury, and saw six vultures, but in his duties, especially in educating the young. While still at the Romulus saw twelve. Considering that his double number was a Roman Catholic seminary however he had contracted a distaste for many signal proof of the favour of the gods, Romulus and his party claimed of the priestly ideas and methods, and hence he had a reputation for the victory. In observance of the rites customary among the Etrus-liberalism' and heretical opinions. It was objected to him also that cans in the building of towns, Romulus yoked a bullock and a heifer he “wore his hair long," and in other respects did not conform to the to a plough and drew a furrow round the foot of the Palatine Hill to customs of his order. He had projected and was preparing a work mark the course of the walls and of the pomerium. Over the parts on the 'Abuses of the Church, but before this work could be got where he intended to build the gates (portæ) he carried (portare) the ready an opportunity presented itself of his coming forward in the plough. The new city thus built on the Palatine was called Roma. character of a critic of the Roman Catholic ecclesiastical system in Remus, who felt indignant at the wrong which he had suffered, in Germany. A vacancy having occurred in the bishopric of Breslau, the order to show his contempt of the rude and simple fortifications, Jesuits had been active in exerting their influence in the diocese, and

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154 in trying to get a man of their own appointed. A man of liberal Turnèbe, became a good Greek scholar, and took orders as a priest. opinions named Knauer had however been nominated bishop, and the He also began writing French poems, and was crowned in the floral efforts of the Jesuits took the shape of activity at the Roman court so games at Toulouse. He was considered as the successor of Marot, and as to delay his confirmation. The delay lasted a year, and caused the chief of the French poets of the time. Montaigne, De Thou, some excitement. While it yet continued (1842), Ronge published in Scaliger, Muret, Pasquier, and others commended him highly; but a Saxon journal a letter on the subject, entitled 'Rome and the modern critics have judged him more severely. Boileau says that Chapter of Breslau,' in which the conduct of the ultra-Roman party Ronsard's language was a heterogeneous compound of various languages was severely criticised. Being suspected though not identified as the and dialects, and that his muse spoke Greek and Latin in French author of this letter, he was deprived of his charge, and ordered into verses. Malherbe and La Bruyère have spoken of him in the same penance in the Catholic seminary (January 1843). He then removed strain. Charles IX. bestowed on Ronsard an abbacy and other benefices. to the village of Laurahütte in Silesia, where he became teacher in a His moral conduct however is said not to have been strictly clerical. school attended by the children of the miners of that neighbourhood. He died in 1585, in one of his livings near Tours, and a solemn funeral He was thus occupied when, in the summer of 1844, Arnoldi, bishop service was celebrated in honour of him at Paris, in the chapel of the of Treves, issued his famous announcement to the effect that on the college of Boncour. Ronsard had certainly poetical genius, but he 18th of August in that year, and for six weeks following, there would was deficient in taste. He was in this respect in France what the be a public exhibition in the cathedral of Treves of the seamless seicentisti of the following century were in Italy and Spain. His coat of Christ,” which had been preserved in the cathedral from time poetical works are numerous; they consist of odes, hymns, eclogues, immemorial, and which had on previous occasions been exhibited to &c. : Mascarades, Combats, et Cartels faits à Paris et au Carnaval de the great satisfaction of the German Catholics. At the same time a Fontainebleau. He also began a poem, 'La Franciade,' which he left historical account of the Holy Coat' was published under the bishop's unfinished. His works are now nearly forgotten. The most complete auspices-setting forth how it had been procured in the Holy Land edition of them is that by Richelet, 2 vols. folio, Paris, 1623. in the 4th century by St. Helena, the mother of the Emperor Con ROOKE, ADMIRAL SIR GEORGE, the eldest son of Sir William stantine; had been presented by her to her native city of Treves; had Rooke, was born at his father's seat, the priory of St. Lawrence near there been kept till the year 1121, when it was first openly seen; had Canterbury, in the year 1650. He entered the navy as a volunteer, at length been publicly produced in 1512; and had in 1514 been made and at the age of thirty had attained the rank of post-captain. In the subject of a special bull by Pope Leo X., in virtue of which an 1689 he was sent out as commodore with a squadron to the coast of indulgence had been granted to all who should go and pay homage to Ireland, where his services were such as to induce William III. to it, and subscribe for its preservation and adornment.

promote him to the rank of rear-admiral of the red.

He soon On the day appointed the 'Exposition' did take place; and between afterwards bore a part in the indecisive action between the Earl of that day and the 6th of October following, immense crowds of Ger- Torrington's fleet and that of the French admiral Tourville, off Beachy mans and also of foreign Catholics flocked to see the relic-to the Head. In 1692 Rooke was advanced to the rank of vice-admiral of the number, it was calculated, of more than a million in all. There were blue, and greatly distinguished himself in the battle off Cape La Hogue rumours of miracles performed by the Holy Coat. Meanwhile the (properly La Hague) between the French fleet and the combined exhibition-being regarded as an attempt to “revive Middle-age English and Dutch fleets under Admiral Russell, May 19, 1692; but a Catholicism in Germany"-had aroused much comment throughout part of the French fleet having escaped into La Hogue, and being the country; and pamphlets had been published by Protestants hauled up so high that the English ships of the line could not reach denouncing it as an imposture—including one by two professors at them, Rooke volunteered on the following day to attack them with Bonn, entitled 'The Holy Seamless Coat at Treves and the Twenty the boats of his squadron. This service he performed at night under other Holy Seamless Coats'-intended to prove historically that there cover of a fire from his frigates and smaller vessels; and so well was were many rivals to the relic of Treves, having equal claims to his plan contrived, and so unexpected and suddenly executed, that authenticity with it, if not better. Into this controversy Ronge threw though six French three-deckers were burnt that night and seven himself. Under the date, October 1, 1844, he published in his own other ships of the line on the following morning, the loss of the English name, and from his address at Laurahütte, in Silesia, a Letter from a only amounted to ten men. For this exploit Rooke was rewarded Catholic Priest to Bishop Arnoldi' denouncing the Exposition of the with the rank of vice-admiral of the red, a pension of 10001. a year, Holy Coat. The letter was published in the Sächsische Vaterlands- and the honour of knighthood. blättern.' Ronge was thereupon excommunicated by the Chapter of After the peace of Ryswick in 1697, Sir George Rooke was elected Breslau (December 9, 1844). Even among Roman Catholics however, member of parliament for Portsmouth; and though he was attached there was a strong public opinion in his favour; and, other circum- to the Tory party, then in opposition to the government, Queen Anne, stances transpiring to produce the result, the occasion was taken to on her accession in 1702, appointed him “vice-admiral and lieutenant proclaim a schism with Rome and the design of founding a Catholic of the admiralty, and also lieutenant of the fleets and seas of this German Church independently of the Papal See. On the 26th of kingdom," having previously constituted her royal consort prince January 1845, the first German Catholic congregation on the new George of Denmark generalissimo of her forces by land and sea. The principle was founded in Breslau, with Ronge as pastor; and in the war of the succession bad now commenced, and an attack upon Cadiz Easter of the same year, there was a council at Leipzig to agree upon was resolved upon, the land-forces being under the command of the a Creed and settle the organisation of the new Church. The move. Duke of Ormond, and the combined English and Dutch fleets under ment spread; an enormous number of pamphlets were published pro Rooke. The attack was begun, bat, in consequence of the opposition and con; Ronge travelled hither and thither, as the chief of the of the Prince of Hesse, was not persevered in. Having received intelmovement; and over Europe he was heard of as a "second Luther.” ligence however that the Plate fleet, under convoy of a French squadron, In a short time as many as 200 societies of the new faith and discipline had taken shelter in the port of Vigo, the duke and Sir George resolved are said to have been instituted—the Protestants, on the whole, wel- to proceed there. The duke stormed the town with 3000 men, while coming the phenomenon as a new phase of Protestantism. Time the fleet took and destroyed seventeen ships ; six galleons being taken passed on; and after the revolutionary outbreak of 1848, the German by the English and five by the Dutch, who burnt five others. The value governments found it their interest to oppose the new religious of the specie and goods taken was estimated at five millions of dollars. development. Most of the Societies were put down; and in 1850 Sir George Rooke having been joined by Sir Cloudesley Shovel, with Ronge himself was obliged to take refuge in England. Since that a large reinforcement from England, they resolved to make an attack time he has resided chiefly in London, occupying himself partly as a upon Gibraltar. On the 21st of July 1704 the Prince of Hesse, with teacher, and partly as a preacher to German exiles: in which latter 1800 marines, was landed on the isthmus, while the ships commenced capacity he has been endeavouring to found what he calls a a cannonade upon the fortress, which, having been kept up for about Humanistic Society. He has published, among other things, 'A six hours, the Spaniards began to fly from the batteries. The boats Practical Guide to the English Kinder-Garten (Children's Garden); were then manned and armed, and the seamen succeeded in making being an Exposition of Froebell's System of Infant Education,' 1855. themselves masters of the great platform, which they retained till the In Germany the societies founded under his impulse have been, in the following day, when a reinforcement of seamen enabled them to carry main, suppressed; but there are said to be societies, on the same another strong battery, which put them in possession of most of the footing, among the Germans in America.

enemy's cannon. The governor then accepted the offered terms of RONSA'RD, PIERRE DE, was born in 1524, in the district of old capitulation, and the fortress surrendered. France called Vendômois. He was the son of a maître-d'hôtel of On the 9th of August 1704 Rooke fell in with the French fleet under Francis I., who made him a knight. Pierre studied for a short time the Comte de Toulouse, who had recently put to sea from Toulon, in the college of Navarre at Paris, but soon after he entered the with fifty-two ships of the line and twenty-four galleys. The French service of the Duc d'Orléans, son of Francis I., in the quality of page. admiral endeavoured to get away, though, according to Rooke's stateHe afterwards attended, in the same capacity, James Stuart, king of ment, he had a superiority of 600 guns, but on the 13th of August Scotland, who had come to Paris to marry Marie de Lorraine, and he Rooke brought him to action off Malaga. The battle began in the accompanied James on his return to Scotland, where he remained forenoon, and ended with the day, when the French went off to leethree years. On his return to France he resumed his post with the ward, and, the weather being hazy, escaped. This was a hard-fought Duc d'Orléans, who sent him on several missions to Scotland, Ireland, battle. The French lost upwards of 3000 men, and the English and other countries. He was afterwards sent by Francis I. on a mission upwards of 2000. to Piedmont. In these several journeys he suffered much, in conse Sir George Rooke on his return to England was received by Queen quence of which he became deaf. On withdrawing from active life he Anne at Windsor with great distinction, but finding that the govern. retired to the college of Coqueret, where he studied the classics under 'ment was hostile to him, he resigned bis employments, gave up his

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168 seat in parliament, and passed the rest of his life at his seat of St. actor; for the plays which he performed were written by him, the Lawrence, where he died on the 24th of January 1709, aged fifty- music composed by his hand, and the principal character represented eight, and was buried in the cathedral of Canterbury. He was thrice by himself. As an artist, he was most extensively patronised, and at married.

very high prices. In 1647, on the breaking out of the revolt of MasaROOKER, MICHAEL ANGELO, an artist of considerable merit niello at Naples, Salvator Rosa returned to that city, and became a as a landscape-painter and engraver, was born in London about 1743. member of the band. On the suppression of the revolt, he made his His father, Edward Rooker, also a skilful designer and engraver, who escape from Naples in the train of the Prince Carlo Giovanni de' excelled in landscapes and architectural views, appears to have been a Medici, with whom he went to Florence, where he was employed by singular character, having for some time acted as a harlequin at Drury the grand-duke to paint in the Pitti Palace. Here he associated with Lane Theatre. Michael Angelo was taught engraving by his father, the literati and the principal nobility. After remaining several years and executed the head-pieces to the Oxford Almanack' for several at Florence he returned to Rome, and was again extensively employed. years, from his own drawings. In landscape-drawing, which is said to In 1663 he executed three pictures for the exbibition of San Giovanni; have been his favourite occupation, he was instructed by Paul Sandby, one was Pythagoras on the sea-shore, the second was the same philosowhose style he imitated. His manner is not powerful, but his drawings pher recounting his visit to the infernal regions, and the third the display taste and feeling. For several years Rooker painted the scenes prophet Jeremiah thrown into a pit for having prophesied the fall of for the Haymarket Theatre. He was one of the early associates of the Jerusalem; and soon after he produced his most celebrated picture, Royal Academy, and died on the 3rd of March, 1801, at the age of the 'Catiline Conspiracy.' In 1668, at the annual exhibition of the fifty-seven or fifty-eight.

Feast of San Giovanni Decollato, he placed his "Saul and the Witch ROOS, PHILIP PETER, a painter commonly called Rosa Da of Endor'

in competition with the works then shown of the elder Tivoli, from his long residence at that place, was born at Frankfurt masters. He did not execute any important works after this, and died in 1655. He was instructed in art by his father, who was in the service of an attack of the dropsy, on the 15th of March 1673. He was of the Landgrave of Hesse, by which prince Philip was sent to Italy, buried in the vestibule of the church of Santa Maria degli Angioli, and allowed a pension during the period of his study. On arriving at which was erected over the ruins of the baths of Diocletian, by Michel Rome he applied himself assiduously to painting, and acquired an Angelo. Salvator Rosa left one son, by Lucrezia, a mistress, who astonishing facility of hand; indeed, such was his rapidity of execution accompanied him from Florence, and to whom he was married shortly that C. le Blond, who was at the same time at Rome, declares that before his death. Roos copied in chalk the arch of Titus within half an hour, and that Rosa possessed great invention, and had a wonderful facility of exe. with a considerable degree of finish. He devoted his talents chiefly cution. He is superior when he confines his efforts to works of the to painting animals, which he designed mostly from nature. To faci- easel size, and his figures are then correct in drawing and spirited in litate his studies he established himself at Tivoli, where he kept a kind design. Such is the case in his picture of ' Atilius Regulus, formerly of menagerie for the purpose of drawing from the life with correctness in the Palazzo Colonna at Rome, and now in the possession of the such animals as he required for his pictures. His other subjects Earl of Darnley. Of bis landscapes, it may be observed, that he generally represent pastoral scenes, with herdsmen and cattle, and wholly rejected the simplicity and amenity cultivated by Claude and works of a similar nature, some of which are executed as large as life. by Poussin, and indulged in gloomy effects and romantic forms; nor His groups are composed with much judgment; and the landscapes in are his sea-pieces less forcible; in them he represents the desolate his backgrounds, his skies and distances, are treated with fidelity, and shores of Calabria, and not unfrequently adds interest to his works by executed in a masterly style. Yet, although he painted with great the terror of shipwreck. According to Sir Joshua Reynolds, he gives facility, his productions betray no appearance of negligence or inatten- a peculiar cast of nature, which, though void of grace, elegance, and tion; they are free, without being deficient in finish. His pictures, simplicity, though it has nothing of that elevation and dignity which according to Lanzi, are to be found in the galleries of Vienna, Dresden, belong to the grand style, has yet that sort of dignity which belongs and other capital cities of Germany, besides an immense number in to savage and uncultivated nature. Elsewhere, Sir Joshua very truly Italy and many in England, though we have no specimen by his hand observes, "What is most to be admired in Salvator Rosa is the perfect in the National Gallery. He was a member of most of the principal correspondence which he observed between the subjects which he academies of Europe. He is said by Huber to have etched a few chose and his manner of treating them. Everything is of a piece : plates of pastoral subjects, which are very scarce. He died in 1705. his rocks, views, sky, even to his handling, have the same rude and

ROSA, SALVATOR, was born at Renella, or Arenella, a village in wild character which animates his figures." But in his efforts to main. the environs of Naples, on the 21st of July 1615, and he was originally tain this bold and romantic style, Salvator, it must be admitted, is intended for the Church. Whilst yet a boy he manifested a stroug often extremely careless in his drawing, both trees and rocks being propensity for drawing, and in order to cure him his parents procured in outline and surface quite untrue to nature. his admission as a student in the college of the congregation of Somasca There are a great number of bis pictures in England, several of in Naples; but before the expiration of the usual period of residence, which are in the collections of the Marquis of Westminster, the he was either expelled or voluntarily quitted the college. On his Earl of Ellesmere, the Duke of Devonshire, the Earl of Darnley, and return to Renella he devoted his time to the study of music, and others. The National Gallery contains one large landscape by himcultivated his talent for poetry; and on the marriage of his eldest Mercury and the Woodman. His etchings consist of about pinety sister with Francesco Francanzani, a disciple of the Spagnuoletto in number, executed in a spirited and masterly style. The chiaroschool, he attended the studio of that artist. He also studied from scuro is admirably managed, and the heads of the figures are full of Dature in oil-colour, and in 1633 went from Naples on a tour through expression. His monogram is composed of an S and R combined, the the wild scenery of La Basilicata, La Puglia, and Calabria. During former letter drawn over the straight line of the latter. his absence he appears to have associated with banditti. At this period Some of the music books of Salvator Rosa were, amongst other Salvator seems to have fostered and matured his taste for romantic musical manuscripts, purchased by Dr. Burney, at Rome, and amougst scenery, and the studies which he made of groups and single figures many airs and cantatas by different masters, there were eight entire whilst with the bandits served him as valuable materials for his future cantatas, written, set, and transcribed by the painter himself. From works. Soon after his arrival at Renella his father died, leaving the the specimen of his talents for music there given, there seems to be family dependent upon Salvator, who was then certainly not more than no doubt that he had a truer genius for this science, in point of eighteen years of age, for their support. To perform this duty, he melody, than any of his predecessors or contemporaries, and there is a executed with great rapidity subjects on primed paper, his poverty not strength of expression in his verses which must always place him enabling him to purchase cauvas, and sold them to the dealers who above the middle rank of poets. To his other accomplishments he keep the stalls in the Strada della Carità in Naples. One of these, added architecture, which, according to Pascoli, he understood perrepresenting the story of Hagar and Ishmael, was seen and purchased fectly; and he excelled as a comic actor, an improvisatore, and a by Giovanni Lanfranco, who was then in the city decorating the church performer on various musical instruments. of Gesù Nuovo for the Jesuits. The admiration of that painter was * ROSAS, DON JUAN MANUEL DE, formerly president of the valuable to Salvator, for his works rose in price accordingly, but at Argentine Confederation, is a native of South America, but descended the same time it laid him open to the malice and envy of other from Spanish progenitors. The states bordering on the Rio de la Neapolitan artists. They ridiculed the efforts of a man who had been Plata from the time of their casting off their dependence on Spain, obliged to seek the patronage of mean dealers, and he retorted upon had been in a continued state of change. Sometimes they constituted them in epigrams, and satirical verses which he set to music and sang. themselves independent and frequently hostile states, sometimes they He however obtained the friendship of Aniello Falcone, an eminent formed a federal state, and sometimes there were federations of two painter of battles, the first and best of the pupils of Spagnuoletto, who or three. In January 1831 Rosas, who had previously displayed gave him instruction, and after a time introduced him to the notice capacity and courage in subordinate employments, was appointed of that great painter, from whose advice and practice he derived great governor or captain-general of Buenos Ayres, which province was then benefit.

in federal uvion with Entre Rios, Corrientes, and Santa Fé. In this On the invitation of his former friend, who was in the establishment position his first enterprise was to subdue the disaffected Indians, of the Cardinal Brancaccio, he repaired to Rome. Here he enjoyed which he accomplished by his promptitude and energy, thus securing the patronage of the cardinal, who took him to the bishopric of internal peace, and establishing a character for himself. In 1835 the Viterbo, where, besides other works, he painted an altar-piece repre-confederation was dissolving into anarchy, when Rosas was elected Benting the incredulity of St. Thomas, for the Chiesa della Morte. In president of the whole Argentine Confederation. The other states 1639 he went again to Rome. The reputation of Salvator was now at acceding, Rosas still retained his position in Buenos Ayres, which state its height: he was esteemed as a painter, a poet, a musician, and an I was specially charged with the management of those affairs which were





common to the whole. The activity and firmness of Rosas were pro- pointed though temperate language in his ' Illustrations, Historical and ductive of some immediate good results, civil war was for a time Critical, of the Life of Lorenzo de' Medici,' 4to, London, 1822. He quenched, industry promoted, and commerce extended; but bis great inserted in the appendix, among other documents, an important letter object was to extend and uphold the predominance of Buenos Ayres written to Sixtus IV. by the signoria, or executive, of Florence after over the whole confederation, and by tyrannical measures to make

the the failure of the Pazzi conspiracy, which letter was discovered in the trade of La Plata a monopoly to Buenos Ayres. This desire led to archives of Florence by the Rev. F. H. Egerton, and printed at Paris an attempt to force Paraguay to join the Confederation, and to an in 1814. attack on Monte Video. The first produced a war with Brazil, the The second historical work of Roscoe is his Life and Pontificate of second a war with England and France. He was of course beaten, Leo X.' In this also the author has been charged with undue partiality but resisted stubbornly from 1845 to 1850. He did not even then for his subject. He has reflected with much severity upon the great submit, but his rule having become intolerable to the subject states, reformers of the 16th century, because, while they struggled against they revolted, chose Don J. J. Urquiza as their president and general, the overgrown absolutism of papal Rome, they could not divest themand on February 2, 1851, Rosas and his army were utterly routed at selves at once of the habit of intolerance which they had derived from Moron in Buenos Ayres, and Rosas was indebted for his escape with early education. Count Bossi travslated the Life of Leo' into Italian, his life to the disguise of a peasant and the assistance of the British adding notes in which he rebutted several of the charges brought cousul. He sought refuge in England, and Urquiza's authority, against Roscoe's former work concerning Lorenzo: Vita e Pontificato though it was not peacefully maintained, still subsists.

di Leone X., di Guglielmo Roscoe, tradotta e corredato di annotazioni RO'SCIUS, QUINTUS, a celebrated Roman actor, was born near ed altri documenti inediti, dal Conte Luigi Bossi, Milanese,' Milan, 1817. Lanuvium (Cic., ' De Div.,' i. 36), but at what period is uncertain. He Considered as works of erudition and of general interest, the lives is frequently mentioned in the writings of Cicero, who was his friend of Lorenzo and Leo by Roscoe stand deservedly high. They introduce and warm admirer. His talents also obtained for him the friendship the reader to a splendid period of modern history, among a chosen of Sulla, who, during his dictatorship, presented him with a gold ring, society of scholars, poets, statesmen, and artists, who gathered round the mark of equestrian rank (Macrob., "Sat.,' ii. 10), which honour was the hospitable board of Lorenzo, and afterwards in the more pompous the more remarkable, as many passages in the Roman writers prove court of his son Leo. Numerous anecdotes and other particulars that the histriones were generally held in great contempto so perfect concerning those individuals make the reader familiar with their however was Roscius in his art, that his name became almost synony. persons; and poetical extracts and valuable historical documents add mous with excellence in any other branch; and thus when an orator to the value of the work. The style is remarkably pleasing and produced a great impression on his audience, it was customary to say, fluent. These merits of Roscoe's biographies have been universally « a Roscius is on the stage." (Cic., 'De Orat.,' i. 28 ; 'Brut.,' 84.) acknowledged, even by those who have censured the general spirit of Actors frequently received instruction from Roscius, who used to say his worke. however that he had never had any pupil with whom he was satisfied. Roscoe contributed greatly to encourage among his countrymen a (* De Orat,' i. 28.) Macrobius relates (1. c.) that Cicero and Roscius taste for Italian literature and the fine arts. In his own town of Liverused to try which of the two could more frequently express the same pool, the Royal Institution owes its formation to Roscoe's exertions. thought-the one by his eloquence, the other by his gestures; and Roscoe was returned to parliament for Liverpool in the Whig that Roscius derived from this exercise such a high opinion of his own interest. In the latter part of his life he became partner in a bankingart, that he wrote a work, in wbich he compared eloquence with the house, in which however he was not successful. He died at Liverpool, art of acting. Macrobius also states that Roscius received about a in June 1831. A biographical notice of him was appended to a new thousand denarii (upwards of 35l.) a day for his acting. He died about edition of his Life of Lorenzo, by his son Henry. The Life of Lorenzo, B.C. 61 ; since Cicero, in his oration for Archias, which was delivered with this biography of the author, has been published as a volume of in that year, speaks of his death as quite recent (c. 8). There is an Bohn's “Standard Library,' and 'The Life and Pontificate of Leo X.' extant oration of Cicero, though considerably mutilated, in defence of forms two more volumes of that series. Roscius. The subject of the oration is a claim of 50,000 sesterces Three of Mr. Roscoe's sons have secured an honourable name in against Roscius by C. Fannius Chaerea (“Ueber die Rede des Cicero für literature. HENRY, the author of the Memoir of his father, was a Q. Roscius,' Zeitschrift, i. 248).

barrister, and the author of several legal works. He also wrote the ROSCOE, WILLIAM, was born March 8, 1753, at a public house Lives of Eminent Lawyers' for Lardner's 'Cyclopædia.' He died called the Old Bowling Green, on Mount Pleasant, near Liverpool, March 25, 1836, aged thirty-seven. ROBERT, the third son, also a which was kept by his father, who also followed the business of a member of the legal profession, wrote some pleasing poems, and commarket gardener. He received a common school education till he was pleted' Alfred,' an epic (remarkable rather for its extent than its twelve years of age, when he was removed from school to assist his grandeur) begun by Mr. Fitchett: he died in December 1850, aged father in his gardening business; but he continued to improve himself sixty. THOMAS, who is still living, has been however the most prolific by reading. When in his fifteenth year he was placed with a book writer: the list of his productions includes several poems and tales, a seller, but disliking the shop, he was in the following year apprenticed Tour in the Isle of Wight,' Tours in North and South Wales, aud to an attorney in Liverpool." In 1774 he was admitted an attorney of other illustrated works, and several translations, the most valuable, the Court of King's Bench, and began to practise as such, but during perhaps, being an excellent one of Sismondi's ' Historical View of the these years he had steadily prosecuted his studies in the Greek and History of the South of Europe.' Latin languages, and made himself master of French and Italian. He ROSCOMMON, WENTWORTH DILLON, EARL OF, was born had also paid a good deal of attention to the fine arts, and written in Ireland about 1633. He was the son of James Dillon, third earl of some poems, among others one on the origin of the art of engraving, Roscommon, and Elizabeth Wentworth, sister to the Earl of Strafford, whicho made him known to Sir Joshua Reynolds, Fuseli, and other who was godfather to his nephew, and gave him his own family pame. distinguished artists. In 1784 he was elected honorary member of Upon the breaking out of disturbances in Ireland, Strafford sent for the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society. He also turned him, and placed him at his own seat in Yorkshire, where he had him his attention to the subject of the slave-trade, and wrote several instructed in Latin, which Dillon is said to have learned so as to write pamphlets recommending its suppression. When the French Revolu- it with purity and elegance, though he was vever able to retain the tion' first began, Roscoe was one of its warmest partisans in this rules of grammar. When the storm had overtaken Strafford, Dillon country. He wrote 'Strictures' on Burke's Two Letters addressed was sent to Caen, where he prosecuted his studies under Bochart. He to a Member of the present Parliament,' reflecting in severe terms afterwards travelled into Italy, where he examined with care the most upon what Roscoe considered as an apostacy in Burke's political valuable remains of classical antiquity, and he acquired uncommon conduct. In 1796 Roscoe published the Life of Lorenzo de' Medici, skill in the knowledge of medals." He returned to England at the called the Magnificent,' a work which established his literary reputa Restoration, and was made captain of the band of pensioners, a prefertion. The subject was happily chosen, and the author treated it well. ment which led him into the habit of gaming and the loss of much The work went through several editions, and was translated into of bis fortune. He was subsequently master of the horse to the Italian, German, and French. It was generally well received on the Duchess of York, and he married the Lady Frances, daughter to the Continent, but its spirit was criticised by two classes of writers : one of Earl of Burlington, and widow of Colonel Courtney. them, of which Sismondi may be considered as the representative, see Wood says of Roscommon that he was "educated from his youth nothing but perfection in a republican government, and cannot forgive in all kinds of polite learning,” and that he was accounted most Lorenzo for having controlled and curbed the Florentine democracy. excellent in the art of poetry." He was nominated at Oxford to be Sismondi charged Roscoe with having deceived himself and others created LL.D., May 23rd, 1683, but did not appear at the time with regard to the character of his hero, who in Sismondi's eye was an appointed. Whether he bad previously been connected with the insidious and crafty tyrant. It is curious to see Roscoe, who at one University is uncertain. He formed the intention of escaping appretime was the advocate of the French Revolution, accused of being the hended evils at home by retiring to Rome, but he was delayed by panegyrist of the tyranny of the Medici. Another class of critics was the gout, which, through improper medical treatment, occasioned his angry with Roscoe for having exposed the part which Pope Sixtus IV. death. At the moment in which he expired, he uttered, with an took in the conspiracy of the Pazzi, which led to the murder of energy of voice that expressed the most fervent devotion, two lines of Giuliano, Lorenzo's brother, and also for having spoken unfavourably his own version of 'Dies Iræ :' of Cardinal Barbo, afterwards Paul II. On the subject of the Pazzi,

"My God, my Father, and my friend, Sismondi joined the papal advocates in representing that conspiracy as

Do not forsake me in my end." a laudable deed, justifiable under the circumstances in which it took He died in 1684, and was buried with great pomp in Westminster place. After many years Roscoe replied to his various critics in


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