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tragedians and singers of her time, who was then in the highest of lady-patronesses. The concerts were of the most trivial kind, but favour with the Neapolitans; for the success of the opera was short- | the fashionable crowd could boast that they had heard the famous lived. No other prima-donna has distinguished herself in it; and maestro himself sing a couple of comic songs. A popular idol is always indeed it is now almost forgotten. This lady had gained a large subject to hostility and detraction. Many stories were industriously fortune during her brilliant career, and Rossini married her before the circulated of Rossini's arrogant and presumptuous behaviour even in termination of his engagement at Naples. This engagement did not the presence of royalty. They were effectually refuted at the time, preclude him from producing operas at other places; and accordingly and indeed were quite inconsistent with his general deportment, which two pieces, "Torvaldo e Dorliska,' and 'Il Barbiere di Siviglia,' were has always been that of a well-bred gentleman and man of the world. brought out by him, in 1816, at Rome. The first made no impression; The absurd homago he received from the fashionable world was no the second is the most popular and the most charming of all his works. fault of his, but of those who paid it. The drama, founded on the well-known comedy of Beaumarchais, had On his return to Paris, Rossini became manager of the Italian Opera, already been clothed with beautiful music by the celebrated Paisiello; to which office he was appointed by the

Vicomte de Rochefoucauld, [PaisIELLO, G.) and Rossini's adoption of the same subject was regarded the minister of the royal household; and he held it till the revolution as a piece of no small audacity. Under this prepossession the Roman of 1830. His indolence and want of administrative capacity made him audience, the first night, treated the new opera harshly, and would quite unfit for the situation, and the theatre during his régime fell scarcely hear it to an end. On a second hearing however they reversed from a prosperous state to the brink of ruin. He neglected his art their hasty judgment, and did justice to the beauties of the piece. It flew as much as bis business. He composed a little opera for the coronation over all Europe, and was received, as "Tancredi' had been, with un of Charles X., called “Il Viaggio a Reims ;' and, when it had served bounded enthusiasm. For forty years it has enjoyed a success unpa- its temporary purpose, he employed the greater part of the music in ralleled in the annals of the Opera. It has been performed numberless the concoction of another opera, on a totally different subject, called times in every European language, and in every musical theatre, great Il Conte Ory; a worthless piece in a dramatic point of view, though, and small, in the world, and to this day it is found to be as fresh, as on account of its light and pretty music, it is still occasionally perdelightful, and as attractive as ever.

formed. He adapted his old opera, 'Maometto Secondo,' to the French In the following year, 1817, ‘La Cenerentola' was produced at stage under the title of Le Siège de Corinthe,' as has been already Rome, and 'La Gazza Ladra' at Milan. The former, as a whole, does mentioned ; and he did the same thing with 'bisMosè in Egitto, not hold a very bigh place among the author's works. The dramatist which was performed under the title of Moïse.' These were the has spoiled the pretty nursery tale of Cinderella, by divesting it of all whole of his labours from 1824 to 1829, when he produced his last its fanciful fairy machinery; and the heroine's part

, being for a low and greatest opera, 'Guillaume Tell;' a work so original, so unlike mezzo-soprano voice, seldom finds a fitting representative. But there anything he had ever done before, that it seemed the production of a are highly comic scenes and pretty things in the music, so that this different author. We recognise Rossini's graceful Italian melody; but opera, when well-acted and sung, still continues to please. The in depth and solidity of style

, richness of harmony, and variety of Gazza Ladra’ (founded on the interesting tale of the Maid and the orchestral effects, 'Guillaume Tell' emulates the greatest masterpieces Magpie') has always been one of Rossini's most favourite pieces. of the German school. This opera however has not had all the success

From this time to the termination of Rossini's engagement at Naples which it deserves. The drama is ill-constructed and without interest, in 1823, were composed his principal operas for that city. Passing over so that the audience become weary, notwithstanding the beauties of some minor pieces which have fallen into oblivion, they were 'Otello,' the music. Hence it happens that, while the airs and concerted pieces * Mosè in Egitto,' La Donna del Lago,' Maometto Secondo,' and 'Zel- of Guillaume Tell' are performed at every concert, and found on mira.' Otello' notwithstanding the wretched way in which Shakspere every lady's pianoforte, it is seldom represented on the stage. is mangled by the Italian playwright, has high merit as a musical work ; With this opera, at the age of seven-and-thirty, Rossini closed his and, with two great performers in the characters of Othello and Desde- career. His doing so was the result of a deliberate resolution. To mona, never fails to succeed even in England. In Mosè in Egitto' there his friends, who pressed him to resume his pen, he was wont to say, is probably more real grandeur than in any of Rossini's other produc- "An additional success would add nothing to my fame; a failure wouiá tions; the famous prayer of the Hebrews when about to effect the injure it: I have no need of the one, and I do not choose to expose miraculous passage of the Red Sea, is a sublime inspiration of genius. myself to the other.". And to this determination he has adhered, for This opera has always produced a great effect, not only in its original the composition of his pretty and popular, but slight "Stabat Mater, form but in French and German versions, and it has also been received cannot be regarded as a departure from it. with favour in England, though, in consequence of the prohibition of By the revolution of 1830 Rossini was deprived of the management Scriptural subjects on our stage, it was performed under the title of the Italian Opera, and of his places of superintendant of his majesty's of Pietro l'Eremita,' and more recently (at the Royal Italian Opera) music, and inspector-general of singing in France-two lucrative sineunder that of 'Zorah ;' both transformations being equally absurd cures, which he held under government. He continued nevertheless and preposterous. La Donna del Lago' was at first unsuccessful; to reside in Paris, occupied in claiming compensation for the losses he but the merits of this splendid opera were soon recognised, and it had sustained, in which to some extent he succeeded. During this still keeps possession of the stage. Maometto Secondo,' also failed time he lived in a miserable lodging in the purlieus of the theatre, at first, and likewise when it was reproduced three years afterwards pretending that the utmost parsimony was necessary from the loss of at Venice. But a French version of it under the title of Le Siege his income. Nobody was duped by this piece of comedy, as his opulent de Corinthe,' was well received at Paris in 1826; and in this form, circumstances were well known. In 1836 he returned to Italy, intending but with Italian words, it has been repeatedly performed both at merely to visit his property there ; but he prolonged his stay, and at Paris and London, under the title of . L'Assedio di Corinto. "Zelmira' length resolved to fix his permanent residence in his native country. was another failure, though it contains some of Rossini's finest music, Since that time, we believe, Rossini has lived constantly in Bologna the libretto being contemptibly silly.

or its neighbourhood till 1855, when he returned to Paris, where In 1823 Rossini left Italy, and remained for many years absent from he still remains. For more than thirty years his life, though he is his native country. The last opera composed by him before his now only sixty-five, has been a blank, spent in self-indulgence and departure was 'Semiramide,' which, in that year, was produced at indolence; bis habits of this kind having been increased latterly by Venice. This is the most gorgeous of his works. Its pomp and infirm health. He is described as being still lively, kind, and goodsplendour are somewhat ponderous, though highly imposing, and the humoured; but he takes little interest in his old pursuits, and, it is said, strength of the orchestral accompaniments is carried to an overpower since his return to Paris, has never been within the doors of a theatre. ing excess. But it has much real grandeur, and the character of the ROSTOPCHIN or RASTOPCHIN, COUNT FEDOR VASILEAssyrian queen in the hands of a great tragedian, such as Pasta or VICH, a Russian nobleman whose name will be always associated with Grisi, has never failed to make a strong impression.

one of the most striking events of modern history, was born on the 12th After a brief stay in Paris, Rossini arrived in London in 1824, in of March 1765, as he himself informs us in his Memoirs written in ten consequence of an engagement at the Italian Opera, whereby he was minutes. The family of Rostopchin which established itself in Russia to be the musical director, and to produce a new opera composed for about three hundred years before is of Tartar origin and descended in the theatre. Madame Colbrand Rossini (whom he had married before a direct line from one of the sons of Genghis Khan. Fedor, after leaving Naples) was also engaged as prima donna. Immense curiosity completing his education by a tour in Europe, became officer of the was excited by the arrival of the far-famed maestro. But Zelmira, guards and gentleman of the chamber to the Empress Catherine, but the opera which began the season, did not please; and Madame Rossini attached himself to the Grand Duke Paul, with whom he became a was so coldly received that she did not re-appear. The season was favourite, from his sallies of somewhat eccentric humour. When the attended with enormous logs, and Rossini abruptly quitted England Grand-Duke became Emperor, Rostopchin rose to be adjutant-general, without having fulfilled his engagement to compose an opera. If minister of foreign affairs, and director general of the post, and was however his engagement was disastrous to the theatre, his sojourn in made a count, but he lost favour before the close of the Emperor's Loudon was profitable to himself. He was the lion of the day; and reign from opposing the alliance with France, was dismissed from his his manners and talents as an accomplished singer de société, com- offices and was absent from St. Petersburg in disgrace at the time of the pleted the popularity in the fashionable world which his music had sudden termination of Paul's career. Under the Emperor Alexander gained. The aristocracy loaded him with attentions, and paid him Rostopchin became Grand-Chamberlain and was appointed Generalrichly

for accepting their invitations. Two subscription-concerts for Commander in Chief of the city and government of Moscow, and he his benefit were got up at Almacks' ; the admission to both was held that post at the time when the eyes of all Europe were turned two guineas ; and, as if this were not sufficient to render them exclu- towards Moscow, on the French invasion of Russia in 1812. It was eive, the tickets were limited to persons approved by a committee under his government that Moscow was burned





In Napoleon's bulletins Rostopchin was denounced as having they are chiefiy connected with the events of his life, and derive most of kindled the conflagration by means of three hundred incendiaries who their interest from that circumstance. A vein of flippancy runs through set fire to the city in five hundred places at once, and it was stated the French part of his writings, and a vein of coarseness through the that some hundreds of these incendiaries were taken and shot. Iu Russian. His daughter-in-law, Countess Elena Rostopchio, by birth some French historians there are numerous details of the event, of the family of Sushkov, is a Russian poetess of some reputation. chiefly however taken from or founded on the bulletins. The belief ROTHSCHILD, MEYER ANSELM, the founder of the wealth and was for years unquestioned and uncontradicted in France. At length influence of the great commercial family of the Rothschilds, was in 1823 Rostopchin who had resided in Paris since 1817 published a born at Frankfurt-am-Main about the year 1750. He was originally pamphlet entitled 'La Vérité sur l'incendie de Moscou' ("The Truth intended for the Jewish priesthood, but was placed in a counting. on the conflagration of Moscow). "Ten years bave elapsed,” he com- house at Hanover. He returned to Frankfurt, married, and commences, since the conflagration of Moscow, and I am still pointed menced business in a small way as an exchange broker and banker. out to history and posterity as the author of an event which according His ability and industry procured him the office of banker to William, to the received opinion was the principal cause of the destruction of Landgrave (afterwards Elector) of Hesse. During the time that the Napoleon's army, of his consequent fall, the preservation of Russia, Emperor Napoleon had undisputed possession of Germany, the landand the deliverance of Europe. Certainly there is something to be grave's private fortune was saved by the shrewdness of his banker. proud of in such splendid claims as these, but having never usurped Meyer Rothschild died in 1812, leaving to his five sons a large fortune, anybody's rights and being tired of hearing the same fable constantly boundless credit, and an unimpeachable character. Of these the eldest, repeated I am going to make known the truth which alone ought to Anselm, settled at Frankfurt, Solomon at Vienna, Nathan Meyer, the dictate history." “It would be unreasonable," he afterwards says, third, in London, Charles at Naples, and James at Paris. They “not to believe me, since I give up the finest part in the drama of our remained united, in accordance with their father's advice, and the times, and pull down the edifice of my own celebrity.” The gist of result has been that for nearly half a century they have taken the his statements is, that the fire was not produced by a preconcerted leading part in all the financial affairs of England, France, Austria, plan, but by the patriotism of some isolated Russians, and the negli and most other kingdoms of Europe. The rise of the Rothschilds' gence and violence of the French soldiers, who acted in the spirit fortunes dates from the outbreak of the war with Spain in 1808, when which was shown by Napoleon's acknowledged attempt to blow up the the resources of NATHAN ROTHSCHILD for making the necessary remit. Kremlin. "The principal feature in the Russian character," says tances to the British army in that country were first brought into full Rostopchin, “is disinterestedness and propensity to destroy rather play. He had come to England in 1800, and had acted as his father's than give up to an antagonist-to terminate a dispute with the words, agent in the purchase of Manchester goods for the Continent, and shortly * Then nobody shall have it.' In the frequent conversations that I afterwards through his father he had large sums entrusted to him for had with the shopkeepers, the artisans, and the lower classes of the Elector of Hesse Cassel and for other German princes, and these Moscow, I often heard them say, when they expressed their fears that he employed with such great judgment that his means began rapidly the city would fall into the enemy's band, We ought to burn it to increase. His financial transactions pervaded the whole Continent, rather. When I was staying at the head-quarters of Prince Kutuzov, and he came to be consulted upon almost every speculation and under I saw many persons escaped from Moscow after the conflagration whó taking. His brothers looked to his judgment on all matters of a boasted that they had set their houses on fire." It is singular that pecuniary character. He may be said to have been the first introducer when speaking on this head the Count does not advert to his own of foreign loans into this country; for though such securities had destruction of his country-seat at the village of Voronov on the Kaluga been dealt in before, yet the dividends being payable abroad, and road--a fact which admits of no doubt, for the French on arriving subject to a constant fluctuation in the rate of exchange, had made there found a manifesto addressed to them in French, which was made them too inconvenient an investment for the multitude. It is said public at the time, and is reprinted in the collection of Rostopchin's that such was Mr. Rothschild's judgment and good management that writings. “During eight years," the manifesto ran, “I have been not one of those with whom he entered into contracts ever failed in embellishing this estate, and I have lived here in happiness in the their engagements. His loan contracts however were not always sucbosom of my family. The inhabitants of this village, 1720 in number, cessful in the first instance; for example, he is said to have lost quit it at your approach, and I myself set fire to the house that it may 500,0001. by Lord Bexley's loan or funding of Exchequer Bills; the not be polluted by your presence. Frenchmen ! I abandoned to you vast resources at his command however enabled bim to bear these and my two houses in Moscow, with furniture in them to the value of half all other losses, which would have sunk a house of less gigantic means. a million rubles-here you will find nothing but ashes." Rostopchin To such a height however did he carry his reputation for loan operaconcludes his pamphlet, which is dated from Paris, March 5th, 1823, tions that it became almost a matter of rivalry between different states with the words, “I have told the truth and nothing but the truth, which should obtain his co-operation. He always avoided entering avoiding, it will be observed, to assert that he had told " the whole into any money contracts with Spain or the Spanish settlements in truth."" His tardy denial," remarks the writer in the 'Biographie America; he also refused to connect himself with the various JointUniverselle,'" bears no character of truth about it, and has convinced stock Companies of the day, with the single exception of the Alliance no one." Such indeed appears to be the general opinion in France; but Insurance Company, in the formation of which he took a leading part. as Rostopchin's assertions are against the interest of his own reputa- He was distinguished alike by his accuracy and correctness in matters tion, as they come into collision with no established fact, and as he had of business and his liberality of dealing with all who were brought into the reputation of a man of honour though a man of eccentricity, there the sphere of his monetary negociations, and by his private and perseems no sufficient reason to reject his testimony, and it will probably sonal charities, which he distributed on a large scale, more especially be accepted by future historians unless some evidence to the contrary among the poor of his own religion. He received letters patent of come to the light which is at present unknown. It is an important denization in England in 1804, and in 1822 was advanced by letters historical point, of more consequence than the part that Rostopchin Imperial, dated Vienna, September 29, 1822, to the dignity of a Baron took in the matter, that the conflagration was not the great national of the Austrian Empire. This title however he never assured, and act that Byron represented it:

was justly more proud of his high commercial and untitled name. He " To this the soldier lent his kindling match,

died at Frankfurt, July 28, 1836, leaving by his wife, the daughter of To this the peasant gave his cottage thatch,

Mr. Levi Cohen, a London merchant, three daughters and four sons. To this the merchant flung his hoarded store,

Of the former, two are married to their cousins, and the third to the The prince his hall—and Moscow was no more!"

Right Honourable Henry Fitz Roy, M.P. His eldest son, the Baron In the series of Rostopchin's proclamations to the peasantry of his Lionel Nathan de Rothschild, has been elected on four different government, the last commences in a strange mixture of coarse humour occasions to represent the city of London, but has never taken his and fierce patriotism, which seems to have been natural to him. “The seat in the House of Commons, because as a Jew he cannot conscienenemy of the human race, God's scourge for our sins, the devil's tiously take the oaths on the true faith of a Christian.' His second manure, the wicked Frenchman, has got into Moscow, and has given it son, Anthony, was created a Baronet in 1846. (See SUPPLEMENT.] to sword and fame." Whatever might be the patriotism of indi ROTTECK, KARL WENCESLAUS RODECKER VON, was born viduals, it was evidently thought expedient to inculcate the belief in on the 18th of June, 1775, at Freiburg-im-Breisgau, which now belongs the masses that the conflagration was the work of the French. to the Grand Duchy of Baden, but at that time was subject to the

In taking this notice of the pamphlet on the history of 1812, some House of Austria. His father, Anton Rodecker, was ennobled by the of Rostopchin's biography has been anticipated. His governorship of Emperor Joseph II. under

the name Rodecker von Rotteck, on account Moscow ceased in 1814, and he accompanied the Emperor Alexander of the eminent services which he had done to his country and the to the Congress of Vienna. In 1817 he came to Paris, where he lived emperor as perpetual dean of the Medical Faculty in the University of for some time at what had formerly been the residence of -Marshal Freiburg, and as one of the councillors in the board of administration Ney, Prince of the Moskwa, and while he was at that city in 1819 his of Austrian Suabia. His mother, Charlotte Poirot d'Ogeron, a native daughter Sophia was married to Count Eugene de Ségur, grandson of of Remiremont in Lorraine, is described as a lady of rare virtue and the count of that name who had been ambassador at St. Petersburg, attainments. Karl von Rotteck received a very careful education, and and nephew of the Count Philippe, who wrote the famous history of as early as 1790 was admitted a student in the faculty of law in the the invasion of Russia. Rostopchin finally returned to Russia, and university of his native town. He took the degree of Doctor of Civil died at Moscow on the 12th of February 1826.

Law in 1797, yet he always preferred history to law, and in 1798 was A volume of Rostopchin's collected writings was published at St. appointed professor of history at Freiburg. Petersburg in 1853 in Smirdin's 'Polnoe Sobranie Sochineny Russkikh Although he did not appear as a writer before 1811, except as the Avtorov' * Complete Collection of the works of Russian Authors'); author of a few minor productions, he nevertheless devoted all his

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spare time towards the accomplishment of a great historical work, | (Posthumous Works '), Freiburg, 5 vols. 8vo, 1841-43, which contain which secured him a high rank among the historians of Europe. Of also most of the 'Minor Works'

mentioned above. his 'Allgemeine Weltgeschichte,' (Universal History,') the first volume (The Life of Rotteck by bis Son, in the fourth volume of Nachwas published in 1811, but it was only finished in 1827. Germany gelassene Schriften ; Rotteck's Ehrentempel, Freiburg, 1842; Conversahaving recovered its independence through the treaties of 1814 and tions-Lexicon Supplement.) 1815, and political liberty having been promised to the inhabitants, ROTTENHAMER, or ROTHENAMER, JOHANN, was born at Rotteck made the constitutional law of Germany an object of his par- Munich in 1564, and received instruction in the rudiments of painting ticular attention; and desiring to propagate his ideas, gave up the from an obscure artist named Donhaur or Donower. Early in life be chair of history, and petitioned for that of politics and the law of went to Rome, and became known for small historical compositions nations in the same university, which he obtained in 1818. On those painted on copper in a style of most minute finishing. Emboldened subjects he published a great number of works and memoirs as well as by success, he undertook to paint for one of the churches of Rome a articles in the leading liberal periodicals in Germany, and the princes large altar-piece, representing several saints and a glory of angels, a of Germany being then active in checking the rising liberal spirit of work which, when completed, excited astonishment at the extent and the nation, he obtained great popularity. In 1819 he was chosen by versatility of his talents. This work he afterwards repeated for the his university as their representative in the first chamber of the States church of Santa Croce at Mantua. He visited Venice, and studied of Baden. In the same year appeared his 'Ideen über Landstände,' the colouring of Tintoretto, whose style he imitated with great ('Ideas on Representative Bodies,) a work distinguished by great histo- exactness. Whilst at Venice, he painted some pictures for the public rical learning, liberal views, and that lucid and attractive style for edifices, two of which are mentioned by Lanzi, namely, a Santa which he is remarkable among the German historians and publicists. Cristina at the Incurabili, and an Annunciation at San Bartolommeo; Some time afterwards he wrote a work on standing armies, the danger but that writer speaks in slighting terms of these works, and generally of which he endeavoured to show, and a history of the transactions of so of the talent of the painter. During his stay in Italy, which lasted the States of Baden, which were well received by the people, but several years, he was patronised by Ferdinand, duke of Milan, for made him many enemies among the friends of the old state of things. whom he painted, amongst numerous works, a picture of Nymphs

Thus, lecturing in the university, propagating his liberal views dancing, which was much admired. through countless minor productions, and representing Freiburg in the He returned to his native country, and established himself at Augsstates, he continued till 1830. The outbreak of the French revolution burg, where he was much employed. For the emperor Rudolph II. in 1830 gave frosh vigour to his activity; he became the leading spirit he painted a fine picture of the Feast of the Gods, a composition of of the best among the liberal periodicals of Germany, several of which many figures, gracefully designed, and coloured with the splendour of were founded by him; and giving up his seat in the first chamber of the Venetian school. Many of his backgrounds were painted by John the states as member for the university, he accepted the membership Breughel, and some by Paul Bril. He was partial to the introduction for the city of Freiburg, which placed him in the second chamber, of gaudy accessories into his pictures, which he frequently enlivened among the representatives of the people. At the head of those by naked figures designed with taste and coloured with delicacy. His members who by their unremitting zeal in developing political freedom heads are expressive, but present too much sameness of appearance, in Baden set an example to all Germany, Rotteck was exposed to and his design, though tolerably correct, is generally formal and slander, and at last violent attacks. As soon as the fear of France had mannered. Though greatly employed, Rottenhamer died in poverty, subsided, the German government took courage to punish those who and was buried by subscription at Augsburg, where and not in had given offence. In consequence of a decree of the Diet in England, as Lanzi says) he died in 1623. 183 2, the Baden government forbade Rotteck to lecture in the ROUBILIAC, LOUIS FRANÇOIS, an eminent sculptor, was born University of Freiburg, and he was declared to have forfeited, for five about 1695, at Lyon in France, but long resident in England, where years, the right of editing any newspaper. Germany now looked upon all the works by which he gained his reputation were executed. It is him as a political martyr, and from its most distant provinces he not known exactly at what period Roubiliac came to this country, received addresses and presents. His native city elected him mayor, though Cunningham is probably not far wrong in fixing the date in but the government refused to give their sanction: they likewise tried 1720. The earliest notice of him as an artist is the statement of Lord to exclude him from the second chamber of the states, and to prevent Orford, that he was recommended by Sir Edward Walpole to execute bis re-election; but there they failed, and from 1830 to 1840 he con several busts for Trinity College, Dublin, but he does not mention the tinued to represent Freiburg without any interruption. In 1840 the year when this happened. He was afterwards employed, through the Baden government re-admitted him as a lecturer at Freiburg, but it same interest, on the monument of John, duke of Argyle, in which he was too late : after a severe illness, rendered worse by the moral suffer was so successful, that his claims to the highest honours of his proings he had been exposed to, Rotteck died on the 26th of November, fession were at once admitted, and, as he became the fashion, his 1840. His death was mourned as a public calamity in all Germany. practice was soon greater than that of the most popular artists of the

The principal work of Rotteck is his Allgemeine Weltgeschichte' day. Rysbrach, who also was settled in England, and who, till mentioned above, which extends from the commencement of authentic Roubiliac and Scheemacker appeared, was employed in all important history to 1815. It met with such success that a fifteenth edition was works in sculpture, was neglected, and Iris merits forgotten in the called for, and published in 1841-45, in 11 vols. 8vo., with a continua- desire to do honour to the new favourite. Roubiliac's chief works are tion to 1840, by K. H. Hermes, Brunswick. Of these eleven volumes, the above-mentioned monument of the Duke of Argyle, those of Sir nine are the work of Rotteck, and the two last the continuation of Peter Warren, of Marshal Wade, and of the Nightingale family, all in Hermes. No general history ever enjoyed such popularity as this Westminster Abbey; those of the Duke and Duchess of Montague, in splendid production of Rotteck; in Germany it is in the hands of Northamptonshire; and one in memory of Bishop Hough, in Worcesalmost every educated family; its fame soon spread over Europe and ter Cathedral. His principal statues are of George I., at Cambridge; America; and it was consequently translated into most of the of George II., in Golden-square, London; of Shakspere, executed for European languages. The English translation by T. Jones, Philadel. Garrick, and bequeathed by him to the British Museum, where it now phia, four vols. 8vo, 1840-42, 2nd edition, London, 1842, is however is; of Handel, the composer, in Westminster Abbey; and those of only a translation of an extract of the General History,', which the Duke of Somerset and Sir Isaac Newton, both at Cambridge. His Rotteck published under the title Auszug aus der Weltgeschichte,' busts are very numerous : it is only necessary to mention the cele Freiburg, 1831, &c. 4 vols. 8vo. Contrary to the practice of most brated series of busts of eminent men in Trinity College, Cambridge, German historians, Rotteck simply relates bistory, indulging neither which amply establishes his high rank in that branch of the art. in critical investigation of trifles, nor in metaphysical contemplation of the bigh merit of Roubiliac there can be no doubt. The monuof the broad facts of human deeds. But the whole is represented ments of Mr. Nightingale and his lady, the statue of Eloquence in from a liberal point of view, and enlivened by sound reflections on the the Argyle monument, the draped figure in Bishop Hough's monument, origin of freedom and slavery, and the causes of the rise and fall of and the statue of Newton, are proofs of power both in invention and nations. The style of Rotteck is clear and attractive, but sometimes expression, and are remarkable also for minute and careful execution. a little rhetorical ; the logical order is never interrupted; and every At the same time they are deficient in the repose, simplicity, unity, page shows that the author possessed that rare taste and that discre- and breadth which ought to characterise works in sculpture, and which tion which enable a man to distinguish between trifles and important alone can ensure the lasting reputation of productions in this art when facts, and to give neither too much nor too little. The reader who the interest that may have been felt in the individual subjects, the wishes to obtain a strong impression of the peculiar merit of this fashion of the day, and the popularity of the artist, have passed away. work, as the production of a German historian, need only compare it In the absence of these principles we find sufficient reason for the with Hammer's far-famed History of the Turkish Empire. Among (comparatively) low estimation in which the sculpture of Roubiliac is the other works of Rotteck we mention Kleinere Schriften' ("Minor now held by all real judges of art. Works'), 5 vols. 8vo, 1829-35, which contain a great number of valuable The most striking defect in the Nightingale monument (to illusmemoirs, essays, letters, &c., on various, mostly historical subjects; trate criticism by reference to a well-known work), is, that the limits Lehrbuch des Vernunftrechts und der Staatswissenschaften' (Doc which separate poetry and imitative art are transgressed, and the trine of Law as a Metaphysical Science, and of Public and Constitu- result is confusion and incongruity. The sentiment of a husband tional Law'), 4 vols. 8vo, 1829, &c.; 'Staatsrecht der Constitutionellen endeavouring to shield a beloved wife from the approach of death is Monarchie' ("The Public Law of Constitutional Monarchies'), 3 vols. 8vo, just; it appeals to our sympathies, and the mind at once comprehends 1824, &c. Rotteck was the co-editor, with Welcker, of the excellent it; but the attempt to give form to this idea by representing a com. *Staats Lexicon, &c. (* Political Dictionary'). Dr. Hermann Rotteck, mon-place figure, in modern dress, warding off a palpable and

material the son of the historiad, published 'Rotteck’s Nachgelassene Schriften' | dart about to be hurled by a grim skeleton-making that an agent






which is the result or consequence of dissolution-is so obviously From this time Rousseau's life was passed in various countries of wanting in truth or keeping, that it is only necessary to refer to it to Europe. The Comte de Luc, the French ambassador to Switzerland, show its impropriety. The statue of Newton, though possessing great received him under bis protection, and admitted him to an intimacy merits, is open to objections of another kind. The attitude is intended which was only terminated by the death of that nobleman in 1740. to express thought and calculation, and the action of the hands is Rousseau accompanied De Luc to Baden in 1714, where he became finely conceived and in harmony with this feeling; but the impression known to Prince Eugene, who also took him under his patronage; is weakened by the general air of the figure, which, critics have justly and in 1715, when the Comte was appointed ambassador to Vienna, observed, is not that of a grave philosopher; and the drapery, though Rousseau went with him to that city, where he remained three years. executed with great mechanical skill, and with minute attention to Rousseau had left powerful friends in Paris, among whom the Baron correctness of costume, is equally wanting in the repose appropriate de Breteuil exerted himself with so much success as to obtain for him to the subject. The sacrifice of simplicity to attitude and flutter, and letters of recall, which were forwarded to him in February 1716; but the ambition to display skill in mere execution—the sure indication Rousseau refused to avail himself of them, on the ground that they of the decline of pure taste-also detract from the general merits of were granted to him as an act of grace, whereas he required a public the statues referred to in the monuments of the Duke of Argyle and acknowledgment of the injustice of his sentence. In 1720 he went Bishop Hougb. Roubiliac's faults are however the faults of the age; to Brussels, where he became acquainted with Voltaire, and they were and artists unfortunately are too often tempted or driven, against their friendly for some time, but afterwards became bitter enemies. In better judgment, to adopt the mode, however opposed to pure taste 1721 he came to England, where he published a new edition of his or sound principles, by which alone they can expect to gain public works (1723, 2 vols. 4to), wbich produced him about 20001. This notice. Roubiliac died on the 11th of January 1762, and was buried sum he unfortunately invested with the Ostend Company, which in the parish Martin's.

failed, and he again became dependent on his friends for support. ROUSSEAU, JEAN BAPTISTE, was born in Paris, on the 6th of He now returned to Brussels, and was received under the protection April 1670. His father, who was a shoemaker, furnished him with a of the Duke d’Aremberg, who, when he quitted Brussels in 1733, liberal education. In 1688 he attended the French ambassador to the settled a pension upon him. In 1738 Rousseau became desirous of court of Denmark, and afterwards came to England with Marshal returning to France, and made interest to procure the same letters of Tallard. On his return to Paris he devoted himself to poetry. His recall which, more than twenty years before, he had indignantly first productions consisted chiefly of satirical epigrams, most of which rejected, but he could not obtain them. He however ventured to were pointed against contemporary writers. He thus created a num- visit Paris incognito; but though the authorities shut their eyes to ber of enemies, and laid the foundation of that spirit of persecution this infraction of the law, they gave him no hope of being recalled. which afterwards drove him from his native land. In 1694 bis first After remaining a few months in Paris, he returned to Brussels, where comedy, Le Café,' was performed, with little success. This was he died, March 17, 1741. followed in 1696 by the opera of Jason, ou la Toison d'Or,' and in The first collected edition of his works was published by himself, 1697 by that of Venus and Adonis,' both of which were even more after his banishment at Soleure, in Switzerland; the next was that unsuccessful than his first comedy. His next dramatic effort was the of London, 2 vols. 4to, 1723, which was reprinted at Paris in 1743, and comedy of 'Le Flatteur,' which was brought out at the Théâtre was again reprinted at Paris in 1757, with a fifth volume, containing Français, and was received with considerable applause, but did not the licentious epigrams, many of which were no doubt properly command more than ten representations. It was then in prose, but ascribed to him, and also of the notorious couplets, engraved in imitahe afterwards put it into verse. He finished his dramatic career about tion of the hand in which they were written. The most complete four years afterwards with the comedy of 'Le Capricieux,' which met edition of his works (not including the licentious epigrams) was pubwith an unequivocal condemnation, while Danchet's opera of 'Hesione, lished at Brussels in 1743, under the superintendence of M. Seguy, which was brought out at the same time, was brilliantly successful. 3 vols. large 4to, with the author's last corrections. It consists of his For some time previous to this, the Café Laurent, in the Rue Dau- poems, bis dramatic pieces, and a collection of his letters. There is phine, had been and still continued to be frequented by La Motte, a beautiful edition of his works, 5 vols. 8vo, Paris, Lefèvre, 1820. Saurin (Joseph), T. Corneille, Crebino, Boindin, Rousseau, and other There are several other editions. literary men; and Rousseau, who seems to have thought that a cabal Jean Baptiste Rousseau stands indisputably at the head of the lyric had been formed among them to ruin his piece and exalt the other, poets of France. His poems consist of Odes Sacrées,' 1 book; gave vent to his disappointed feelings in a satirical parody of some Odes,' 3 books; "Cantates,' 1 book; ' Epitres,' 2 books; Allégories, couplets of the prologue to 'Hesione. The parody consisted of five 2 books ; 'Epigrammes,' 3 books; and Poésies Diverses,' i book. couplets, confessedly by Rousseau, but they were followed by others Rousseau's dramatic pieces, as may be inferred from the manner in still more calumnious, which were aimed at the frequenters of the which they were received by the public, are of little value. His Café Laurent, and these were also attributed to him by La Motte, epistles, allegories, and miscellaneous poems are perhaps not much Saurin, and others, who belonged to an opposite literary party. Tó inferior to Boileau in strong sense and elegance of versification, but this charge he made no other reply than that of stating to his friends are inferior to him in wit. His epigrams are neat and sparkling, and that they were not written by him, but withdrew himself from the the satire is directed to its mark with an aim that seldom fails. His meetings at the café; and there, for the present, the matter ended. fame however rests upon his odes and his cantatas. His sacred odes

In 1703 we find Rousseau living in Paris with M. Rouille, director are free imitations of the Psalms of David, not so close as translation of the finances, by whom he was taken to court, and introduced to the nor so wide as paraphrase. Too many of his other odes are addressed first society. About this time he began to write his 'Sacred Odes,' in to kings, ministers, and generals, and relate to events of temporary accordance with the solemn piety, real or affected, which Louis XIV. interest." His best odes however are distinguished by boldness and had rendered fashionable at his court during the latter years of his justness of thought; by simplicity of expression, by fullness and disreign. He is charged with composing licentious epigrams at the same tinctness of imagery, without being overloaded with it; by an earnesttime, to suit the taste of another class of his acquaintance. In 1710 ness and enthusiasm which seem to spring spontaneously from the the place left vacant by T. Corneille in the Académie Française was feelings of the poet; and by a splendour and harmonious richness contended for by La Motte and Rousseau, and obtained by the former. of diction in which he seems to have no rival among French poets. The approaching death of Boileau however was expected soon to His cantatas are a species of ode of which part is adapted for recitation occasion another vacancy, and also to leave at the disposal of the and part for singing. They are beautiful compositions. Some of court the pension which he had enjoyed, and which could only be them may be said to approach the sublime, if they do not reach it; bestowed upon an academician. Rousseau expected to fill the vacancy, and others, which are of a lighter character, are exceedingly graceful. and also aspired to the pension; La Motte however prepared to con ROUSSÉA'U, JEAN JACQUES, was born at Geneva in 1712, and tend with bim for the latter. Such was the state of the two literary was the son of a watchmaker. While yet a child he lost his mother, parties which then divided Paris-La Motte and Saurin being leaders and his father baving married again, young Rousseau was removed of the one, and Rousseau of the other, when a new series of couplets from his paternal roof, and after remaining for some time at a village made their appearance, more calumnious and indecent than the former, school in the neighbourhood of Geneva, was apprenticed to an in which the frequenters of the Café Laurent, and especially La Motte, engraver, a coarse man, whose brutal treatment tended to sour a were attacked. These couplets were immediately attributed to Rous- temper naturally irritable and morose. The boy became addicted to seau by his enemies; but he indignantly disavowed them, and having idle habits, and to lying and pilfering. At last, through fear of discovered the man who dropped them about the streets, and drawn punishment for some misconduct, he ran away from his master, and from him a confession that they were given to him by Saurin, he wandered into Savoy, where, finding himself destitute, be applied to the charged that gentleman before a court of law with having written bishop of Annecy, on the plea of wishing to become a convert to Roman them, but failed in establishing his charge by legal proof. Finding Catholicism. The bishop recommended him to Madame de Warens, that he was now placed in a dangerous situation, he withdrew to a Swiss lady, who, being herself a convert to Catholicism, had settled Switzerland, and on the 7th of April 1712 an arrêt of parliament, at Annecy. Through her kind assistance he obtained the means of given par contumace,' condemned him to perpetual banishment from proceeding to Turin, where he entered the college of the Catechumeni, France. Rousseau denied to the last that he had anything to do with and after going through a preparatory course of religious instruction, these couplets; and Boindin, to whom they were addressed, and who be abjured the Reformed religion and became a Roman Catholic. was much abused in them, always refused to believe that they were But as he refused to take orders, he was dismissed from the estabRousseau's, and left a memoir, which was published after his death lishment, and left to his own resources. Accordingly be became a 12mo, Brussels, 1752), in which he accuses Saurin, La Motte, and a domestic servant, but his want of discretion and self-control rendering jeweller of Paris, of being the authors of them.

him unfit for his situation, he left Turin and recrossed the Alps. He

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178 found Madame de Warens residing at a country-house near Chambery, the importance of conjugal duties, which constitute the foundation of who received him kindly, and afforded him support and protection in all society. Rousseau admired virtue and felt its value, though he did her own house during the next ten years. Of his foolish, profligate, not always follow its rules. He says of himself, that after much and ungrateful conduct during a great part of this period he has given reflection, perceiving nothing but error among philosophers, and an account in his Confessions.' After many absences and many oppression and misery in the social state, he fancied, in the delusion of returns, he quitted her finally in 1740, with letters of introduction bis pride, that he was born to dissipate all prejudices ; but then he for some persons at Lyon. He acted in succession as preceptor, saw that, in order to have his advice listened to his conduct ought to musician, and private secretary to the French envoy to Venice, whom correspond to his principles. It was probably in compliance with this he followed to that city. From Venice he proceeded to Paris, in 1745. growing sense of moral duty that at last he married the woman whom On alighting at an inn, he became acquainted with a servant girl, he had so long been living with, who had then attained the age of Therese Levasseur, with whom he formed a connection which lasted forty-seven, and who, as he himself says, did not possess either mental for the rest of his life. He attempted to compose music for the stage, or personal attractions, and had nothing to recommend her except her but he did not succeed in selling it . His next employment was as a attention to him, especially in his fits of illness

or despondency. He clerk in the office of M. Dupin, fermier-général, where however be also repented in the latter years of his life of having sent his illegitimate did not remain long. In 1748 he became acquainted with Madame children to the foundling hospital. d'Epinay, who proved one of his steadiest and truest friends. At her Rousseau's ‘Emile,' which appeared in 1762, contained a new system house he formed the acquaintance of D'Alembert, Diderot, and of education. He gives many good precepts, especially in the first part Condillac, and by them he was engaged to write articles for the of the book, which was productive of a beneficial change in the early Encyclopédie.'

treatment of children in France : it induced mothers of the higher One day be read in an advertisement that a prize was offered by orders to nurse their children themselves; it caused the discontinuance the Academy of Dijon for the best essay on the question- Whether of the absurd practice of swaddling infants like mummies; it taught the progress of science and of the arts has been favourable to the parents to appeal to the feelings of children, and to develope their morals of mankind ?' Rousseau determined to support the negative, rational faculties rather than frighten them into submission by blows and Diderot encouraged, but did not originate, his determination, or threats, or terrify them by absurd stories. In these respects He supported bis position in a style of impassioned eloquence, and Rousseau was a benefactor to children; but as he proceeded in his obtained the prize. His success confirmed him in his bias for paradox plan for older boys he became involved in speculations about religion and exaggeration, and henceforth he seemed to have adopted as a and morality, which gave offence both to Roman Catholics and Protestgeneral principle that the extreme opposite to wrong must of neces- ants. The parliament of Paris condemned the book. The archbishop sity be right. His opera, 'Le Devin du Village,' was played before issued a 'mandement' against it. The States-General of Holland Louis XV., at the Court Theatre of Fontainebleau. Rousseau was in proscribed it, and the council of Geneva had it burnt by the hand one of the boxes with a gentleman of the court. The king, being of the executioner. The publication of bis Contrat Social,' which pleased with the pera, expressed a desire to see the author, which took place soon after, added to the outcry against him, in consequence being signified to Rousseau, his shyness took alarm, and he actually of which Rousseau left Paris and repaired first to Yverdun, but the ran away out of the house, and did not stop till he reached Paris. senate of Bern ordered him to quit the territory of the republic. He He had neither easy manners nor facility of address, and his own then went to Neuchâtel, of which Marshal Keith was governor for the acute feeling of these deficiencies tormented him throughout life, and King of Prussia. Keith received him kindly, and Rousseau took up tended to perpetuate and increase his natural awkwardness. In order his residence at Motiers in the Val de Travers, whence he wrote å to hide these imperfections, he affected disregard of manners, and put reply to the Archbishop of Paris, and a letter to the magistrates of on the appearance of a misanthropist, which he in reality was not. Geneva, in which he renounced his citizenship. In his retirement he He lived chiefly by copying music, and several persons who knew his wrote the 'Lettres écrites de la Montagne,' being a series of strictures straitened circumstances sent him work, for which they offered him on the political and ecclesiastical government of Geneva as it then was. three or four times the usual remuneration, but he never would accept This work increased the irritation against the author, a feeling which anything beyond the accustomed price.

spread even among the villagers of Motiers, who annoyed their In 1753 he wrote his 'Lettre sur la Musique Française,' which eccentric visitor in various ways, which however the suspicious temper sorely wounded the national vanity. His next publication, a letter of Rousseau probably exaggerated. He removed to the little island to D'Alembert, 'Sur les Spectacles,' gave rise to a controversy between of St. Pierre in the Lake of Bienne, where he assumed, no one knows them. He wrote also a Discours sur l'Origine de l'Inegalité parmi why, the Armenian costume. Being sent away thence by an order les Hommes,' which was admired for its eloquence; but his usual from the senate of Bern, he accepted the kind invitation of David paradoxical vein runs through the whole composition. Rousseau Hume, who offered him a quiet asylum in England. Rousseau arrived asserts that man is not intended for a social state ; that he has a bias in London in January 1766, and the following March went to Wootton for a solitary existence, and that the condition of the savage in his in Derbyshire, where Hume had procured him a private residence in native wilds is a true state of freedom, and the natural state of man, the house of Mr. Davenport. It was not long however before Rousseau and that every system of society is an infraction of man's rights. He quarrelled both with Hume and Davenport, and suddenly returned to also maintains that all men are born equal

, in spite of the daily evi- France. A letter bad appeared in the newspapers bearing the name dence which we have of the inequalities, physical and moral, observable of Frederick of Prussia, and reflecting severely upon Rousseau's moral even in childhood. This idea of the equal rights of men, derived not infirmities. Rousseau accused Hume of being the author or planner from reason or religion, but from his favourite theory of man's equality of the pretended communication. In vain did Hume protest that he in a state of nature, Rousseau afterwards developed more fully in his knew nothing of the matter. At last Horace Walpole acknowledged

Contrat Social,' a work which, after leading astray a number of himself the author of the offensive letter. Rousseau however would people, and causing considerable mischief, is now regarded by all not be pacified, and he continued to charge Hume with the blackest sound thinkers as a superficial essay. It is a curious fact that designs against him. Rousseau, after reading the works of Bernardin de St. Pierre, had After his return to France, Rousseau led an unsettled life, often observed that in all the projects of society and government of that changing his place of residence, till 1770. He published in the meanwriter there was the fundamental error of " supposing that men in time a Dictionnaire de Musique,' which was considered to be both general and in all cases will conduct themselves according to the imperfect and obscure. He then returned to Paris, and took lodgings dictates of reason and justice, rather than according to the impulse in the Rue Plâtrière, which has since been called Rue J. J. Rousseau. of their own passions or wayward judgment."

He was left undisturbed by the authorities, but he was cautioned, as In 1756 Rousseau, at the invitation of Madame d'Epinay, took up there was still a prosecution pending against him on account of his his residence at her country-house, called L'Hermitage, in the pretty Emile,' not to make himself conspicuous in public; an advice which valley of Montmorency, near Paris. Here he began to write his cele- seemed to produce the contrary effect upon his wayward temper. He brated novel, Julie, ou la Nouvelle Heloïse,' which he finished in 1759. now fell into a real or affected state of misanthropy, fancying that It is of little value as a work of imagination or invention, but as a everybody was conspiring against him, and he complained at the same specimen of impassioned eloquence it will always be admired. Rousseau time of acute mental suffering. Byron, who in his mental bias had while he wrote it was under the influence of a violent attachment for some points of resemblance with Rousseau, has strikingly described Madame d'Houdetot, sister-in-law of Madame d'Epinay; and this him :passion, absurd and hopeless though it was, seryed to inspire him during

“ His life was one long war with self-sought foes, the progress of his work.

Or friends by himself banished; for his mind 'La Nouvelle Heloïse' has been censured as tending to render vice

Had grown suspicion's sanctuary, and chose an object of interest and sympathy. The character of the hero is

For its own cruel sacrifice, the kind, culpable, for he forgets the obligations of hospitality, and betrays the

'Gainst whom he raged with fury strange and blind.

But he was phrenzied-wherefore, who may know? confidence reposed in him. But here we again perceive the influence

Since cause might be which skill could never find; of Rousseau's favourite paradox; for, in a state of nature, such as

But he was phrenzied by disease or woe, Rousseau fancied it, the relative position of St. Preux, his pupil, and

To that worst pitch of all which wears a reasoning show. her parents, would not have been the same as in the novel, for they

“For then he was inspired, and from him came, would have all been savages together, and the intimacy of St. Preux

As from the Pythian mystic cave of yore, with Julie would have been a matter of course. Rousseau however,

Those oracles which set the world in flame, by the character which he has drawn of Julie after she becomes a wife,

Nor ceased to burn till kingdoms were no more." has paid a just homage to the sacredness of the marriage bond, and to

(* Childe Harold,' canto iif.) BIOG, DIY, VOL 1.

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