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suit against him, which, after many years of litigation, was decided in merriment in the latter attempt. The 'Gentle Shepherd' is, as a his favour.

whole, not very like anything else that Ramsay has written; but of the body of Hindu theology comprised in the Vedas there is an there seems to be no evidence for the notion which has been suggested, ancient extract called the . Vedant, or the Resolution of all the Veds,' that in this instance he fathered the production of some other writer. written in Sanskrit. Rammohun Roy translated it into Bengalee and The poem, although more careful and elaborate than anything else Hindustanee, and afterwards published an abridgment of it for that Ramsay has left us, is not without the wonted qualities of his gratuitous circulation; of this abridgment he published an English manner, both good and bad. It has no more elevation and refinement translation in 1816. He afterwards published some of the principal than any of Ramsay's other works, though less that is offensively chapters of the Vedas in Bengalee and English. He was at different coarse or boisterous than some of them; both in the diction and the times the proprietor or publisher of newspapers in the native lan- thought it flows easily and smoothly; and though there are not many guages, in which he expressed his opinion freely against abuses, happy touches, and no daring strokes, there is a general truth of political as well as religious, especially the burning of widows. In painting about it in a quiet tone which is very soothing and agreeable. conjunction with Dwarkanath Tagore and Neel Rutton Holdar, he It has also some humour, which however is rather elaborate and was proprietor of the 'Bengal Herald,' an English newspaper. Dwar- constrained. kanath Tagore, an enlightened Hindoo, of liberal opinions, very rich, Ramsay died in 1758, leaving a son, the subject of the following and a munificent benefactor to schools and charities, was born in 1795, article, who acquired distinction as a portrait-painter. in or near Calcutta, and died in London, on the 1st of August 1846. RAMSAY, ALLAN, the son of Allan Ramsay the poet, was born in In 1820 Rammohun Roy published, in English, Sanskrit, and Bengalee, 1713, at Edinburgh. Although in the first instance self-taught, he a series of selections from the New Testament, entitled . The Precepts afterwards studied for a short time in Italy with Solimena and F. Ferof Jesus the Guide to Peace and Happiness.' In this selection he pandi, called Imperiali. After practising a short time in Edinburgh omits the miracles and doctrinal parts, and confines himself to the he settled in London, where he was introduced by Lord Bute to simple religious and moral precepts. In 1830 he was engaged by the George III. when prince of Wales. He painted two portraits of the King of Delhi to make a representation of grievances to the British prince, which were engraved, one by Ryland and the other by Woolgovernment, for which purpose the king conferred on him by firman lett. At the death of Mr. Shakelton, in 1767, Ramsay succeeded the title of Rajah, and appointed him ambassador to the British court. him as principal painter to the king : he retained the place until his He arrived at London in April 1831. The British ministers recognised death, when he was succeeded by Sir Joshua Reynolds. He died his embassy and title, though the Court of East India Directors at Dover, August 10, 1784, on his return from Rome. He had a objected to both. His negociation was successful, and added 30,0001. daughter, who was born in Rome. Ramsay, though not a good a year to the income of the king. He intended to return to India in portrait-painter, was superior to the generality of the painters before 1834, but he was taken ill when on a visit at Stapleton Grove, near Reynolds. Edwards says that Ramsay was not devoted to his art; Bristol, where he died on the 27th of September 1833. He was he allowed literature to divide much of his time with it. He was buried in a shrubbery of Stapleton Grove, without a pall over the acquainted with Latin, French, and Italian; and in his latter days coffin and in silence. The Christian observances were carefully acquired some knowledge of Greek. He was the author of some avoided at his own request, lest it should be made an accusation political papers. He was twice married : his second wife was a against bim by the Brahmins, and, by causing him to lose caste, daughter of Sir David Lindsay. His son and daughter survived him: deprive his children of their inheritance.

the son became a general in the British army; the daughter was Rammohun Roy was acquainted more or less with

ten languages, married to Sir Archibald Campbell. Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, Hindustanee, Bengalee, English, French, RAMSAY, ANDREW MICHAEL, generally known as the Chevalier Hebrew, Latin, and Greek. Sanskrit and Arabic he knew critically, Ramsay, was born at Ayr, in Scotland, in 1686. He was educated at and as a scholar; Persian, Hindustanee, Bengalee, and English he Edinburgh, where he chiefly devoted himself to the study of mathespoke and wrote fluently; of the other languages his knowledge was matics and theology. The distinction he obtained as a scholar proless perfect. He associated a good deal with the Unitarians in this cured for him the appointment of tutor to the son of the Earl of country, and frequently attended their chapels. He was a believer in Wemys at the University of St. Andrews. Having entertained some the divine mission of Christ, and seems to have considered the accept- doubts respecting the tenets of the Protestant faith, he went to Holland ance of the doctrines of Christ to be quite consistent with a belief in for the purpose of visiting a Protestant divine of the name of Poiret, the Brabminical religion as it is in the ancient Sanskrit authorities. who had obtained a certain celebrity as one of the leaders of the

(Review of the Labours, Opinions, and Character of Rajah Rammohun Quietist party. With him Ramsay entered into a religious controRoy, by Lant Carpenter, LL.D.)

versy, the fruits of which were an increase of his doubts and even an RAMSAY, ALLAN, was born in 1685, of parents of the humblest inclination to general scepticism on the great doctrines of the Christian class, at a small hamlet or settlement of a few cottages on the banks religion. In this state of mind he determined on having recourse to of the Glangonar, a tributary of the Clyde, among the hills that Fénélon, who was at that time residing in his diocese of Cambray. divide Clydesdale and Annandale. His father is said to have been a Fénélon in a short time made him a convert to the Roman faith. He workman in Lord Hopeton's lead-mines, and he himself to have been soon became the disciple of Fénélon, not only in religious matters, employed when a child as a washer of ore. When he made his first but also in his literary taste and opinions. His writings were formed appearance in Edinburgh, about the beginning of the last century, on the style and after the manner of his great master, and he rapidly Allan was apprenticed to a barber; and he appears to have followed acquired so perfect a knowledge of the French language as to become that trade for some years. In course of time however he exchanged an excellent writer. Some of his earlier productions were the means it for that of a bookseller, led probably by a taste for reading which of obtaining for him the situation of tutor to the Duke of Château he had acquired. He seems to have early in life enjoyed considerable Thierry and afterwards to the Prince of Turenne; he was also created popularity as a boon companion, and we may presume that it was in a knight of the order of St. Lazarus. His reputation induced the this character that he first gave proof of his poetic talents. He Pretender, in 1724, to invite him to Rome, and to entrust him with gradually however obtained the acquaintance of many of the most the education of his children. He remained however only a year in distinguished persons both in the literary and fashionable circles of that city, and left it in disgust with the petty intrigues which he found the Scottish capital ; and in 1721 he published a volume of his poems, to form the principal occupation of the miniature court of the son of which was very favourably received by his countrymen. In 1724 he the exiled king. The next year he revisited Scotland, where he published in two small volumes 'The Evergreen, being a Collection of remained a considerable time, which he employed in literary labour, Scots Poems, wrote by the Ingenious before 1600. The materials of On visiting England he obtained, through the influence of Dr. King, this collection were chiefly obtained from the volume called the the degree of Doctor of Civil Law in the University of Oxford; he was Bannatyne Manuscript, preserved in the Advocates' Library; but also admitted a member of the Royal Society of London. After his Ramsay, who had little scholarship, and who lived in a very uncritical return to France he was appointed intendant to the Prince of Turenne, age as to such matters, has paid no attention to fidelity in making his who afterwards became the Duke of Bouillon : he held this situation transcripts, patching and renovating the old verses throughout to suit till his death, which took place at St. Germain-en-laye, May 6, 1743. his own fancy. The Evergreen' was followed the same year by "The The writings of the Chevalier Ramsay are more remarkable for the Tea-Table Miscellany, or a Collection of Choice Songs, Scots and purity of their style and the perfect knowledge which they manifest English,' in 4 vols., which has been often reprinted. This collection, of the French language, than for their depth or originality of thought. besides many new verses contributed by Ramsay himself and some of As a theologian he was visionary in the extreme, and his orthodoxy, bis friends, contains numerous old Scottish songs, which, he observes even according to the principles of the church he had adopted, is open in his preface, "have been done time out of mind, and only wanted to to considerable suspicion. It is said to be fortunate for his religious be cleared from the dross of blundering transcribers and printers." reputation that he did not live to publish some philosophical works His scouring however went the length in many cases of rubbing away which he was preparing, such as his answer to Spinosa, and a treatise the old song altogether; and his substitutions are by no means always on the Progress of Human Understanding. The work by which he a compensation for what he thus destroyed, though most of them are is best known, is his Voyages de Cyrus,' a somewhat feeble imitation clever and spirited, and have acquired general currency among Scottish of the Telemachus of Fénélon. The character of Zarina gave consi. song-singers. Ramsay afterwards wrote many more verses in his native derable offence to the Princess de Conti, one of the most learned dialect; but his only two original performances of any considerable ladies of the age, who imagined that she was pourtrayed in it. There pretension are his comic pastoral, the 'Gentle Shepherd, published in is an excellent translation of that work, by Hooke, though said to 1729, and his continuation of the old Scottish poem of Christ's Kirk have been accomplished in the short space of twenty days (HOOKE, on the Green.' There is a good deal of rather effective though coarse NATHANIEL]; it was for a long time mistaken for an original,





the general belief respecting it being that Ramsay had written the also the largest that had then been attempted. Ramsden took out a Voyages of Cyrus in English as well as in French. The best edition patent for his new equatorial, and a description of it was published by of the French is that of Paris et Londres,' 2 vols. 8vo, 1727. The the Hon. Stewart Mackenzie, brother to the Earl of Bute; but his work however for which posterity is most indebted to him is that inventive genius seldom permitted him to construct two instruments entitled 'L'Histoire de la Vie de François de Salignac de la Motte alike. His telescopes, erected at the observatories of Blenbeim, Fénélop,' Hague, 17:23; published also in London the same year. His Mannheim, Dublin, Paris, and Gotha, were remarkable for the supegreat intimacy with Fénélon has made us acquainted with many riority of their object-glasses ; and in his mural quadrants, furnished interesting facts of his private life, and it contains a valuable record to the observatories of Padua and Vilna, Dr. Maskelyne was unable to of his opinions. His other published writings are-1. Discours sur detect an error amounting to two seconds and a balf, a degree of le Poème Épique,' originally forming the preface of his edition of accuracy which was then a matter of admiration among astronomers. Telemachus, in 1717. 2. Essai Philosophique sur le Gouvernement Ramsden however always recommended that the mural quadrant Civil, London, 1721 ; it was afterwards reprinted under the title should be superseded by a mural circle; and the circles erected in the • Essai de Politique.' 3. Histoire de Turenne, Paris, 1735, 2 vols. observatories of Palermo and Dublin, the first of which was of five Svo, and 4 vols. 12mo. With some affectation in the style, and a and the latter of twelve feet diameter, were constructed by him in redundancy of reflections, this history possesses much merit from the accordance with this recommendation. precision of its facts and the lively portraiture of its characters. 4. Among Ramsden's minor inventions and improvements may be

Le Psychomêtre, ou Reflexions sur les différens Caractères de l'Esprit, enumerated his catoptric and dioptric micrometers (described in the par un Mylord Anglais. 5. A posthumous work published at Glasgow Phil. Traps., 1779), the former of which was an improvement upon in 1749, 2 vols. 12mo, in English, entitled Philosophical Principles of that of Bougier; optigraph; dynamometer (for measuring the magniNatural and Revealed Religion explained and unfolded in a Geometrical fying powers of telescopes); barometer; electrical machine; manoOrder.'

meter; assay-balance; level ; pyrometer; and the method introduced RAMSDEN, JESSE, was born at Salterhebble, near Halifax, York by him for correcting the aberrations of sphericity and refrangibility shire, 1735. He was the son of an innkeeper. When nine years old in compound eye-glasses. ("Phil. Traps.,' 1783.) he was admitted into the free grammar-school of Halifax; and after Ramsden was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1786. In attending there for about three years, he was placed under the pro- 1794 a similar compliment was paid him by the Imperial Academy of tection of an uncle, who resided in the north of Yorkshire. By him St. Petersburg; and the following year the Copley medal was awarded he was sent to a school conducted by Mr. Hall, a clergyman, who was to him by the Royal Society, in testimony of the importance of his in repute as a teacher of the mathematics, and under whom he attained various inventions. By this time his health had become much impaired to some proficiency in geometry and algebra. His studies were inter- by his ardent devotion to his profession. In 1800 he was advised to rupted by his father apprenticing him to a cloth worker at Halifax. visit Brighton, where he died, on the 5th of November of that year.

At the age of twenty we find him engaged as a clerk in a cloth From 1766 to 1774 his shop and residence was in the Haymarket; but warehouse in London, in which capacity he continued till 1757-58, in the latter year he removed to Piccadilly, where his business conwhen his predilection for other pursuits led him to bind himself for tinued to be conducted after his decease. four years to a working mathematical and philosophical instrument In his habits we are told that he was temperate to abstemiousness, maker, named Barton, in Denmark Court, Strand. Upon the comple- and that for many years he restricted himself to very few hours of tion of his term, he engaged himself as assistant to a workman, named repose. Most of the time that he could spare from the immediate Cole, at a salary of twelve shillings a week; but this connection was duties of his profession was devoted to the perusal of the works of of short duration. He then commenced working on his own account, science and literature. His memory was remarkably retentive, and at and his skill as an engraver and divider gradually recommended him an advanced age he made himself sufficiently master of the French to the employ of the leading instrument makers, more particularly language to read Molière and Boileau. The fortune of which he died Nairne, Sisson, Adams, and Dollond. Ramsden subsequently married possessed was not considerable, and a large portion of it was directed Dollond's daughter, and he received with her a part of Mr. Dollond's by his will to be distributed among bis workmen. patent right in achromatic telescopes. His occupation afforded him RAMUS, PETER (PIERRE DE LA RAMÉE), was born in a frequent opportunities of observing the defective construction of the village in Picardy, in 1502 according to one account, and in 1515 sextants then in use, the indications of which, as had been pointed according to another. His parents were extremely poor, and the future out by Lalande, could not be relied on within five minutes of a degree, philosopher was set when a boy to tend sheep. Disgusted with this and might therefore leave a doubt in the determination of the longi. employment, he ran away from his parents to Paris. After some time, tude amounting to fifty nautical leagues. The improvements intro. and after he had encountered much misery, one of his uncles offered duced by Ramsden are said by Piazzi to have reduced the limits of some pecuniary assistance, and Ramus now entered the College of error to thirty seconds. (* Account of the Life and Labours of Rams. Navarre as a servant. He made great progress in all studies, with den' in a Letter addressed to Lalande, and published by him in very little assistance from masters. At the completion of his course, Journal des Sçavans,' November 1788, p. 744.) This circumstance, when he presented himself for the degree of master of arts, he underadded to the cheapness of his instruments, which were sold for about took as an exercise what then seemed the almost impious task of two-thirds the price charged by other makers, soon produced a demand showing that Aristotle was not infallible. ' The exercise was adjudged which, even with the assistance of numerous hands, he found difficulty successful, and Ramus henceforth devoted himself to the study of the in supplying. In his workshops the principle of the division of labour works of Aristotle as to the object of his life. In 1543 he published was carried out to a considerable extent, and a proportionate dexterity his new system of logic, with strictures on the logic of Aristotle. The was acquired by the workmen ; but it is asserted that in none of these, publication of this work exposed him to great obloquy. He was even the most subordinate, and least of all in the higher departments, charged with impiety and sedition, and with a desire to overthrow did the skill of the workmen surpass that of Ramsden himself. His all science and religion through the medium of an attack on Aristotle. attention was incessantly directed to new improvements and further On the report of an irregular tribunal appointed to consider the charges simplification, the result of which was the invention of a dividing made against him, the king ordered his works to be suppressed, and machine, for the graduation of mathematical and astronomical instru- forbade his teaching or writing against Aristotle on pain of corporal ments. The date of this invention is prior to the year 1766. At first punishment. Ramus now turred to the study of mathematics, and to it had many imperfections ; but by repeated efforts of ingenuity prepare an edition of Euclid. Shortly afterwards he began a course of throughout a period of ten years they were successfully removed. In lectures on rhetoric at the College of Presles, the plague having driven 1777 it was brought under the notice of the Commissioners of the away numbers of students from Paris. He was named principal of Board of Longitude, by Dr. Shepherd, and by them a premium of this college, and the Sorbonne ineffectually endeavoured to eject him 615l. was paid to the author, upon his engaging to divide sextants at on the ground of the royal prohibitory decree. This decree was six, and octants at three shillings, for other mathematical instrument cancelled in 1545 through the influence of the Cardinal de Lorraine, makers.' A description of the machine was immediately published, to whom he had dedicated his edition of Euclid. He now began a by order of the Board, under the supervision of Dr. Maskelyne (Lond., course of mathematics in Paris. In 1551 he was named by the king 1777, 4to.), and was shortly after translated into French by Lalande. (Henri II.) professor of philosophy and eloquence in the College of A duplicate of the machine itself is said to have been purchased by France. During the next ten years he published a Greek, Latin, and the president, Bochard de Saron, and introduced into France concealed French grammar, and several treatises on mathematics, logic, and in the support of a table made for that purpose. (Weiss, Biog. rhetoric. Ramus had embraced Protestantism, and now shortly again Univers.') As early as 1788 no less than 983 eextants and octants brought upon himself great trouble by the zeal with which he advohad issued from Ramsden's workshop. In 1799 the description of cated the new doctrines. Charles 1x, offered him an asylum at another machine constructed by Ramsden for dividing straight lines Fontainebleau; but, while he was absent from home, his house was by means of a screw was also published by order of the Board : but pillaged and his library destroyed. He returned to Paris in 1563, and this invention does not appear to have been of much practical use. resumed possession of his royal chair. Civil troubles again drove him It was however in the construction of many of a larger class of astro away from Paris, and in 1568 he asked permission to travel He went nomical instruments that Ramsden acquired most reputation, though to Germany, and was received everywhere with honour. He gave they were probably least productive of pecuniary gain. The theodolite lectures

on 'mathematics at Heidelberg, and while in this town he employed by General Roy in the English Survey was made by made public profession of Protestantism. Shortly after his return to Ramsden, and no instrument of the kind that had been previously Paris he fell a victim in the massacre of St. Bartholomew, 1572. made would bear comparison with it. A similar remark is applicable Although Ramus had many merits as a philosopher, and did much to the equatorial constructed for Sir George Schuckburgh, which was good by his opposition to the Aristotelian philosophy which then




held men's minds in bondage, he was wanting in depth and caution, Description of European Sarmatia; Matthew Micheow of Cracow, and his strictures on Aristotle are by no means altogether just. He Description of the Two Sarmatias." had many followers. The influence of Melanchthon, on the other side, Vol iii. :-“Pietro Martire of Angleria, extract from his History of did not prevent the progress of his system of logic in the German the New World ; Oviedo, extract from his History of the West Indies ; universities. France, England, and particularly Scotland, were full Herman Cortez, Narrative of his Conquest of Mexico; Pedro de Alvaof Ramists. Andrew Melville introduced the logic of Ramus at rado, two letters to Herman Cortez; Diego Godoy, a letter from New Glasgow.

Spain; Narrative of one of Cortez's companions concerning Mexico, The following is a list of the principal works of Ramus :-1, 'Insti- with two maps, one of the Great Temple, and another of the Lake; tutiones Dialecticæ Tribus Libris distinctæ;' 2, 'Animadversiones in Alvaro Nuñez, Narrative of the Indies and of New Galicia in 1627-36; Dialecticam Aristotelis;', 3, Rhetoricæ Distinctiones in Quintilianum;' Guzman on the Conquest of New Spain ; Francisco Ulloa, Voyage in 4, ' Arithmeticæ Libri Tres ;' 5, In Quatuor Libros Georgicorum et the Mar Vermejo, or Sea of California;

Vasquez de Coronado, Narrain Bucolica Virgili Prælectiones;' 6, 'Ciceronianus' a life of Cicero, tive of a Journey to Cevole, or the Kingdom of the Seven Cities; ioterspersed with many pbilological remarks on the Latin language, Alarcon, Voyage to discover the Kingdom of the Seven Cities in and strictures on the state of education in France); 7, 'Scholæ Gram- / 1540; Ramusio, Discourse on the Conquest of Peru; Narrative of a maticæ Libri Duo;' 8, Grammatica Latina ;' 9, Grammatica Græca Spanish Captain concerning the Conquest of Peru; Francisco Xeres, quatenus à Latina differet;' 10, Gramère Fransoeze;' 11, Liber de Narrative of the Conquest of Peru and New Castile ; Narrative of a Noribus Veterum Gallorum;' 12, Liber de Militia Julii Cæsaris ;' Secretary of Francisco Pizarro concerning the Conquest of Peru; 13, Commentarius de Religione Christiana, Libri Quatuor;' 14, 'Præ- Gouzalo de Oviedo, Navigation of the river Marañon, Ramusio, Disfationes, Epistolæ, Orationes' (Paris, 1599, and Marburg, 1599). The course concerning New France; Giovanni da Verazzano, a Florentine, Greek grammar of Ramus received considerable additions from Narrative written from Dieppe, in July 1524; Discourse of a great Sylburgius. For a complete list of the works of Ramus the reader is Naval Captain concerning the Navigation of the West Indies; Jacques referred to Niceron ('Mém.,' tom. xiii.).

Cartier, First and Second Narrative of Voyages to New France; Cesare RAMU'SIO, GIAMBATTISTA, was born at Treviso in the Venetian de Federici, Voyage to the East Indies and beyond India; Three State, in 1485, of a family originally from Rimini, which produced Voyages of Hollanders and Zealanders to China, New Zembla, and several men of learning. He filled several offices under the republic, Greenland.” and became secretary to the Council of Ten. Having undertaken a Among the above series are several curious narratives which are not collection of the most important narratives of voyages and travels found in any other collection. Ramusio left materials for a fourth performed in distant countries both in ancient and modern times, he volume, which unfortunately were destroyed in a fire which broke translated into Italian those that had been written in other languages, out in the printing-press of Giunti, in November 1557. and added his own remarks and several dissertations, which show that RANDOLPH, THOMAS, an English poet, was born in 1605, at he possessed very extensive general information for the age in which Badby in Northamptonshire. He was educated at Westminster he lived. He was a friend of Bembo, Fracastoro, and other learned School, and thence elected scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge, in contemporaries. His work is entitled “Raccolta di Navigazioni e the year 1623; was afterwards made Fellow on the same foundation, Viaggi, 3 vols. fol. The first volume was printed by Giunti at Venice and was admitted to an ad eundem degree at Oxford in 1631. After in 1550, another volume appeared in 1556, and a third in 1559, after some stay at Cambridge he came to London, where he was much Ramusio's death, wbich took place at Padua in July 1557. Subse- noticed by Ben Jonson, who called him.son. He became intimate quent editions appeared with the addition of several travels which had also with many of the other wits of that day. The promise of his not appeared in the first. The most complete edition is that of 1606. youth was marred by a career of dissipation and extravagance, which The following list of contents will convey an idea of the value of the shortened his life prematurely. He died while on a visit to a friend work:

at Blatherwick in Northamptonshire, where he was buried, on the Vol. i. : "Leo Africanus's Description of Africa ; Cadamosto, a 17th of March 1634-35, and his memory honoured by a monument Venetian navigator, preceded by a Discourse by Ramusio; Sintra, a erected by Sir Christopher (afterwards Lord) Hatton of Kirby. Portuguese narrative; Hanno's Periplus ; Navigation from Lisbon to Randolph's Poems, Translations, and Plays,' were published in St. Thomé, by a Portuguese pilot; Ramusio, a Discourse on the Navi. London, 4to, 1634; and his 'Poems, with the Muses' Looking-Glass gation of the Portuguese to the East Indies; Voyage of Vasco de Gama and Amyntas,' at Oxford, 4to, 1638. There have been several other in 1497, written by a Florentine; Pedro Cabral Alvarez, voyage from editions published since, both in London and at Oxford. His plays Lisbon to Calicut in 1500, written by a Portuguese pilot; Amerigo are ---Aristippus,' and 'The Conceited Pedlar,' published together in Vespucci, two letters to Pietro Soderini; a Summary of Vespucci's 1630, 4to; Jealous Lovers,' 4to, 1632; “The Muses’ Looking-Glass,' Voyages; Thomas Lopez, a Portuguese, Voyage to the East Indies ; 4to, Lond., 1638; 'Amyntas,' Oxford, 1638; 'Hey for Honesty, Down Giovanni da Empoli, a Florentine, Journey to India; Ludovico with Knavery,' a comedy, 'The Prodigal Scholar, a comedy, and 'The Barthema of Bologna, Itinerary, preceded by a Discourse by Ramusio; Cornelianum Dolium,' a Latin play in the style of Plautus, have been Iambolus, Voyage extracted from Diodorus, with a Discourse by attributed to him. Authority for the ed. of 1634, Harl. Cat, No. 6043. Ramusio, Andrea Corsali, a Florentine, Two Letters to Julian and Randolph's writings are the production of a mind well imbued with Lorenzo de' Medici; Alvarez, Travels to Ethiopia, with the submission classical literature, and he has in many passages not unskilfully interof Prester John to Pope Clement VII.; Ramusio, Discourse on the woven the language and imagery of the best authors of antiquity. He Rise of the Nile, with a reply by Fracastoro; the Voyage of Nearchus wrote Latin verse with ease and fluency, and translated from Claudian translated from Arrian's text; Journey of a Venetian from Alexandria with considerable elegance; but his English compositions are not free to Diu in India in 1538 ; Arrian's Navigation from the Red Sea to from the faults imputed to most of his contemporaries, and are often India; Barbosa, a book of travels to the East Indies ; a brief account disfigured by licentiousness, obscurity, and strained conceits, exhibiting of Kingdoms and towns between the Red Sea and China, translated more learning and ingenuity than good taste. They consist of addresses from the Portuguese; Antonio Conti, a Venetian, Journey to India, to different friends, epigrams, translations, and amatory pieces. His written by Poggio Bracciolini ; Jeronimo da San Stefano, a Genoese, dramas present few attractions to modern readers. The characters his letter written from Tripoli in 1499; Ramusio, Discourse on the are either mere impersonations of virtues and vices, or feeble and Voyage round the World by the Spaniards ; Maximilian of Transyl. pedantic travesties from Greek and Roman comedy. The plots are vania, Epistle concerning the Navigation of the Spaniards ; & short perplexed and devoid of interest, and the dialogue seldom rises above account of the Voyage of Magalhaens; Pigafetta, Ņoyage round the mediocrity. The most popular of his plays is the Muses' Looking. World; the Navigation of a Portuguese who accompanied Edward Glass,' which was re-acted in the last century. Barbosa in 1519; Ramusio, a Discourse concerning the Voyages to the RANGABÉ, A. R. (Rizo RANGABE.] Spice Countries; Juan Gaetan, a Castilian pilot, Discovery of the RAN'GONE, a noble family of Modena, which became illustrious in Moluccas; Information concerning Japan, by the Portuguese Jesuits; the middle ages, not only for the part which it took in the political João de Barros, Chapters extracted from his History."

and military vicissitudes of Italy, but more particularly for the Vol. ii. contains “ Marco Polo's Travels, with a preface by Ramusio ; patronage which it gave to learning and to the learned. Count Nicolò Hayton, an Armenian, Discourse on the origin of the Great Khan and Rangone, who lived in the latter part of the 15th century, was the the condition of the Tartars; Angiolelli, Life and Actions of Hussan father of eight sons and two daughters, whom he caused to be Cassan; the Travels of a Merchant into Persia in the years 1517-20; instructed with great care, and all of whom became distinguished for Giosafat Barbaro, a Venetian, Journey to the Tana (the river Tanais) their love of science and literature. The learned Visdomini, who was and into Persia; Ambrosio Contarini, Journey into Persia; Alberto preceptor to several of them, has left an interesting memorial of the Campense, Letters to Clement VII. concerning the affairs of Muscovy; care bestowed on their education in his dialogues entitled 'Antonii Paul Giovio, Reports on the affairs of Muscovy, by him collected; Mariæ Visdomini de Ocio et Sy bilis.' One of his pupils, Count Guido Herbestein, Commentaries on Muscovy and Russia ; Arrian's Letter to Rangone, figured as a distinguished general in the Venetian service, Hadrian concerning the Euxine; Interiano, a Genoese, on the Habits and afterwards in the service of King Francis I. Filelfo, in his book and Manners of the Zythi, called Circassians; Hippocrates, extract of 'De Optima Hominum Felicitate,' which he addressed to Count Guido, his Treatise on Air and Water, in which he speaks of the Scythians; enumerates the feats he had performed in his military career, and Piero Quirino, a Venetian, account of his Voyage and Shipwreck; praises him likewise for the liberal encouragement which he afforded Sebastian Cabota, Navigation in the Northern Seas; Caterino Zeno, a to the learned. Bernardo Tasso, father of the great poet, was for a Venetian, Travels to Persia ; Nicolo and Antonio Zeno on the Dis- long time secretary to Count Guido. Guido died at Venice in 1537. covery of Iceland; Travels into Tartary by some Dominican Mouks; His brother, Cardinal Ercole Rangone, who died young during the Olderico da Udine, Two Journeys into Tartary; Guagnini, a Venetian, pillage of Rome in 1627, is likewise extolled for his love of learning





by Giglio Giraldi, and also by Vida, in his second book, 'De Arte political disturbances of the Legations compelled him to return to Poetica. Costanza Rangone, sister of the preceding, took for her Bologna, where he was appointed keeper of the botanical gardens of second husband Cesare Fregoso, a well-known Genoese emigrant in that city. Some of his papers on botany, which were read at the the service of Francis I., who was murdered in 1541 by the emissaries Institute, having attracted notice, he was named professor of natural of the Marquis del Vasto, governor of Milan for Charles V. She then history in the university in 1803. He himself confessed that, at the retired to France, together with Bạndello, the celebrated novelist, who time of his appointment, his general attainments in natural history wrote many of his tales for her entertainment. Ginevra Rangone, were far from complete; but from that moment he devoted himself sister of Costanza, married first a nobleman of the Correggio family, to the study with so much zeal and assiduity that Baron Cuvier, and afterwards Luigi Gonzaga, marquis of Castiglione. She has been during a visit to Bologna in 1810, was so struck by his ability in that praised by Scaligero for her intellectual accomplishments. Her branch of science as to procure for him, on his return to Paris, an nephew, Count Fulvio Rangone, a pupil of Carlo Sigonio, was authorisation to repair to Paris for the purpose of enjoying the advan. employed by Alfonso II. of Este in a diplomatic capacity; and his tages for study, and for the acquisition of specimens, presented by the sister Claudia fixed her residence at Rome, where she enjoyed con- matchless collections of that city. After a residence of somewhat siderable interest at the Papal court, and was even consulted on more than a year, Ranzani returned to Bologna with a considerable matters of state.

collection of books, minerals, fossils, and other appliances of natural * RANKE, LEOPOLD, one of the most distinguished of the history. During the early part of his professorship he had been a historians produced in modern times by Germany, was born on frequent contributor to the scientific journals of Italy, France, and December 21, 1795, at Wiehe, on the Unstrutt, near Naumburg in Germany, and taken an active part in the proceedings of most of the Prussian-Saxony. Early in life he became a teacher, and in 1818 was Italian scientific and literary societies; but it was not till 1819 that he appointed upper-master of the gymnasium at Frankfurt-on-the-Oder, commenced the publication of his great work, Elementi di Zoologia.' but devoted all his leisure to the study of history. The first fruits of The first volume, published in that year, contains the general introhis labours were a History of the Roman and German People, from duction to zoology; the second, on the mammiferous animals, was 1494 to 1535,' and a "Critique on modern Historical Writers,' both published in 1820; and was followed in 1821 and the succeeding published in 1824. These, especially the latter, a clear and discri- years by the successive volumes as far as the tenth, at which unhappily minating essay on the qualities to be desired in a historian, attracted the work was interrupted, partly by the ill-health of the author, partly so much attention that he was appointed professor extraordinary of by his occupations as rector of the university, to which office he was history in the University of Berlin in 1825. Soon after entering on named in 1824 by the pope, Leo XII. Though he had already prethe duties of his new office, he visited, at the expense of the govern- pared great part of the materials necessary for its completion, and ment, Vienna, Venice, and Rome, where he found abundant materials although the many articles contributed by him to various journals of both in public and private collections, among which the ambassadorial natural history amply demonstrate the extent and accuracy of his despatches to the Venetian senate were of peculiar value. From those knowledge, the work has unfortunately been left in the same incomplete materials he produced in 1827 "Fürsten und Völker von Süd-Europa state. In 1836 Ranzani undertook a course of Lectures on Geology, im 16 und 17 Jahrhundert' ('Princes and Nations of South-Europe a science which up to that time was regarded with much suspicion in in the 16th and 17th Centuries'); and the Verschwörung gegen the Italian universities. He had the honour of first introducing to Venedig im Jahr 1688' ('the Conspiracy against Venice in 1688') his countrymen the discoveries of Buckland, Lyell, De la Beche, and published in 1831. Both works were of distinguisbed excellence, con- the other members of the English school; and as he had early made taining the results of zealous industry, much of novelty

in the relations himself familiar with the study of comparative anatomy, he was able of the Spanish and Turkish governments with the affairs of Italy, a to speak, upon the questions which most interested the students of remarkable and original talent for the development of individual biblical geology, with a degree of authority which a lecturer unaccharacter and for the grouping of events, an integrity that could be quainted with that subject would not have ventured to assume. His thoroughly relied upon, and a lucid and easy style. His reputation ability in this branch of science had been recognised even at an early was even increased by his next work, "The Popes of Rome; their period by Cuvier, who freely confessed his obligations to Ranzani for Church and State,' which was published in 3 vols. in 1834-36; more some important information of which he availed himself in his great than half of the last volume consisting of original documents. Of this work, and Ranzani was engaged in preparing for the press a treatise work an excellent translation has been given to the English public by on geology, containing the substance of his lectures during the five Mrs. Austin, in 1840, another by E. Foster, in 1848, and a third by years from 1836 till 1841, when he was unexpectedly carried off by Mr. Scott, with an introductory essay by Merle d'Aubigné, in a less illness, April 23, 1841, in the sixty-sixth year of his age. A catalogue impartial spirit than that in which the author writes, appeared in 1846, of his miscellaneous essays, lectures, dissertations, and contributions as" more adapted for extensive circulation.” In 1832 he had com- to periodical literature, will be found in the Memorie di Religione, menced as editor the Historical and Political Gazette,' ("Historische- di Morale, e di Litteratura,' published at Modena, 1843. (ContinuaPolitische Zeitschrift'), which, as containing too liberal views of the zione, vol. xv., pp. 401, 402.) necessity of continued progress, he was forced to discontinue in 1836, RAOUL-ROCHETTE, DÉSIRÉ, an eminent French archæologist, was when only two volumes had been completed. In 1837 he read and born at St. Arnaud in the department of Cher, on the 9th of March, afterwards published a discourse to the Royal Scientific Academy at 1789. Educated at Bourges, he was called to Paris when little more Berlin on the History of Italian Poetry. Between 1837 and 1840 he than twenty-two, to fill the chair of history in the Lyceum; and in published three volumes of Annals of the German Monarchy under 1815 he supplied the place of Guizot as lecturer on Modern History the House of Saxony. In 1884 he had been promoted to be ordinary in the University of Paris. In 1815 appeared the work which first professor of history in the University of Berlin, and in 1841 he was gained bim a more than local celebrity, Histoire Critique de l'étab. created historiographer of Prussia. He has since issued Neun Bücher lissement des Colonies Grecques,' 4 vols. 8vo. The following year he Preussische Geschichte,' which has been translated by Sir A. and Lady was made member of the Académie des Inscriptions, and one of the Duff Gordon, under the title of "Memoirs of the house of Brandenburg, editors of the Journal des Savants;' and in 1818 he was appointed and History of Prussia during the 17th and 18th Century,' as have like keeper of the medals, &c.,

in the Royal Library. His attention having wise a History of Servia and the Servian Revolution, with a Sketch been directed to modern Swiss history be, during the following years, of the Insurrection in Bosnia,' (“Die letzten Unruhen in Bosnien') made several exploratory journeys in Switzerland, of which he pub. "Civil Wars and Monarchy in the 16th and 17th Centuries; a History lished ample particulars under the title of Lettres sur la Suisse of France principally during that period;' 'Ferdinand I. and Maximi- écrites en 1819-21, 3 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1823-26, and · Voyage Pitto. lian II. of Austria ; an essay on the political and religious state of resque dans la Vallée de Chamouni et autour du Mont Blanc,' 4to, Germany, immediately after the Reformation,' this last being a short 1826. His 'Histoire de la Révolution Helvétique de 1797 à 1803, essay, published in the . Zeitschrift,' and 'the Ottoman and the appeared in 1823. But whilst thus engaged on topograpby and Spanish Empires, which formed a part of the Princes and Nations of modern history, he was still diligently prosecuting the study of South-Europe. In Germany the work most highly praised is however classical antiquity, to which he thenceforward devoted himself, his · Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der Reformation, of which making various journeys to Greece and Sicily, Italy, Germany, Holland, three volumes were issued between 1839 and 1843, and which have &c., in order to familiarise himself with particular localities and to been translated by Mre. Austin, under the title of History of Germany examine the treasures collected in museums. In 1822 appeared his during the Reformation.'

Antiquités Grecques du Bosphore Cimmérien.' He had already RANZANI, CAMILLO, ABBATE, an eminent naturalist, was born come to be looked upon as the legitimate successor of Quatremère de at Bologna, June 22, 1775. Being of a very humble family, he received Quincy, before the delivery of his lectures in 1826 on his appointment his first education in the charity-school of the Brethren of the Scuole as professor of archæology, which considerably added to bis celebrity Pie in that city, where his talents attracted the notice of a benevolent These lectures were published in 1828, under the title of Cours priest of the Oratory, Father Respighi, to whom literature owes a d'Archéologie,' and again in 1836. similar debt for the discovery and patronage of the youthful linguist, From this time M. Raoul-Rochette was one of the most active and Mezzofanti. Ranzani having through the assistance of Respighi most widely known of the French writers on ancient art, communientered the University of his native city, distinguished himself so cating numerous papers to the Memoirs of the Académie, as well as much in his philosopbical course that, even before he bad completed to the journals of other learned societies, and frequently appearing bis studies, he was occasionally employed by the professor Giuseppe before the public in distinct works. In 1828 be published MonuVogli as his substitute; and when he was but twenty-two years of age ments inédits d'Antiquité figurées Grecques, Etrusques, et Romaines, he was selected to fill the chair of philosophy at Fano. There, having 2 vols. fol. His Peintures Antiques inédites' appeared in 1836. In received holy orders, he taught with reputation until in 1798 the 1839 he was appointed perpetual secretary to the Académie des Beaux

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Arts, the post previously held by Quatremère de Quincy; and, like several excellent treatises : but it is in his capacity of royal historiohis predecessor, he composed a large number of official éloges and grapher that Ar-rázi gained most renown. Besides many historical resumés. In 1840 appeared his "Mémoires de Numismatique et works, the titles of which have not reached us, he wrote a very d'Antiquité,' 4to; in the same year 'Lettres Archéologiques sur la voluminous history of the conquest of Spain by the Arabs, together Peinture des Grecs ;' and in 1846, Choix de Peintures de Pompei.' with a geographical description of that country, and a few interesting His last work of importance---one which he describes in the intro- details on its natural productions, industry, commerce, &c. He wrote duction as having for its objects to direct the investigations of the likewise a history of Mohammedan Spain under the dynasty of the mythographists and antiquaries of the present day to the only course Beni-Umeyyah, and a topographical description of Cordova, the seat which, I believe, will prove fruitful in new discoveries--the relationship of their empire. There is also a genealogical history by him of all the betwoen Greece and Asia " -- was entitled Mémoires d'Archéologie Arabian tribes who settled in Spain at the time of the conquest or comparée Asiatique, Grecque, et Etrusque,' but only one part was soon after it. A portion of the first-mentioned historical work was published in 1848), and that, though a bulky 4to volume of 404 pages, translated into Spanish about the end of the 13th century by a conis wholly occupied with the · Premier Mémoire sur l'Hercule Assyrien verted Moor named Mohammed, and by Gil Perez, a chaplain to King et Phenicien considéré dans ses Rapports avec l'Hercule Grec.' Except Dinis of Portugal, by wbose orders the version was inade. Both Casiri some controversial letters directed to M. Carnot, referring to some (Bib. Ar. Hisp. Esc.,' vol. ii., p. 329) and Conde ( Hist. de la Dom.,' charges brought against him in respect of his official conduct, he does vol. i., p. 9) have asserted, without the least foundation, that the not appear to bave issued subsequently any separate publications. He Historia del Moro Rasis'- for such is the title of the Spanish version died on the 6th of July 1854. An English translation of his Lectures -is apocryphal; but there can be no doubt that the work, though on Ancient Art,' by H. M. Westropp, was published in 1854.

containing numerous interpolations and abounding with blunders, like RAPHAEL. (RAFFAELLE.]

most translations from eastern languages made during the middle RAPI'N, PAUL DE, a younger son of Jacques de Rapin, Sieur of ages, is an authentic one. There is a manuscript of the history of Thoyras, was born at Castres, in 1661, of a Protestant family, which Ar-rází in the library of the British Museum. The year of Ar-rázi's came originally from Savoy. He studied in the Protestant college of death is not known; but as bis history falls rather short of the reign Saumur, and afterwards entered the profession of the law. But the of Abdu-r-rahmán, whose historiographer he was, we may safely revocation of the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV. in 1686 drove him conclude that he died before A.H. 350 (A.D. 961), the date of that from his native country, and he went first to England, and afterwards sovereign's death. to Holland, where he entered the service of William of Nassau as a RASK, RASMUS CHRISTIAN, one of the most distinguished volunteer. He accompanied William to England in 1688, was made linguists of modern times, was born on the 2nd of November 1787, an officer in an English regiment, served in Ireland under General at Brendekilde, near Odense, in the island of Fyen, or Funen, in the Douglas, and was wounded at Limerick. Not long after he was kingdom of Denmark. His parents were very poor people, but the appointed travelling tutor to the young Duke of Portland, with whom boy's talents and inclinations procured him friends who afforded him he spent several years. Having completed his engagement, he retired the means of prosecuting his favourite studies in the University of with his wife first to the Hague, and afterwards, for the sake of Copenhagen. He afterwards spent some time in Iceland, and also economy, to Wesel, where he commenced his great work, the 'History made journeys to Sweden, Finland, and Russia for the purpose of of England,' which occupied him for seventeen years. The application increasing his knowledge of languages, for wbich he had a very extrarequisite for this undertaking is said to have exhausted his frame, and ordinary talent. In 1808 he obtained a situation connected with the he died at Wesel in 1725. His work is entitled · Histoire d'Angleterre university library at Copenhagen, and he availed himself of the oppordepuis l'Establissement des Romains jusqu'à la Mort de Charles I.,' tunity by making himself acquainted with the most ancient documents 8 vols. 4to, La Haye, 1724, and foll. It was continued by others down of northern history and literature. His knowledge of languages led to the accession of George II. The work was translated into English him to devote himself to comparative philology, to search after the by Nicholas Tindal. This translation went through various editions ; connecting links and trace them to their common origin; and in order that of 1757-59 consists of 21 vols. 8vo, and is enriched with additional to complete this branch of study, he undertook in 1817, with the notes and a biography of Rapin. Rapin writes with spirit and ease : support of the Danish government, a journey to Russia, whence he he quotes his authorities; and his work was the only complete history proceeded in 1819 to Persia. He made some stay at Teheran, Perseof England existing at the time of its appearance. Rapin wrote also polis, and Shiras, and in 1820 went to India, whence he returned a Dissertation sur les Whigs et les Torys.'

in 1822 to his native country. In this expedition be had purchased RAʼSARIUS, or, more properly, GIAMBATTISTA RASARIO, an for the Copenhagen library 113 ancient and

rare oriental manuscripts, Italian physician, was born of a noble family in 1517, in the province among which those in the Pali language were the most valuable. of Novara, in the Sardinian territories. After having studied at Milan Soon after bis return he was invited to a professorship in the Univerand Pavia, he took the degree of Doctor of Medicine at the University sity of Edinburgh, but as he declined the offer, he was appointed of Padua. Upon his return to Milan his learning soon gained him so professor of the history of literature in the University of Copenhagen. great a reputation that the republic of Venice invited him to their The king had promised him bis support, if Rask would prosecute his city, where he was professor of rhetoric and the Greek language for oriental studies, but for some time he neglected them, and devoted his two-and-twenty years. Here he distinguished himself by his eloquence, time to an analysis of the Danish language. In 1827, however, he particularly on occasion of the battle of Lepanto, 1571, when, at the returned to his oriental pursuits, and wrote on Egyptian and Hebrew command of the doge, and with a very short time for preparation, he chronology, and on the age and authenticity of the Zend a Vesta. In pronounced in the church of St. Mark a public oration that bas been the meantime he had become president of the Icelandic society of several times printed. He afterwards went to Rome, where the pope, literature, and of the society for the investigation of northern antiPius IV., made him the offer of some good appointments; but be quities, and he took an active part in the management and editorship chose rather to accept the office of professor of rbetoric at Pavia, of the journals of these societies. At the same time he was engaged where he died about four years after, in 1578, at the age of sixty-one. in the preparation of an Armenian Dictionary, an Italian, Low GerHis works consisted principally of editions and translations of various man, and English Grammar. In 1829 he was appointed professor of Greek writers, such as, "Galeni Comment. in Hippocr. libr. ii. et vi. oriental languages and chief librarian of the university library. Morb. Popular., De Alimentis, et De Humoribus, Cæsaraugustæ Henceforth his attention was engaged almost exclusively by the eastern (Saragossa), 4to, 1567 ; Oribasii quæ restant Omnia, Tribus Tomis languages, but his edition of Lockman's Fables,' Copenhagen, 1832, digesta,' 8vo, Basil., 1557; 'Georgii Pachymeris Epitome Logica Aris- shows that his knowledge of Arabic was very deficient; and it may be totelis,' 8vo, Paris, 1547; 'G. Pachym. in Upiv. Aristot. Disserend. said in general that, as far as the oriental languages are concerned, he Artem Epitome,' with Ammonius in Porphyr. Inst.,' fol., Lugd., had more skill in general comparisons and investigations of their 1547; Xenocrates de Alimento ex Aquatilibus, in Fabricii . Bibl. grammatical structure than an exact knowledge of any particular Gr.,' tom. ix., pp. 454-474 ; Joannis Grammatici (sive Philoponi), language. His works show that there was scarcely a language worth Comment. in primos iv. Aristot. de Naturali Auscult. Libros, fol., studying of which he had not some knowledge : and all the civilised Venet., 1558.

languages of Europe were almost as familiar to him as his own motherRASIS, or rather AR-RA ZI', is the patronymic of a celebrated tongue, and his knowledge of the northern languages is unrivalled. Arabian writer, whose entire name was Ahmed Ibn Mohammed Ibn- He died at Copenhagen on the 14th of November 1832, and his Músa. He was denominated Ar rází because his family was from Ray, numerous manuscripts relating to philology were given up by his a province of Persia. He was born at Cordova about the middle of relatives to the king's library at Copenhagen. the third century of the Hejira (A.D. 864-870). His father, Mohammed The principal works of Rask are-1, An Introduction to the Study Ibn-Músa, who was a native of Persia and a wealthy merchant, was in of the Icelandic and Ancient Northern Languages,' Copenhagen, 1811; the habit of travelling yearly to Spain with drugs and other produce 2, an “Anglo-Saxon Grammar,' Stockholm, 1817, one of his best works, of the East. Being a man of some learning and ability, he met with has been translated into German and English ; 3, 'Investigations congreat favour and protection from the sultans of the house of Merwan, cerning the Origin of the Ancient Northern or Icelandic Language,' who then reigned in Cordova; and in one of his visits was prevailed Copenhagen, 1814; 4, An edition of Björn Haldorsen's · Icelandic Dicupon to settle in that capital, where he filled offices of trust, being tionary,' Copenhagen, 1814;5, A 'Spanish Grammar,' Copenhagen, 1824; employed in various embassies. He died in the month of Rabi-l-akbar, 6, A Frisian Grammar,' Copenhagen, 1825; 7, An Attempt to reduce A.H. 273 (October, A.D. 886). His son Ahmed when still young wrote the Orthography of the Danish Language to Principles,' Copenhagen, some poems, which he dedicated to Abdu-r-rahman III., sultan of 1826, is a strange work, in which Rask attempted to introduce a complete Cordova. He also distinguished himself by his early acquirements in reform in Danish orthography. He did not succeed in his attempt, theology and jurisprudeuce, on which sciences he is said to have left but the work is full of the most extraordinary linguistic learning,

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