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359 SCOPAS.

SCORESBY, WILLIAM AND REV. WILLIAM. 930 whether some statues representing the dying children of Niobe that department. Botany especially attracted his attention, and he ("Niobæ liberos morientes') in the temple of Apollo Sosianus at Rome, formed a plan, which however he never executed, for publishing the were by Scopas or Praxiteles. The well known group or series of Flora of his native country. figures representing this subject, now preserved in the gallery of the A journey which he made to Vienna led to his obtaining an appointGrand-Duke of Tuscany at Florence, is generally believed to be the ment as a physician at Idria. Here he published a Flora of Carniola, work alluded to by Pliny. Whether it be an original production of and his proximity to the quicksilver-mines gave him many opportunieither of these great masters, or, as some critics have supposed, only ties for cultivating mineralogy. The results of these studies appeared copied from their work, it must be classed among the finest specimens in various memoirs, among which was a valuable essay on the diseases of art, and as a noble monument of the genius of its author.

to which the miners are liable. The talent and indefatigable diliScopas was employed upon the tomb of Mausolus, and had for his gence which he displayed, excited the envy and opposition of many of associates and rivals ('æmulos eadem ætate') Bryaxis, Timotheus, the officers in the mines, but his appointment as professor of mineraand Leochares. This work, considered by the ancients one of the logy at Idria relieved him from all the disquietudes to which he had seven wonders of the world, was of a square form, having four faces. before been subjected. On the removal of Jacquin to Vienna, Scopoli Each of the above-named artists completed one side. The eastern was succeeded to the chair of mineralogy at Schemnitz; and in 1777 he given to Scopas; the northern to Bryaxis; the southern to Timotheus ; was appointed professor of natural history at Pavia, where he died on and Leochares decorated the western façade. Pliny in mentioning May 8, 1788. this uses the terms.cælavere' and 'calavit,' from which it may be Scopoli was well acquainted with all branches of natural history, inferred that all their performances were in rilievo. The whole mass, though especially distingnished as a botanist. He was much respected measuring twenty-five cubits in height, was surmounted by a quadriga, by Jacquin and Linnæus, the latter of whom named a plant in honour or four-horsed chariot in marble. This was the work of one Pythis; of him, and a genus Scopolia is still distinguished by botanists. His of whom nothing further is known than bis having been thus employed principal works are, ‘Flora Carniolica,' Vienna, 8vo, 1760, and Leipzig, on this celebrated monument. The sculptured slabs which Sir Strat- 8vo, 1772; Entomologia Carniolica,' Vienna, 1763; Tentamina ford Canning (now Lord Stratford de Redcliffe) obtained permission Physico-chemico-medica, Venice, 8vo, 1761, Jena, 8vo, 1771, which from the Porte to remove in 1845-46 from the walls of Budrum, the contains his paper on the diseases of the workers in the quicksilverancient Halicarnassus, and which are now deposited in the British mines; 'Deliciæ Floræ et Fauna Insubriæ,' &c., Pavia, 1786-88, three Museum, are now generally admitted to be a portion of the bassi-rilievi parts, folio. with wbich Scopas and his associates adorned the tomb of Mausolus. SCORESBY, WILLIAM, AND SCORESBY, THE REV. WILLIAM, The materials obtained from the ruins of the tomb were used by the D.D., F.R.S., the most accomplished and successful Arctic navigators knights of Rbodes in constructing, and afterwards in strengthening of their time, were descended from a Yorkshire family, of which notices the citadel of Halicarnassus, and the sculptured slabs of the frieze exist referring to the beginning of the 14th century, its members appear to have been built into the inner wall of the citadel, where they occasionally possessing considerable property, and occupying conremained till removed as above stated. The slabs are thirteen in spicuous stations, but having descended, prior to the middle of the last dumber, of a uniform height of 3 feet, and of a connected length of century, to the class of yeomen. WILLIAM SCORESBY, the elder, was nearly 65 feet-about equal to one side of the building. They repre- born on the 3rd of May 1760, on a small estate farmed by his father, sent the battle of the ancient Greek warriors with the Amazons, and called Nutholm, in the township of Cropton, about twenty miles from are executed with considerable spirit and beauty, but they have suffered Whitby. He received his chief education in an attendance often much injury from time and rough treatment. They are however interrupted, at an endowed school in the village of Cropton, but from decidedly inferior to works of the best style of Greek art, and inferior this he was removed at the very early age of nine, and employed in to what would be expected from the hand of Scopas, whence some agricultural occupations, first on his father's farm, and as he advanced critics have chosen quite gratuitously to assign them to his associates. towards manhood on those of his neighbours. Undeserved treatment (Newton, On the Sculpture from the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus,' in from one of these led him to resolve, in the winter of 1779-80, to try the the Classical Museum for 1847, p. 170, &c., where will also be found adventure of a sea-faring life. Proceeding to Whitby for that purpose, a restoration of the building by Mr. Cockerell.)

he made an engagement with a ship-owner, but his service not being Pausanias, in his description of Greece, speaks of various per- immediately required, he returned home, and after remaining at the formances of Scopas (both in bronze and marble), existing in the ties farm he had somewhat abruptly left until his place could be satisfactowhich he visited. In the temple of Venus at Megara were statues rily supplied, set himself arduously to work to prepare himself by the of "Epws, 'luepos, and nobos (Love, Passion, and Desire). (Paus., i. 43.) study of such books as he could procure, for his new occupation, There was also a statue of Hercules by bim at Sicyon (ii. 10); and at upon which he entered April 1780. The skill he very soon acquired Gortys in Arcadia were two statues, one of Æsculapius, imberbis' (or in calculating his ship's position enabled him to save it from destrucbeardless), and the other of Hygeia (viii. 28). Two works by Scopas tion, in the third voyage of both, but the ill-will this occasioned in the are celebrated by epigrams in the Greek Anthology : one of them minds of the officers he had thus excelled caused him to leave the ship, refers to a much admired statue of Mercury; another pays a high and to engage in an Ordnance armed-storeship, which was captured by compliment to the skill displayed by the sculptor in a figure of a a Spanish vessel. With one of his fellow-sailors however he escaped Bacchante represented in a state of inebriety. The latter work was from Spain, and on his return to England retired, for a season, from executed in Parian marble.

his seafaring pursuits. He remained at home, assisting his father in Strabo (lib. xiii., 604) mentions a statue by Scopas, of Apollo, in the management of his farm, about two or three years, marrying in rather a remarkable character,--that of a ‘killer of rats.' It was in the interval the eldest daughter of Mr. John Smith, of Cropton. But the temple of the god surnamed Smintheus, at Chrysa or Chryse in in the spring of 1785 be entered upon that particular course of life in the Troad. The figure was represented in the act of pressing or which both he and his son were afterwards so long distinguished, by crushing a rat with his foot.

embarking, though

merely as one of the seamen, in the ship Henrietta, From the terms in which Pausanias speaks of the temple before belonging to the Greenland whale-fishery, which at that period was alluded to, which Scopas built to Minerva Alea at Tegea, his merit as pursued with considerable enterprise from the port of Whitby. In an architect must have been little if at all inferior to that which he this congenial occupation, on his sixth voyage he had risen above all displayed in the sister art. Pausanias says it far exceeded, both in the his associates, and attained the position of second officer, the speckquality of its decoration and its dimensions, all the other temples in sioneer' of the ship, who has special charge of the fishing apparatus Peloponnesus. He describes it as being of the Ionic order on the and operations, and is a principal harpooner. In 1791 he was apoutside ; but within it was decorated with Doric columns having over pointed to the command of the Henrietta. In his first voyage he them others of the Corinthian order. In the pediment in front was returned with "a clean ship,” or without whales, but this was amply represented the hunting of the Caledonian boar, with Atalanta, Meleager, compensated by the almost unprecedented success of the second, in Theseus, and numerous other figures. The other pediment exhibited which he took eighteen whales, a catch' which was extended, in his the contest of Telephus and Achilles. Pausanias does not state dis- fifth year, to the extraordinary number of twenty-five, and the amount tinctly that these works were by Scopas, but it may fairly be inferred of his cargoes, during his six years' command of this ship, exceeded that they either were executed by him or at least were produced under by 151 tuns of oil that of the most successful of the Hull ships of the bis superintendence.

time. In 1798 he obtained the command of the Dundee, a London Before closing this short notice of Scopas it may be right to mention whaler of large size, in which his success was correspondingly great. that the difficulty of reconciling the dates given by Pliny has led the She returned from her first voyage with the spoils of no less than learned antiquary Sillig ("Catal, Artificum, p. 416) to suppose there six-and-thirty captured whales ; and three years afterwards twenty. may have been two artists of the name; one a native of Paros, and the three were taken, which yielded the previously unequalled quantity of other of Elis. But the reasons adduced do not however appear suffi- 225 tuns of oil. In this engagement Mr. Scoresby's high reputation cient to warrant such a conclusion.

for pre-eminent skill and success was amply maintained. Up to the SCOPAS, or SCOPINAS, an artist or mechanist, of unknown date, end of the century his successes, with but rare exceptions, were at the mentioned by Vitruvius.

head of the lists of the whole of the northern whalers, both of Davis' SCO'POLI, GIOVANNI ANTONIO, was born at Cavalese in the Strait and Greenland. His voyages were not only unequalled in the Tyrol, June 13, 1723. After pursuing his preliminary studies at Trent, Greenland whale-fishery in their measure of success, but likewise in he went to Innspruck, and took the degree of Doctor in Medicine at that the quickness with which they were accomplished, and the quality university in 1743. He early displayed a great fondness for natural of the oil yielded by their cargoes. history, and was in a great measure self-taught, since there was not In 1811 Mr. Scoresby resigned the command of the Resolution, in then at Innspruck any professor capable of directing his studies in which his voyages had been made for eight years, to his son; but in

361 SCORESBY, WILLIAM AND REV. WILLIAM.

SCORESBY, WILLIAM AND REV. WILLIAM. 323 command of other ships he continued in the trade, with the results exceeded only by the late Admiral Parry (PARRY, WILLIAM EDWARD), just described, until 1823, when he discontinued the pursuit, having who, in his celebrated boat expedition, during his fourth voyage, in acquired an ample competency.

1827 reached 82° 45', the highest point yet attained ; but this was The total number of voyages in the fishery in which he held the accomplished by travelling across the ice, which had to be commenced command, from first to last, was just thirty. The entire cargoes on gaining the latitude of 79° 55' 20", inferior to that attained by the obtained, under his personal guidance, comprised the produce of 533 Scoresbys by ordinary sailing, and the honour still remains theirs of whales a greater number than had fallen to the share of any other having in ordinary sailing navigated the highest northern latitudes. individual with that of many thousands of seals, some hundreds of It may be remarked here that the boat expedition bad itself been walruses, very many narwhals, and probably not less than sixty Arctic adopted from a suggestion made by the younger Scoresby (in a probears. The quantity of oil yielded by this produce was 4664 tuns, position which had been rejected by the Admiralty), but had not, in of baleine (commonly termed whalebone) about 240 tons in weight, his opinion, been properly executed. It was always his conviction together with the skins of the other animals taken. His yearly average that by such an expedition, if carried out according to his views, the was almost double that of the Hull whale-fishing, or in fact of that of pole itself might have been arrived at; and at a later period he had any other port. The gross proceeds of the thirty years' adventures, the satisfaction of learning that Parry himself had expressed the same in money, amounted to very nearly 200,000l., of which the profits conviction. It is proper to note in this place, in order to preclude amounted to 90,0001.; while the capital annually invested did not error, that the surgeon of the Resolution in this voyage, states, in an exceed on an average 90001., which thus yielded, through a series of Account of a Voyage to Spitzbergen,' and in a manner taking the thirty years, no less a sum than 30001. a year, being at the rate of achievement to himself, that the highest latitude attained was 81° 50', 33} per cent. per annum on the capital employed,

but this, as Dr. Scoresby has explained in his Memorials of the Mr. Scoresby survived his retirement six years, in a state however Sea,' p. 153, is erroneous; the highest latitude observed being of deteriorated health, experiencing apparently in his leisure the effects 81° 12' 42", as already stated. The Resolution was the property of the wear and tear of the previous thirty-six years. His success had of a co-partnery, of which the senior Scoresby was one, and-influ. partly been founded on numerous new contrivances and improvements enced in a considerable degree by a kindly and parental regard in the whale-fishing apparatus and operations. But he did not confine for his son-he formally resigned his command in 1811, on the his attention to subjects immediately connected with his occupation. very day on which the subject of this notice completed his twentyIn the winter of 1816-17 he produced a pamphlet on the improvement first year, and on the same day, the earliest at which he could of the town and harbour of Whitby, the substance of which, revised, legally hold a command, William Scoresby junior was unanimously extended, and illustrated by engraved plans, he again brought out in elected his father's successor, 1826 under the title of An Essay on the Improvement of the Town In consequence of information communicated by Captain Scoresby and Harbour of Whitby, with its Streets and Neighbouring Highways: to Sir Joseph Banks, the President of the Royal Society, the attention Designed also for the maintainance of the Labouring Classes who are of the council of that learned body and of the government was out of Employment.' A portion of the improvement thus proposed, directed in 1817 to the dormant enterprise of endeavouring to reach with some little deviation, was carried into effect after Mr. Scoresby's the North Pole and discovering the long-sought North-West passage ; decease, the entrance of the harbour having thereby become more safe, the latter of which objects bas at length been accomplished by Sir exactly as he had anticipated. He also left a manuscript document, Robert MacClure (MAOCLURE, SIR ROBERT J. LE M.) in one of the dated London, 23rd of December 1824, entitled Hints; or Outlines of recent searching expeditions for the ill-fated Franklin. Sir J. Banks Improvements conceived by W. Scoresby.' These are stated, in an was very desirous that his young but experienced friend should be introductory paragraph, to be the result of reflection during forty employed in the proposed adventure, his father having deferred the years' occupation at sea, and are proposed in a manner much resem: fitting out of the ship Fame, which the son was to command, under bling that of the Marquis of Worcester's celebrated Century of the idea that she might be taken up for service. Their expectations Inventions' [WORCESTER, MARQUIS OF) : they include projected however were altogether disappointed, and as is well known, Captain improvements in ship building, seasoning timber, ports and harbours, (the late Sir John) Ross with the Isabella and Alexander, and Captain breakwaters, the banks of rivers, barren lands, the ventilation of coal. Buchan with the Dorothea and Trent, were appointed to make the mines, the building of streets (including the suggestion of sub-ways), attempt. It appears to be the policy, not perhaps to be discom making new roads, and other subjects connected with the arts of life mended on grounds of national justice, however the consequences) and with human culture. Unfortunately no record of the nature of it may be regretted in particular instancen, of the Board of Admiralty, these projects appears to have been preserved. He died in 1829. to reserve these arduous expeditions and others destined for marine

Mr. Scoresby was the inventor of the round top-gallant crow's nest,' scientific research, as the encouragements and rewards of an inevitably or small cylindrical observatory attached to the main top-mast for the laborious and ill-paid service. The history of this subject will be safe and effective navigation of the Arctic ices, and the keeping of a found in a paper by Dr. Scoresby, 'On some circumstances connected due watch for the discovery of whales. The first example was built with the Original Suggestion of the Modern Arctic Expeditions pubin May 1807. It was substituted for the unsafe and unprotected con- lished in the Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal

, vol. xx. 1835-36. trivance called the crow's-nest,' in which the navigator had hitherto Having made seventeen voyages to the Spitzbergen or Greenland been exposed to all the rigours of the weather whilst performing an Whale-fishery, Captain Scoresby published, in 1820, his celebrated indispensable duty. This invention became universally employed by work entitled, An Account of the Arctic Regions, with a history and the British Arctic whalers, and was adopted generally in our discovery description of the Northern Whale-Fishery,' in 2 volumes consisting of ships, being in Dr. Scoresby's opinion the greatest boon of modern 1217 pages, illustrated by twenty-four engravings. It had been undertimes given to the Arctic navigator. The construction of one for the taken at the suggestion of Professor Jameson, who did great service Isabella discovery ship is recorded in Hoss's first voyage, 1818, p. 124, to scientific literature by stimulating bis pupils or former pupils to but without any allusion to the inventor,

make public the results of the observations made by them in their WILLIAM SCORESBY, the son, was born Oct. 5, 1789, and began his professional or official employments in distant countries. This was nautical life only ten years afterwards, accompanying his father in the first original work on the physical and natural history of the counthe Dundee, on her voyage of the year 1800. The passion for naval tries within the Arctic circle and on the nature and practice of the enterprise which the child's examination of the ship had evoked, was Whale-Fishery, published in this country, with the exception of a confirmed by his first voyage, and in 1803 the father and son sailed tract by Henry Elking on the latter subject. It obtained for the together in the ship Resolution of Whitby. This they continued to author a more general reputation than he had hitherto enjoyed, and do for the ensuing eight years, the sedulous junior keeping a regular justified the owners of the whaling ships he commanded, in counjournal of their voyages. He was promoted in succession, as he tenancing a degree of enterprise in geographical discovery-not

became qualified, without being, unduly favoured, through all the unconnected however with the object of the trade-which had not · gradations of the service, until he was appointed chief mate of the before been united with the pursuit of whales, except through acci

ship; which responsible office he held in his sixteenth year. The dental circumstances. But on Captain Scoresby's return to Liverpool, long intervals during which, from the nature of the whale-fishery, the from a voyage in 1822, in the ship Baffin of that port, undertaken ships were laid up in winter, were devoted by the young navigator with these views, he received on entering the Mersey the afflicting with the sanction and to the great satisfaction of his father, to intelligence of the decease of his (second) wife while he was absent. regular study, and for a considerable portion of two sessions, at He now quitted the whale-fishery, but published the geographical Edinburgh, where he secured the friendship of the late Professor results of the voyage, in a 'Journal of à Voyage to the Northern Jameson and other professors of the university, and also of Dr. (now Whale-Fishery; including researches and discoveries on the eastern Sir David) Brewster. He thus acquired that definite knowledge of the coast of West-Greenland, made in the summer of 1822, in the ship principles of the various branches of science bearing upon his peculiar Baffin of Liverpool, Edinburgh, 1823, 515 pages, with 8 plates, includprofession, which enabled him to extend them, by his own observa. ing a chart, &c. A German translation by Professor F. Rries was tions, in the voyages to the Arctic regions which alternated with and published at Hamburg in 1825. Not long after the appearance of succeeded these periods of intellectual culture.

this work, on the 17th of June, 1824, he was elected a Fellow of the While filling the stations respectively of commander and chief-mate Royal Society, being already a contributor to the 'Philosophical Transof the Resolution in 1806, the Scoresbys sailed to a higher latitude than actions,' and having been for some years a fellow of the Royal Society had been reached before. In May of that year they were successively of Edinburgh. He subsequently received one of the highest honorary in 80° 50' 28", N. lat., 81° 1' 53", and 81° 12' 42", and once, by rewards of scientific eminence, in being made a corresponding member estimation, as far as 81° 30', the nearest approach to the pole of the Institute of France, or Academy of Sciences of Paris. As the within about 510 miles-at that period authenticated. It has been captain of a whaler he had been a remarkable man. His crews wero

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363 SCORESBY, WILLIAM AND REV. WILLIAM.

SCOTT, DAVID. always distinguished by their discipline and respectability, and the of the Meeting of the British Association.'—Memorials of the Sea :' lasting effect of his command upon the characters of some of those 1, Sabbaths in the Arctic Regions ;' 2, The Mary Russel! Of both who sailed with him was a proof of the soundness of his judgment, these two editions have appeared. 3, 'My Father: being Records of temper and heart. “His success in whaling was remarkable ; but he the Adventurous Life of the late William Scoresby, Esq., of Whitby, never, under any circumstances, allowed a whale to be pursued upon 12mo, Lond., 1851, pp. viii. and 232. "The Franklin Expedition;" Sunday, and he succeeded in convincing his men that upon the whole stating his views on its probable course and fate, and on the measures they did not lose by keeping the appointed day of rest. Upon his of search for it. later voyages he adopted the temperance principle on board his vessel, Zoistic Magnetism. The contents of this work on a peculiar finding that hot coffee was a very much stronger preservative than subject are thus stated by the author himself: " Original Researches spirits against the intense cold of Arctic regions."

in Mesmeric Phenomena, with the view of eliciting the scientific Some years after his retirement from the whale-fishing the religious principles of this mysterious agency, and in which experiments are impressions which he bad first received from his father and had always described, eliciting strong electric or magno-electric conditions, with entertained, impelled him to desire a more formal and authorised the intercepting of the mesmeric influence by electrica, and the position as a teacher of religion. He entered the University of Cam- veutralising of the effects of substances having an upgenial influence bridge as a student of Queen's College, took his degree of B.D. in 1834, on the subject, by the same process as was found to neutralise the and Holy Orders in due course, taking the superior degree of D.D. in electricity of sealing-wax, &c., as acting on the electroscope." process of time. The Mariner's Church at Liverpool having been It is understood that a work is in the press which Dr. Scoresby had then just established, he accepted the chaplaincy. Private circum- prepared for publication prior to his decease, fully detailing the results stances occasioned his removal to Exeter, but he afterwards be of his most recent investigations in nautical magnetism. As he concame Vicar of Bradford, a very large parish in Yorkshire. After some templated, while commemorating his father, a continuation of the years however he resigned this office, and retired to Torquay in series of Memorials of the Sea, in which the story of his own life Devonshire.

should be told, it is not improbable that this also may find a place in As a clergyman, Dr. Scoresby is stated to have "combined what the coming work. may perhaps be considered extreme evangelical views with the most SCOT, REGINALD. This learned and extraordinary man was born abounding charity and liberality to those who differed from him. His early in the sixteenth century, in which he was the most distinguished

Discourses to Seamen' evince the earnestness with which he laboured opposer of the then almost universal belief-witchcraft. He was the for the good of the service in which he had passed his earlier years." son of an English gentleman of family, and educated at Oxford. He took also enlightened and enlarged views of public education, which (Wood, 'Athen. Oxon.,' vol. i.) He took no degree there; but return. while vicar of Bradford he laboured zealously to realise.

ing to Smeeth in Kent, devoted himself to study, and more particu. But of all the very various subjects to which Dr. Scoresby directed his larly to the perusal of old and obscure authors; occupying his hours attention, practical magnetism and its relation to navigation appear to of relaxation in gardening. The fruits of this learned leisure were, have been most actively pursued by him through his life. The increasing 'A perfect platform of a Hopgarden,' and 'The Discoverie of Witch quantity of iron introduced into the equipment and construction of craft,' 1584. In both of these we see the mixture of sagacity and ships, and the recent construction of the entire hull of that metal, absurdity, extensive learning and puerile paradoxes, and ostentatious were watched by him with unceasing care; and all the resources of quoting of Greek and Latin authors, so common to writers of that his cultivated mind were at length applied to the most important of period, when the writing a book, being an event in a man's life, he all subjects of this class--the ip'iuence of the iron of ships upon their seized upon that opportunity to thrust in all he knew. The following compasses, and the requisite correction of the indications of the latter. is the title of the latter work:- Discoverie of Witchcraft, proving He had published various papers on magnetism in the Philosophical the common opinion of witches contracting with devils, spirits, famiTransactions,' the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, liars, and their power to kill, torture, and consume the bodies of men, the · Reports of the British Association,' the Edinburgh Philosophical women, and children, or other creatures, by diseases or otherwise, Journal,' and the two journals wbich succeeded it. The substance their flying in the air, &c., to be but imaginary, erroneous conceptions, of these, or of many of them, he now made public, in an improved and novelties. Wherein also the practices of witchmongers, conjurors, form, in his 'Magnetical Investigations. Part i. 'Comprising investi. enchanters, soothsayers, also the delusions of astrology, alchemy, leger gations on the principles affecting the capacity and retentiveness of demaine, and many other things are opened that have long lain hidden, steel for the magnetic condition, with the development of processes though very necessary to be known for the undeceiving of judges, for determining the quality and degree of hardness of steel. London, justices, and juries, and for the preservation of poor people;' and its 1839; 92 pages, 2 plates. Part ii. Comprising investigations con- boldness and humanity would alone entitle it to consideration. A cerning the laws or principles affecting the power of magnetic steel striking passage in the preface is to this effect: this work is composed, plates or bars in combination, as well as singly, under various conditions that, "first, the glory of God be not so abridged and abased as to be as to mass, hardness, quality, form, etc., as also concerning the com- thrust into the hand or lips of a lewd old woman, whereby the work parative powers of cast-iron. London, 1843; 280 pages, 2 plates of the Creator should be attributed to the creature; secondly, that the Vol. ii., part iii., 'Investigations, with illustrative experiments, on the religion of the Gospel may be seen to stand without such peevish Dature and phenomena of magnetic induction, and the mutual influences trumpery; thirdly, that favour and Christian compassion be used of magnetical bodies.' London, 1852; 463 pages.

towards these poor souls, rather than rigour and extremity." Such a To the section of Mathematics and Physics of the meeting of the work, with such a purpose, and such a common-sense straightforwardBritish Association at Glasgow in 1855, he communicated a summary vess mingled with its humanity, could not fail to draw down on the of his matured views, and of the evidence in their favour which had author's head every possible ridicule, obloquy, and confutation. And occurred since their original promulgation, entitled 'Elucidations, by when Scot laughed at the difficult tricks of legerdemaine, and exFacts and Experiments, of the Magnetism of Iron ships and its plained how they were performed, we cannot wonder at his book being changes. In this he recalled attention to his plan of a compass aloft, burnt by the common hangman, and at 'refuters' appearing on all as affording a simple and effective mode of ascertaining the direction sides. He was attacked by Meric Casaubon, Glanvil (author of the of a ship's course, stating that it had not only been extensively Scepsis Scientifica'), and finally, by the sapient King James bimadopted by some of our first firms interested in the building and self, who wrote his Demonologie," as he inforins us, "chiefly against property of iron ships, but had received the particular sanction and the damnable opinions of Wierus and Scot, the latter of whom is commendation of Mr. Airy, the astronomer-royal, and of Lieut. M. F. not ashamed in public print to deny there can be such a thing as Maury, the American hydrographer; "that is, as being recommended witchcraft." by both these gentlemen for adoption for determining safe compass Scot's boldness could not at once succeed, when opposed by a reign. guidance, or the correction of adjusted compasses whenever they ing king and the statute law of the land. When human reason was so might be found to be in error.” In the further prosecution of his blinded by superstition that it was a common practice to throw a researches on this subject, and with a view to determine various woman, suspected, into a pond, and if she escaped drowning she was questions in magnetic science Dr. Scoresby undertook, Jan. 1856, burnt as a witch; it is not to be expected that common sense could a voyage to Australia in the Royal Charter. He was received at gain many converts ; and yet, from its having bad three editions, and Melbourne with great distinction, almost with enthusiasm, and was being translated into French and German, it would appear to have granted the honorary degree of M.A. by the new university of that met with great success. It is now extremely rare : as an evidence of city. He returned in August, 1856, but with his constitution much the peculiar phases which the human mind historically exhibits, this enteebled by the arduous labours to which he had subjected himself work, as well as the superstition which it combats, merits attention. during the voyage; and after a lingering illness he died at Torquay, This "solid and learned person," as Hallam calls him, "for such be on the 21st of March 1857, aged sixty-seven, and leaving a widow. was beyond almost all the English of that age," died in 1599, and was

Three principal scientific works of Dr. Scoresby have been described buried with his ancestors in the church at Smeeth. above. The following enumeration will render the account of his SCOTT, DANIEL. (STEPHENS, H.] separate publications nearly complete. Memorial of an Affectionate SCOTT, DAVID, was born in Edinburgh, October 10, 1806. The and Dutiful Son, Frederic R. H. S., who fell asleep in Jesus, Decem- son of a landscape-engraver, he was brought up to his father's profession; ber 31, 1834, aged 16 years.' Discourses to Seamen : consisting of but from childhood he had sketched and drawn incessantly, and at Fifteen Sermons, preached in the Mariners' Church, Liverpool, treating length his father yielded to his desire to become a painter. from the for the most part generally on subjects of Christian Practice and first his ambition was to paint in the grand style. His early pictures Doctrine.'--Jehovah glorified in his works : a Sermon preached in were of themes such as the Hopes of Early Genius dispelled by Death, St. James' Episcopal Chapel, Edinburgh, August 4, 1850, on occasion "Fingal and the Spirit of Lodi,' and Lot and his Daughters flying

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SCOTT, GEORGE GILBERT, R.A.

SCOTT, SIR MICHAEL.

366 from the Cities of the Plain.' Of a melancholy turn of mind, and of work when completed will be the new chapel, library, rector's residence, somewhat gloomy theological views, his pictures naturally wore a and other additional buildings at Exeter College, Oxford, now in sombre air

, and attracted few admirers beyond the circle of his friends. course of erection. But all these works will be thrown in the shade His Lot and his Daughters' was returned from the British Iustitution by the noble Hôtel de Ville, Hamburg, for which in a competition of as too large; his series of outline etchings, Monograms of Man,' met many of the leading architects of Europe he carried off the first prize; with a slow and unremunerative sale; and it was not till 1831 that he and which will be in extent and costliness one of the most important, sold his first picture. But he loved labour, and he went on painting and judging from the designs, one of the most imposing modern works subjects with which few could sympathise, in a manner that did little in gothic architecture. to remove the unattractiveness of the theme. Slowly however he Mr. Scott was in 1849 appointed architect to the Dean and Chapter made his way, finding ardent if not numerous admirers; and his of Westminster, in which capacity he designed the new Abbey Gateprogress began to be watched with interest by his fellow-citizens. In House, and buildings on the north of the Abbey; has made various 1832 he visited Italy, staying awhile at the Louvre on his way. In judicious restorations and improvements in the Abbey itself; and Italy of course his chief stay was at Rome, but the amenities of designed a 'restoration of the Chapter House, executed from very Raffaelle seem rather to have repelled him, his chief attention, charac. careful examination and measurement,' which was exhibited at the teristically enough, being fixed on Carravaggio. Here however he Royal Academy in 1850. Mr. Scott was one of the founders of the made the acquaintance of the leading resident artists; he worked Architectural Museum. In 1855 he was elected an Associate, and in hard, and painted much; and his power in painting was evidently en 1860 Member of the Royal Academy. He is the author of :--A larged. His style however was not materially changed. He continued Plea for the Faithful Restoration of our Ancient Cathedrals,' 12mo, to paint in the grand style' pictures of heroic size; and even when 1850 ; 'Additional Churches, a Letter' (to Dr. C. Wordsworth), 8vo, he stooped to the simpler realities of life, or to such matters as 'Love 1854; and 'Some Remarks on Gothic Architecture: Secular and whetting his Darts,' 'Ariel listening to the Mermaid,''Beauty wounded Domestic, Present and Future,' 8vo, 1857. by Love, the Triumph of Love,' and the like, it was very much in SCOTT, JOHN. (ELDON, EARL OF.] the spirit of an ancient Covenanter. The themes he entered upon with SCOTT, WILLIAM. (STOWELL, BARON.) more congenial feeling were such as his Genius of Discord' (a large SCOTT, SIR MICHAEL, was born in Scotland, in the early part work, painted at Rome, but repainted on his return); Descent from of the 13th century. If he really was, as has been assumed, Scott of the Cross ;'Jane Shore found Dead in the Street;'Orestes pursued Balweary, he succeeded in right of his mother, who was the daughter by Furies ;" * Achilles mourning over the Dead Body of Patroclus;' and heiress of Sir Richard Balweary of that ilk (as it is phrased), to *Paracelsus, the Alchemist, in his Lecture-Room;' Hope passing that estate, which is in the parish of Kirkaldy, in Fifeshire. The over the Horizon of Despair;' «The Dead rising at the Crucifixion;' literary reputation both of Sir Michael Scott and of his contemporary

Peter the Hermit addressing the Crusaders,' and several others, which Thomas Learmont (the Rhymer) may be taken as affording å prealike attest bis remarkable diligence and his soaring ambition; but sumption, which other circumstances go to corroborate, that Scotland which, in their want of power to interest the spectator, and their in the 13th century was by no means in the benighted state commonly artistic shortcomings, too clearly show that lofty ambition, strong supposed. In fact there is reason to believe that during the peaceful imagination, and unwearied industry, are insufficient to form a great and prosperous reign of Alexander III., which terminated in 1286, the painter, without living genius, a well-directed purpose, and carefully dawn of civilisation in the northern part of our island made a nearer disciplined technical skill

. Mr. Scott had built himself a large studio approach to the more advanced light of art and letters in England in Edinburgh, and was full of dreams of future glory, despite the than was generally maintained in the subsequent progress of the two warnings of failing health, when the cartoon competition in connection countries. Scott however probably studied at some foreign university, with the new houses of parliament aroused his feelings to a high pitch either Oxford or Paris. He is said to have gone to France in early of excitement. He prepared and sent in a large cartoon of The Defeat life, and to have spent some years in that country; after which he of the Spanish Armada, but it was unnoticed by the judges who proceeded to the court of the emperor Frederic II., who, possessed of awarded the prizes, and the blow fell upon the painter with a severity remarkable literary acquirements himself, was then the great patron similar in its intensity to that which the like fate inflicted upon of learned men. If he did not bowever remain in Germany after the Haydon—whom in his ambitious thoughts, and passion for 'grand art' death of Frederic, which took place in 1250, he must have been and huge canvasses, Scott greatly resembled. But Scott painted on; still only in early manhood when he left that country-most probably devoting now all his energies to his largest and perhaps on the whole at least under thirty,--since, as we shall find, he was employed in best work, Vasco da Gama encountered by the Spirit of the Storm in public duties scarcely suited to a person in very advanced age forty passing the Cape,' now in the hall of the Trinity House, Leith. This years after this date. If he passed some years, as is asserted, at the work occupied him during the last ten years of his life, and he lived court of Frederic, he could not well have been much more than twenty only to complete it, dying on the 5th of March 1849 in his forty-third when he first presented himself to or was sent for by the Emperor. year. Some of his great works have been purchased for public Dempster indeed states that he was but a young man when he was institutions in Edinburgh, Scott was a vigorous writer both in prose writing books at the request of Frederic, cujus rogatu hic etiam and verse. His Essays on the Characteristics of the Great Masters' juvenis multa opera scribere est agressus." Yet Dempster was not excited a good deal of attention when first published in 'Blackwood's aware that he was Scott of Balweary; he tells us indeed that his name Magazine, 1840; and some of his poetry is contained in the 'Memoir Scotus was not that of his family, but of his nation. Is it possible of David Scott, R.S.A., containing his Journal in Italy, Notes on Art, that the Michael Scott of Balweary, whom we find living in Scotland, and other Papers,' 8vo, 1850. This "Memoir' is a warm-hearted and actively engaged in the public service, in 1290, may be mistakenly tribute to his worth and merits by his brother, Mr. William B. Scott, assumed to bave been the learned person of that name who resided at himself an artist of considerable ability.

the court of Frederic II.? It is said further, that upon leaving *SCOTT, GEORGE GILBERT, R.A., one of the most distin- Germany, Scott came to England, where he was received into great guished English practitioners of gothic architecture, was born about favour by Edward I. But Edward did not become king of England 1811, at Gawcott, near Buckingham, of which place his grandfather, till 1272, twenty-two years after the death of the learned Scotsman's the author of a much esteemed Commentary on the Old and New German patron. Testament,' was the incumbent. Apprenticed to an architect, Mr. From England he is said to have returned to his native country, Scott early directed his attention chiefly to gothic architecture, the though when is not precisely noted. For the rest, all that is known study of which was then attracting very general attention. Having is that a Micbael Scott of Balweary, who is spoken of by Hector Boece entered into partnership with Mr. Moffatt, the superiority of their as the famous scholar of that name, was one of the two ambassadors designs soon began to secure to the firm a large measure of patronage. (Sir Michael de Wemyss, another Fife baron, was the other) sent to The first of their works which gained general notice was however the Norway by the estates of Scotland, in 1290, to bring home the infant very elegant cross erected at Oxford, and known as 'the Martyrs' heiress of the throne (Margaret, called the Maiden of Norway, daughter Memorial,' and which in its admirable proportions and excellent finish of the Norwegian king Eric.). was an undoubted advance on any modern structure of the kind. It The common account is, that Sir Michael Scott died in Scotland in was followed by the large and handsome parish church at Camberwell, the following year, 1291. Dempster says, “Vixit usque in ultimam finished about 1844, by the Infant Orphan Asylum at Wanstead, and senectutem, et attigit annum MCCXCI., quo obiisse certum." But other important works. The partnership was dissolved in 1845; and Sir Robert Sibbald, in his History of Fife and Kinross,'—after telling after the fire of 1846 Mr. Scott was employed after a severe competi- us that, "in testimony of this honourable commission and embassy" tion to erect the magnificent church of St. Nicholas at Hamburg, one in which the two "equites Fifani illustres, et summa prudentiæ apud of the finest gothic churches recently erected in Germany, and a work suos illis temporibus habiti," as Buchanan describes them, were that did no little to raise the character of English architects on the employed, "there is still preserved in the house of Wemyss a silver Continent. In 1847 the erection of the cathedral church of St. John, basin of an antique fashion, which David (Michael ?) de Wemyss got Newfoundland, was commenced from his designs; and in 1848 the from the king of Norway at that time" --adds : " And there is an College at Brighton, Sussex. Among his English churches may be indenture betwixt Sir Michael Wemyss de eodem miles, and Sir mentioned St. John's, Holbeck, Leeds; West Derby, Liverpool; Michael Scott of Balweary, miles, in presentia Joannis Balioli regis Croydon; Holy Trinity, Rugby; St. Andrews, Ashley Place; and apud Monasterium de Lundoris, anno 1294.” (Edit, of 1802, p. 326.) others at Harrogate; at Trefnant, near St. Asaph; and at Haley Hill, We suspect there is no evidence for the dath of Sir Michael Scott in Halifax. He has also been entrusted with the restoration or rebuild 1291, at all to be compared with this evidence of the existence of a ing of the fine church of St. George, Doncaster, and with the superin person of the same name and designation three years later. But in tendence of the works at Ely Cathedral. Another very important another place (p. 316) Sibbald asperts that the same Scott who was

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367
SCOTT, SIR MICHAEL.

SCOTT, WALTER.

369 sent to Norway in 1290, went on a second embassy to that country to against astrology; and is defended from such charges, as well as Picus demand the cession of the Orcades in the fifth year of Robert I., that himself

, in Naude's 'Apologie pour les grands personnages faussement is to say, in the year 1310. If this statement be correct, it is in the accusés de Magie.' highest degree improbable that Michael Scott the ambassador could The Scottish tradition, as we have seen, is, that Michael Scott was have been the person of the same name who figured as a distinguished buried in his own country at Melrose. Another account however literary character at the court of Frederic I1, more than sixty years makes him to have died, and his remains to have been interred, in the before. It is more likely that the one was the son of the other. abbey of Ulme, or Holme Cultram, in Cumberland; and here also, it

The real or supposed literary works of Sir Michael Scott are the is pretended, his magic books were preserved. Satchells, in his following :-1, "A History of Animals,' in Latin ; according to some rhyming History of the Right Honourable name of Scott,' affirms authorities, a translation from the Arabic of Avicenna. But of this that he got his account of the origin of that name out of an extract we know nothing. Dr. George Mackenzie, Scott's most elaborate from one of Michael Scott's works, which a person showed him at biographer, says that the work exists “in fol. editionis neque tempore Burgh-under-Bowness, in Cumberland, in the year 1629. His informant neque loco expressis.” Dempster mentions Abbreviationes Avicennæ' told him, he says, that the book from which the passage was taken was in one book, and also De Animalibus ad Cæsarem' (i. e. Frederic) in never yet read through, and never would be; young scholars had only one book. 2, 'Aristotelis Opera, Latine versa, partim e Græco, par. picked out something from the contents, but none dared to read the tim Arabico, per viros lectos et in utriusque linguæ prolatione peritos, body of the work. And he adds :jussu Imperatoris Fredirici II.,' fol., Venet., 1496. The common

“He carried me along the castle then, accounts make Scott to have been the sole author of this translation;

And showed me his written book hanging on an iron pin ; but it proclaims itself, as we see, to be the work of several hands.

His writing pen did seem to me to be Possibly Scott may have contributed the translation of the Natural

of hardened metal, like steel, or accumie; History, and may have done it from the Arabic, which may be all

The volume of it did seem so large to me the foundation for the assignment to him of the version of Avicenna.

As the Book of Martyrs and Turk's Historie. Warton, speaking of the new translations of Aristotle from the original

Then in the church he let me see Greek into Latin, made about the 12th century, says, "I believe the

A stone where Mr. Michael Scott did lie;" &c. &c. translators understood very little Greek. Our countryman Michael This has been taken for a piece of poetic invention in Satchells; but Scotus, was one of the first of them, who was assisted by Andrew, a we may observe that Camden, in his Britannia,' tells us that the Jew. Michael was astrologer to Frederic, emperor of Germany, and magic books of Michael Scott were in his time still said to be preserved appears to have executed bis translations at Toledo in Spain, about the at Úlme, though they were then mouldering to dust. It is probable year 1220. These new versions were perhaps little more than corrections from this that they had been in the habit of showing at that place from those of the early Arabians, made under the inspection of the some ancient volumes which they called Scott's magic writings. learned Spanish Saracens." ("Note to Dissert. on Introd. of Learning Camden adds :-"He was a monk of this place about the year 1290, into England,' in Hist. of English Poetry.') 3, De Procreatione, et and applied himself so closely to the mathematics and other abstruse Hominis Phisionomia, Opus.' There is a copy of the first edition of parts of learning, that he was generally looked on as a conjuror; and this tract in the King's Library at the British Museum, printed with a vain credulous humour has handed down I know not what miracles out the name of the place, in 1477; and in the general library of the done by him.". museum are other editions, with the title slightly varied, printed in SCOTT, WALTER, was born in Edinburgh on the 15th of August, 1480 and 1487; and some, both in 4to and 12mo, without date, and 1771. The sixty-one years of his life were filled by the incessant possibly still older. It is also the same work wbich was printed, with the labours of a strong and restless mind, which in the latter half of its title of De Secretis Naturæ,' at Strasbourg in 1607, and at Frankfurt in career fixed upon its own efforts no small share of public attention, 1615, in 16mo, and with the works of Albertus Magnus, at Amsterdam, during one of the most exciting periods of European history. The in 1655, 1660, &c., in 12mo. Bayle had an Italian translation of it, history of his early boyhood is the tale of a naturally strong constitution an octavo pamphlet of seven leaves, printed at Venice in 1533, with struggling with disease. He had attained his twenty-second month, the title “Physionomia, laqual compilo Maestro Michael Scotto, à and could already walk tolerably well for a child of his age, when the prieghi di Federico Romano Imperatore, huomo di gran scienza; e è girl who took care of him was awakened one morning by his screams, cosa molte notabile, e da tener secreta, pero che l'è di grande efficacia, and on examination found his right leg powerless and cold as marble. e comprende cose secrete della natura, bastanti ad ogni astrologo; e è Medical aid was vain; he was lame for life; and during upwards of diviso in tre parti.' 4, 'Mensa Philosophica, seu Enchiridion, in quo two years the previously healthy boy continued a pining child. In de quæstionibus mensalibus, et variis ac jucundis hominum congres. his fifth year his parents thought him sufficiently recovered to trust sibus, agitur,' 12mo, Franc., 1602; 8vo, 1608; 24mo, Lips., 1603. him, first to the charge of his grandfather at Sandy Knowe on the There is an English translation of this treatise (which Tiedemann, in Tweed, and afterwards to that of a maiden aunt, who carried him to his . Esprit de la Philosophie Speculative,' says contains some curious Bath. The boy had attained his eighth year before he was deemed things), entitled “The Philosopher's Banquet,' done into English by strong enough to be sent to the high school of Edinburgh. While W. B., 3rd edit., enlarged, 12mo, London, 1633. The Mensa Philo attending this seminary, and during the first winter of his attendance sophica' is one of the works attributed to Theobald Anguilbert. 5, at college (1784), he enjoyed tolerably good health, and was able,

Quæstio Curiosa de Natura Solis et Lunæ.' This is a chemical notwithstanding his lameness, to join in most of the sports of his classtreatise upon the transmutation of gold and silver, and is printed in fellows. Towards the close of the year 1784 he had a violent attack the 5th vol. of the Theatrum Chimicum,' 8vo, Strasbourg, 1622. 6, of sickness, for the only distinct account of which we are indebted to • Eximii atque excellentissimi pbysicorum motuum cursusque syderii himself:-"My indisposition arose in part at least from my having investigatoris, Mich. Scotti, super autor. Sphærar., cum quæstionibus broken a blood vessel, and motion and speech were for a long time diligenter emendatis, incipit expositio perfecta, illustrissimi Impera- pronounced positively dangerous. For several weeks I was confined toris D. D. Frederici precibus." This is a commentary upon the strictly to my bed, during which time I was not allowed to speak celebrated treatise of Sacrobosco 'De Sphæra,' but is a mere compila- above a whisper, to eat more than a spoonful or two of boiled rice, or tion, aud is believed to be falsely attributed to Scott. Dempster, to have more covering than a counterpane.". In May 1786 he was after his fashion, enumerates a long list of additional titles, which it sufficiently recovered to commence his apprenticeship as writer to the is quite unnecessary to transcribe.

signet, at that time the usual commencement of the education of But Michael Scott's chief reputation after his death, if not in his Scotch barristers; and his subsequent life was little troubled with lifetime, was as a great magician. “De quo," says Dempster, writing indisposition. in the beginning of the 17th century, "innumerabiles etiam nunc hodie These juvenile sicknesses had a powerful influence upon the developaniles fabulæ circumferuntur, nec ullum apud nostrates clarius nomen." ment of his mental powers. The aunt to whose care he was intrusted Even to this day he is traditionally remembered in that character in when a mere boy possessed an immense store of legendary tales, which his own country; and various legends of his wondrous performances were frequently put in requisition for the amusement of the invalid. are still told, and half believed, among the peasantry, some of which During the confinement of his second attack he was allowed to devour may be found collected in the notes to Sir Walter Scott's 'Lay of the the contents of a circulating library, founded, it is believed, by Allan Last Minstrel,' in which poem the opening of the wizard's grave in the Ramsay, rich in “the romances of chivalry and the ponderous folios abbey of Melrose, and the taking from the dead man's cold hand of his of Cyrus and Cassandra, down to the most approved works of modern “ book of might,” makes so striking an incident. Dempster says :

times.” Scott has declared, “I believe I read almost all the romances, Ut puto, in Scotia libri ipsius dicebantur me puero extare, sed sine old plays, and epic poetry in that formidable collection.” The child's horrore quodam non posse attingi, ob malorum dæmonum præstigias, love of stories was thus ripened into an ill-regulated fondness for quæ illis apertis fiebant." But in earlier times the fame of his magic books; the practice of reading, to which he was drawn by inability to skill was spread over Europe. Dante has introduced him in his do anything else, created a craving for that pleasure, and the constant 'Inferno:'

succession of new books rendered unnecessary the exercise of attention Quell'altro, che ne' fianchi è così poco,

required to extract a new pleasure on reperusal. His mind was accusMichele Scotto fu, che veramente

tomed to find pleasure in yielding passively to a succession of new Delle magiche frode seppe il giuoco."

images. Those ideas remained impressed on his memory which most (Canto xx., v. 117.)

roused his emotions; and he contracted unconsciously the habit of

grouping them in conformity to that law of association which links and he is also mentioned by Boccaccio and other early Italian writers. events following or seeming to arise out of each other in the progress He is severely arraigned by John Picus (Mirandula), in bis work of an adventure. His mind even at that early age was developing the

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