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8. 'On the Age and Authenticity of the Zend-avesta, Copenhagen, Henry VII., and also abridged those of that reign which were made in 1826, was translated into German by F.H. von der Hagen, Berlin, 1826; English, as likewise those of Henry VIII., including the twenty-third 3. A small. Grammar and Vocabulary of the Acra Language.' 'In the and twenty-fourth of his reign. He also compiled several law.books. last year of his life he finished a very complete Grammar of the Of these, his 'Exposition of Law Terms and the Nature of Writs,' and Language of Lapland. A number of essays on linguistic subjects the book called 'Rastall's Entries, continued long in use. He became appeared in various journals, and in Vater's 'Vergleichungstafeln' a convert to the Reformed religion by means of a controversy with there is one on ‘Die Thrakische Sprachlasse,' which is of great import- John Frith. Rastall published . Three Dialogues,' the last of which ance and interest. Comparative philology is greatly indebted to Rask; treats of purgatory, and was answered by Frith. On this, Rastall for he was the first who pointed out the connection between the wrote his Apology against John Frith,' which the latter answered ancient northern and Gothic on the one hand, and of the Lithuanian, with such strength of argument as to make a convert of his opponent. Slavonic, Greek, and Latin on the other hand.

Rastall also wrote a book called 'The Church of John Rastall, which * RASPAIL, FRANÇOIS-VINCENT, is almost equally well known was placed in the list of prohibited books published by Bishop Bonner, in the departments of science and of French politics. He was born at annexed to his injunctions, in 1542. He died at London in 1536, Carpentras, in the department of Vaucluse, on January 29, 1794. He leaving two sons, William (noticed below), and John, who became very early evinced a decided inclination for the study of botany and afterwards a justice of the peace. chemistry, in both of which he made observations that were commu. RASTALL, WILLIAM, son of the above, was born in London in nicated to and inserted in the scientific journals of France. In 1825 1508, and about 1525 was sent to Oxford, which he left without taking he became editor of the natural history department of the 'Bulletin a degree, and entered at Lincoln's Ion for the study of law. In the des Sciences. In 1829, in conjunction with Saigey, he commenced first of Edward VI. he became autumn or summer reader of Lincoln's the Annales des Sciences d'Observation,' but which was given up in Inn; but on the change of religion he retired with his wife to Louvain, the following year for want of support. His strong political feelings whence he returned on the accession of Queen Mary. In 1554 he was however had been displayed even earlier, and in 1822 he had published made a serjeant-at-law, one of the commissioners for the prosecution * Sainte Liberté ! ton nom n'est pas blasphème,' and the revolution of of heretics, and in 1588, a little before Mary's death, one of the justices July 1830 gave his mind a decided bias. He took an active part of the Common Pleas. Queen Elizabeth renewed his patent as justice, against Charles X., he fought at the barricades, inscribed his name as a but he preferred retiring to Louvain, where he died August 27, 1565. member of the artillery brigade of the National Guard, and supported From 1530 to 1534 (Dibdin, in his edition of Herbert's Ames,' thinks republican principles with all his might. The elevation of Louis- till 1554), William Rastall carried on the business of a printer, in Philippe to the throne was consequently disagreeable to Raspail, who conjunction with his practice as a lawyer. When Justice Rastall he opposed the government measures generally, and wrote articles in the published ' A Collection of the Statutes in Force and Use,' in 1557. * Tribune,' for which at length he was prosecuted, and sentenced to RASTOPCHIN. [RoSTOPCHIN.] six months' imprisonment. After his release he was again arrested in RAUCH, CHRISTIAN, an eminent German sculptor, was born at 1834 as a member of illegal associations, but as nothing could be Arolsen in the principality of Waldeck, on the 2nd of January 1777. proved against him he was quickly set at liberty, and he then became He early showed an aptness for art, and received instructions in it from chief editor of the Reformateur,' which however bad but a short the sculptor Professor Ruhl of Cassel. In his twentieth year he went existence. During these eventful periods he by no means neglected to Berlin, having being presented to an office in the court of the bis scientific labours. In 1831-32 he published in 5 vols. his Cours Queen of Prussia ; but his spare hours were all devoted to art. He Élémentaire d’Agriculture et d'Économie Rurale,' an excellent work; here secured the friendship of Count Sandrecky with whom he set in 1833 bis ‘Système de Chimie Organique,' in which he recommended out in 1804 on a tour through a part of France to Genoa, and thence microscopic as well as chemical investigations into organic objects, to Rome. There with the advice and aid of William von Humboldt, and which has been translated into English by Henderson; and in then Prussian minister in that city, he devoted himself to the 1837 ‘Système de Physiologie végétale et de botanique. Besides study of the antique, while he availed himself of the friendly instrucsome occasional political pamphlets he wrote, in 1839, Lettres sur tion of the chief living sculptors, Canova and Thorwaldsen. After a les Prisons de Paris.' In 1843 he published. Histoire Naturelle de la due probation he produced several original works, among others, Santé et de la Maladie chez les Végétaux et chez les Animaux en bassi-rilievi of. Hippolitus and Phædra;'a Mars and Venus wounded général et en particulier chez l'Homme; servire de formule pour une by Diomedes ;' a Child praying,' &c. But he began still more to nouvelle Methode de Traitement hygiènique et curatif; second distinguish himself in the line to which he has continued to owe edition, enlarged, in 3 vols., 1846. In 1846 also he published a his chief celebrity, that of portraiture; besides abundant private * Manuel Annuaire de la Santé, ou Médécine, et Pharmacie Domes- patronage, he received from the King of Prussia commissions to tique.' A translation of this was published in English in 1853, under execute a colossal bust of the King of Prussia, and a life size bust of the title of Domestic Medicine, or Plain Instructions in the Art of the queen; and from the King of Bavaria, a bust of Rafael Mengs. Preserving and Restoring Health by simple and efficient means, edited In 1811 he was recalled to Berlin, to execute a monumental statue of by G. L. Štrauss. Some of the directions for preserving health are the Queen Louise. His design was approved, and his health having judicious enough, but the great remedy was camphor, exhibited in failed he was permitted to proceed to Carrara to complete the work, various forms, and especially as what were termed cigarettes. Raspail which he did ia 1813, in a style that secured his reputation. He then sold his medicaments in the form in which our quack medicines are went on to Rome where he remained till 1822, when he returned to sold, that is, in packets, with the vendor's signature, and an action Berlin, where he has since resided. During his second residence in was brought against him for transgressing the etiquette of the medical Rome Rauch was chiefly engaged on busts and statues; he executed profession. It was instituted by Fouquier, physician to the king, and for the King of Prussia, besides a marble statue of the king himself, Orfila, dean of the faculty of medicine. Raspail pleaded that he was monumental statues of Generals Bulow and Scharnhorst. By not a physician, but the inventor of certain medicines, and did not 1824 he had executed with his own hand seventy marble busts, twenty therefore require a diploma to practise. He was however found guilty, of them being of colossal size. Among the more important of his and sentenced to a small fine. On the occurrence of the coup d'état in later works may be mentioned two colossal bronze statues of Field 1852 he took a decided part against Louis Napoleon, and was conse. Marshal Blucher; the first, representing the hero in vehement action, quently imprisoned. While in confinement at Doullens, his wife died was erected with great solemnity at Breslau, July 9, 1827; the second on March 8, 1853, and occasion was taken of her funeral to give a mani. designed after Blucher's death, for the King of Prussia, represents festation of republican feeling and of admiration for his consistency, the veteran in repose. by a procession exceeding 20,000 persons, who followed the body to Another of his principal works is a seated bronze statue of Maxiits place of interment in the cemetery of Père la Chaise. On his milian of Bavaria, erected in 1835 in Munich. The Victories' for release M. Raspail retired to Belgium. Two biographies of him have the Walhalla, near Ratisbon, are also from his chisel. A well-known been published : 'Biographie de F. V. Raspail,' by C. Marchal, Paris, statue of Göthe, modelled from the life, is the most perfect repre1848, and Notice Biographique sur le Citoyen F. V. Raspail.' sentation of the great poet of modern Germany. Statues in marble

RASTALL, or RAŠTELL, JOHN, one of our early printers, is or bronze of Schiller, Schlieirmacher, and others of his chief contem. said by Bale to have been a citizen of London, and by Pits a native of poraries, and of Luther, Albert Dürer, and other famous Germans of that city. Wood says he was educated in grammar and philosophy at an older time. serve to show the high estimation in which his works Oxford, and returning to London, set up the trade of printing. The are held by his countrymen ; while bronze statues of two or three of first work which bears his name as printer, with a date, was published the old Polish kings, which he executed for Count Raczynski, to be in 1517, the last in 1533. There are numerous others without dates. placed in Posen Cathedral, and a bas-relief erected at Dublin in His residence was at the sign of the Mermaid, at Paul's Gate next memory of Miss Cooper, show that his ability is appreciated beyond Cheapside. He married Elizabeth, sister to Sir Thomas More, with Germany. His chief work however is the grand monument of whom Herbert supposes he became intimate in consequence of being Frederick the Great of Prussia, erected in the finest part of Berlin. employed to print Sir Thomas's Dyalogue on the Worship of Images This work, in the design of which Rauch was assisted by Professor and Reliques, published in 1529; but, as will hereafter be seen, his Schinkel, the architect, and wbich called into exercise all the resouroes eldest son was born in 1528.

of the two artists, was commenced in 1830. The general model was Bale and Pits ascribe the authorship of various works to John Rastall; completed in 1839; the colossal model of the king was not however the most remarkable of which is his · Anglorum Regum Chronicon, or ready till 1842, and the statue was cast in 1846. Four more years Pastyme of People,' a work of extreme rarity, reprinted in 1811 in were required for the execution of the bas-reliefs, and the statues of the Collection of English Chronicles.' He translated from French military commanders, ministers, judges, literary men, &c., and figures into English the Abridgment of the Statutes before the reign of of the Virtues and the like, which were to be placed around the baso.



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Meanwhile the granite basement was being constructed, and by the *RAWLINSON, SIR HENRY CRESWICKE, was born at Chad. beginning of 1851 the whole was finished. It was inaugurated with lington, in Oxfordshire, in 1810, the son of Abraham Tysack Rawlinson. the greatest pomp in May 1851. Of this—perhaps the most elaborate He was educated at Ealing, and entered the East India Company's monumental work of recent years—a small model may be seen in the military service in 1826. He served in the Bombay presidency till Crystal Palace, Sydenham, as well as casts of the colossal equestrian 1832, when he was appointed to the Shah of Persia's army, in which statue of the king which crowns the monument, of the bassi-rilievi he remained till 1839. On January 1, 1833, he wrote his first letter which represent the chief transactions of his life, and of some of the to the secretary of the Asiatic Society, announcing that he had copied detached statues. The work is a sort of compromise between the and read the Bebistun inscription in Kurdistan, enclosing a specimen of severity of classic and the freedom of romantic art, and will not in his reading. At this time he knew nothing of what Lassen, Burnouf, its details stand the test of rigorous criticism; but, casting aside and Rask had done in Europe regarding this inscription, which is in the minute criticism, it must be held to be one of the very finest as well cuneiform character. He continued to make occasional communicaas most imposing of recent commemorative works. And we may add tions on the subject to the Asiatic Society till July 1839, when he sent a that, even without this his master-work, Rauch would unquestionably précis of the whole inscription, which was read at one of their meetings, stand at the head of living portrait and monumental sculptors, though and the first portion, containing the fac-similes and translations of the far from ranking among the first in ideal sculpture. (SUPPLEMENT.] whole of the Bebistun inscriptions, was published in September 1846,

RAUPACH, ERNST BENJAMIN SALOMON, one of the most and the Babylonian version, alphabet, and analysis of part of it was pubprolific of modern German dramatists, was born at the village of lished in December 1851. The Afghan war occasioned his recall, and he Straupitz, near Liegnitz, in Silesia, on May 21, 1784. He received his was political agent at Candahar throughout that struggle, from 1840 to early education at the gymnasium at Liegnitz, and in 1801 proceeded 1842. He was removed in 1843 to Baghdad as political resident, and to Halle to study theology. He afterwards went to Russia, where for here he studied the inscriptions of Nineveh. In 1844 he was appointed ten years he occupied himself diligently as a teacher, and after a British consul there, and consul-general in 1851. He retired from the residence in that capacity at St. Petersburg for a year and a half, he East Indian service, in which he had attained the rank of major, was appointed professor of philosophy in the University there, to and of lieutenant-colonel in Turkey, was appointed a director of the which in 1818 was added the professorship of German literature. In East India Company in 1856, and was created a K.C.B. He has 1822 he quitted Russia, and having received somewhat later the received Persian and Turkish orders of knighthood, and is a member solicited discharge from his professional duties, he travelled for a of many learned foreign societies as well as a Fellow of the Royal Society time about Germany, visited Italy, and at length returned and settled of London. Since his residence in London be has been zealously at Berlin. The result of his journey to Italy appeared in 1823 in deciphering and investigating the character of the languages used in * Hirsewenzel's Briefe aus Italien. His dramatic productions had the cuneiform inscriptions, with great success and with important already been numerous, ranging from 1810 downwards, though many results, assisted by Mr. Edwin Norris [NORRIS). Besides numerous did not appear in print till long after they had been written. In papers in the journals of the Asiatic and Geographical Societies, be 1837-38 he published his series of historical plays in illustration of has published Outline of the History of Assyria, as collected from the events connected with the Hohenstaufen dynasty of emperors of Inscriptions discovered by A. H. Layard in the Ruins of Nineveh. Germany, which formed eight volumes. His dramatic works were Printed from the Journal of the Asiatic Society,' London, 1852; and published in a collected form in two divisions, Dramatische Werke Memorandum on the Publication of the Cuneiform Inscriptions, komischer Gattung' ('Dramatic Works of the Comic Species "), in 3 1855. He is now preparing, at the cost of the government, copies of vols., 1826-34 ; and Dramatische Werke ernster Gattung' ( Dramatic the most interesting inscriptions found at Nineveh and Babylon, Works of the Serious Species') in 18 vols., 1830-44. These works chiefly from the originals in the British Museum. display considerable inventive powers, a great command over his mate RAY, JOHN, or WRAY (as he at one time spelt his name), who rials, a thorough knowledge of stage resources, a sense of fitness, with may be considered as the founder of true principles of classification a happy introduction of interesting situations. In his serious dramas in the vegetable and animal kingdoms, was the son of a blacksmith, he often reaches to the expression of deep passion, and in his comedies and was born at Black-Notley, near Braintree in Essex, on the 29th of and farces a rich vein of verbal wit. His poetic style is harmonious November 1627. He received a good education, being sent first to and natural, and he has consequently been a favourite with the the grammar-school at Braintree, and afterwards to the University of public. His defects are a want of poetic consistency, a weakness Cambridge, where he entered at Catherine Hall, but subsequently of characterisation, and occasionally a lapse from pure morality, as in removed to Trinity College, of which he was elected a fellow in 1649, bis · Robert der Teufel,' and one or two others. His series of historical together with Isaac Barrow. At the age of twenty-three he was plays on the Hohenstaufen, by provoking a comparison with those of appointed Greek lecturer, and two years afterwards mathematical Shakspere, appear the most defective in dramatic merit, but they con- tutor to his college. He was also private tutor to several gentlemen tain some fine passages. He also published two collections of tales, one of rank, and among others to one who possessed a kindred spirit to in 1820, another in 1833 ; but they possess little merit, and attracted himself, and whose name afterwards became closely associated with his but little attention. In 1842 he was created a privy-councillor, having own in the paths of science, Francis Willughby. Kay was always fond previously been made a councillor. He died in March, 1852.

of the study of natural history; but his cultivation of the science of RAVENSCROFT, THOMAS, was born in 1592. He received his botany is said to have been owing to an illness, which compelling him musical education in St. Paul's choir, and was admitted to the degree of to remit his drier studies, he collected and investigated the different Bachelor in Music, by the University of Cambridge, it is supposed, when wild plants which he met with in his walks about Cambridge. In only fifteen years of age. In 1611 he printed a collection of twenty- 1660 he published a "Catalogus Plantarum circa Cantabrigiam three part-songs, under the title of 'Melismata, Musical Phansies,' &c., nascentium,' 1 vol. 8vo, which he says took bim ten years to compile. in which is his justly admired four-voiced song, 'Canst thou love and lie During his residence at the university he travelled over the greater alone?' In 1614 appeared his 'Brief Discourses,' &c., another collection part of England, Wales, and Scotland, in the pursuit of botanical and of twenty part-songs, to which is prefixed a discourse or essay on the old zoological information, and was generally accompanied in these musical proportions, & vain endeavour to rescue them from

the neglect excursions by his friend and pupil Mr. Willughby. At the Restoration into which they had deservedly fallen. In 1621 he published The he took orders, but never held any church preferment, nor performed whole Book of Psalms, &c., composed into four parts by sundry

authors, regular parochial duty; and two years afterwards he was obliged to to such several tunes as have been and are usually sung in England, resign his fellowship in consequence of the passing of the Act of Scotland, Wales, Germany, Italy, France, and the Netherlands. Uniformity, to which he could not conscientiously subscribe. After Among the authors' appear the names of Tallis, Morley, John Milton leaving the university he resided chiefly with Mr. Willughby at (father of the poet), &c. Many are by Ravenscroft, who, had he only Middleton Hall in Warwickshire, and devoted the remainder of his produced St. David's, Canterbury, and Bangor tunes, would have life solely to the pursuit of natural history. In 1663 he embarked for ensured the respect and gratitude of his country. The work, the the Continent with Mr. Willughby, where they remained for three first of the kind, we believe, that had appeared, contains a melody years travelling through the Low Countries, Germany, Italy, Switzerfor each of the hundred and fifty psalms, many newly composed, and land, and France; and collecting information respecting the animals all harmonised by the above-mentioned persons. Tradition ascribes to and plants which inhabit these different countries. Willughby attended Ravenscroft the merit of having been compiler of two other works, chiefly to zoology, and Ray to botany. An account of this tour was similar in character to the 'Melismata' -namely, "Pammelia’ and published by Ray in 1673 in 1 vol. 8vo. In 1667 he was elected a Deuteromelia,' both well known to musical antiquaries, highly valued Fellow of the Royal Society, to the Transactions' of which learned by them, and now exceedingly rare; and the tradition receives support body he contributed some valuable papers. In 1672 he had the misfrom an allusion in the Apologie' to his 'Brief Discourse, to "Har- fortune to lose his friend Mr. Willughby, who died at the age of monies by divers and sundry Authors,' formerly published by him, the thirty-seven, leaving him guardian to his two sons (the younger of errors in which, he says, are "corrected in this (i.e. The Discourse) whom was afterwards created Lord Middleton), and a legacy of 60l. fourth and last work." The 'Pammelia,' comprising one hundred per annum. After superintending the education of Mr. Willughby's pieces, is dated 1609; the 'Deuteromelia,' containing thirty-two, bears children for some time at Middleton Hall, he removed to Sutton the same date. A selection from the four above-named secular works Coldfield in Warwickshire, and then to Falkbourn Hall, Essex; and was privately printed in 1822, for the use of The Roxburghe Club, lastly he settled in 1679 at Black-Notley, his native place, where he by the Duke of Marlborough, who unhesitatingly ascribes the whole remained till his death, which took place on January 17, 1704-5, at the to Ravenscroft, though it might have been seen at a glance that age of seventy-seven. this composer was author of but a few, while he may have been Ray left many works, among which the botanical and zoological editor of all.

hold such a conspicuous place in the history and literature of those


RAYNAL, GUILLAUME-THOMAS-FRANÇOIS. 38 sciences, that they demand a brief notice. His first publication was sidered as the foundation of modern zoology, for naturalists are the 'Catalogue of the Plants growing in the Neighbourhood of Cam- obliged to consult them every instant, for the purpose of clearing up bridge,' which we have already mentioned. This work contains a the difficulties which they meet with in the works of Linnæus and his description of 626 species arranged alphabetically, and accompanied copyists." Mr. Willughby, at the time of his death, left to his friend with the synonyms of the principal botanical authors who had pre- Ray the task of arranging and publishing the various materials which ceded him: it is curious from its being the first production of a man he had collected for an extensive work on the animal kingdom. Ray who afterwards attained to such great celebrity, and it exhibits traces exhibited as much zeal as fidelity in the execution of this trust, for of those singular powers of observation which he afterwards so he might have called the works partly his own without much injustice, eminently displayed. A Supplement to this Catalogue appeared in as he had assisted in the first collection of the materials, and had the 1663, and a second in 1685.

entire task of arranging and classifying them; besides which, it is In 1682 appeared his "Methodus Plantarum Nova,' 1 vol. 8vo, in easy to observe, as Cuvier had remarked, that the histories of plants which he proposed a new method of classifying plants, which when and animals are both written by the same hand. The Ornithologia' altered and amended, as it subsequently was by himself at a later of Willughby, which was the first part of the work that appeared, period, unquestionably formed the basis of that method which, under was published in 1676, one vol. fol., with seventy-seven plates. An the name of the system of Jussieu, is generally received at the present English translation of it, by Ray, appeared the following year. The day. In the formation of the principal groups into which he divided remaining part, wbich is the most complete, was the Historia the vegetable kingdom, Ray derived his characters sometimes from Piscium,' and did not come out till 1686, 2 vols. fol. These works the fruit, sometimes from the flower, and sometimes from other parts contain a great number of new species of birds and fishes, which had of the plant, as each in its turn seemed to offer the most strongly been discovered by Willughby and Ray in Germany and Italy, as well marked points of distinction. He first proposed the division of plants as those which had been previously described. Cuvier says, “The into dicotyledons and monocotyledons." (Methodus Plantarum, edit. fishes of the Mediterranean are described with rare precision, and it is 2, p. 2.). He extended these divisions both to trees and herbs, stating frequently easier to find species in Willughby than in Linnæus.” Many that palms differ as much in this respect from other trees as grasses of the figures in these works are original, and very good. and lilies do from other herbs. Though he made these great disco Ray published several works of his own on zoology. He undertook veries and improvements, Ray obstinately continued in the old error to form a classical arrangement of the whole animal kingdom, as he of separating woody from her baceous plants, or trees from herbs, and had of the vegetable; and, in 1693, he published his Synopsis he held a long controversy with Rivinus on this point; he even went Methodica Animalium, Quadrupedum, et Serpentini Generis,' in 1 vol. so far as to state that one of these divisions might be distinguished Svo. Similar volumes on birds and fishes were also prepared by bim, from the other by the presence of buds, which he says are only but were not published till after his death, by Dr. Derham, in 1713. developed in woody plants. To him is due however the honour of The two last are principally abridgments of the great works published the discovery of the true nature of buds, for he says that they are under the name of Willughby. He also left an admirable history of points at which new annual plants spring up from the old stock; but insects, which was likewise published by Dr. Derham, at the expense he stopped short in his discovery in not extending them to herbaceous of the Royal Society; and contains an appendix on beetles, by Dr. plants. In the first edition of the 'Methodus 'he formed twenty-five Lister. The most important character of the zoological works of classes, taking the woody plants first, which he divided into trees and Ray is the precise and clear method of classification which he adopted. shrubs. In this system he fell into many errors, one of the most The primary divisions of his system were founded on the structure of glaring of which, as he himself afterwards observed, was the separation the heart and organs of respiration. His arrangement of the classes of the different species of corn from the other grasses. He subse- of quadrupeds and birds has been followed by many naturalists. quently altered this, and revised the whole arrangement, making Both Linnæus and Buffon borrowed largely from the works of Ray. thirty-four groups instead of twenty-five; many of which are almost Buffon extracted from Willughby's 'Ornithology,' almost all the anaexactly the same as are adopted by botanists of the present day under tomical part of his history of birds; and Cuvier

says that the 'Dictionthe name of Natural Orders.

naire d'Ichthyologie,' by Daubenton and Haüy, in the Encyclopédie His arrangement was too far in advance of the knowledge of the day, Méthodique,' consists in great part of translations from Ray's works and the consequence was that it was little appreciated or adopted by on fishes. his contemporaries and immediate successors, who, instead of improv In addition to his numerous scientific writings, Ray composed ing the arrangement so ably sketched out, set about establishing others several works on divinity and other subjects: the best known of these on artificial principles, all of which are rapidly sinking into oblivion, are, 'A Collection of Proverbs,' which came out in 1672, and went while the principles of Ray are tacitly admitted, and many of his through several editions ; «The Wisdom of God in the Creation,' fundamental divisions adopted in that beautiful but still imperfect 1690, which also had an extensive sale; 'A Persuasion to a Holy Natural System which has been formed by the labours of Jussieu, Life,' 1700; and three 'Physico-Theological Discourses concerning Brown, De Candolle, Lindley, and others.

Chaos, the Deluge, and the Dissolution of the World,' 1692. While he made these important improvements in classification, this (Life, by Dr. Derham; Haller's Bibl. Bot. ; Life, by Cuvier and Du great botanist did not neglect the study of species; his Catalogus Petit Thouars, in the Biog. Univer.; and Life, by Sir J. E. Smith, in Plantarum Angliæ first appeared in 1670, arranged alphabetically, Rees's Cyclop.) and has been the basis of all subsequent Floras of this country. A RAYMUND LULLY. (LULLY.] second edition appeared in 1677, and in 1690 he published a third, RAYNA’L, GUILLAUME THOMA'S FRANÇOIS, was born in entitled 'Synopsis Methodica Stirpium Britannicarum,' which is 1711, at St. Geniez, in the province of Rouergue, now the department arranged according to his natural system. Another edition of the de l'Aveyron. He studied in the Jesuits' College at Pézenas, and took

Synopsis' came out in 1696, and it was again republished by Dillenius orders as a priest, but afterwards left the Jesuits, and came to Paris, in 1724. This work, of which the edition of 1696 is the best, is very where he was made assistant-curate of the parish of St. Sulpice, in 1747. accurate. Ray examined every plant described in the work himself, It is stated, in the 'Biographie Universelle,' that he was dismissed and investigated their synonyms with great care.

from the service of that parish in consequence of simoniacal practices ; In 1694 he published Stirpium Europæarum extra Britannias among others for exacting illegal fees for performing the office of the crescentium Sylloge. This work contains a description of all those dead. He next turned to literary pursuits, and having made himself plants which he had himself collected on the Continent, as well as acquainted with several influential men, he became editor of the many which had been described by others. The synonyms are here Mercure de France. He also wrote Histoire du Stathouderat,' very exact.

12mo, 1748, wbich has been reprinted several times. It is a superHis largest botanical work was a general Historia Plantarum,' the ficial work, and written in a declamatory style. His Histoire du first volume of which came out in 1686, fol. ; a second appeared in Parlement d'Angleterre' is equally superficial and inaccurate. From 1688, and a third, which was supplementary, in 1704. In this vast these and his Anecdotes Littéraires,' Anecdotes historiques, miliwork he collected and arranged all the species of plants which had taires, et politiques,' and other similar light works, he derived a conthen been described by botanists; he enumerated 18,625 species. siderable profit. At the same time Raypal speculated in mercantile Haller, Sprengel, Adanson, and others speak of this work as being the affairs, and, it is said by Désessart, in his "Siècles Littéraires de la produce of immense labour, and as containing much learning and acute France,' that he employed capital in the slave-trade. At Paris he criticism; but from its nature it was of course principally a compilation frequented the society of Helvetius, Holbach, and Madame Geoffrin.

Ray made many researches in vegetable physiology. He published In 1770 he published his great work, by which he is chiefly known, a very interesting paper in the 'Philosophical Transactions' (No. 68), Histoire Philosophique des Establissemens des Européens dans les on the mode of ascent of the sap, and we find many observations on deux Indes,' 4 vols. 8vo, La Haye, without the author's name. The the structure and functions of plants scattered through his various work was reprinted several times, both in France and out of France, works. In the first volume of the Historia Plantarumhe collected with additions by the author; and although many passages were together, under the title of 'De Plantis in Genere,' all the principal written in a very violent tone against monarchy, and especially the discoveries which had been made on the structure and properties of French monarchy, and against Christianity, the French government plants by Cesalpin, Grew, Malpighi, and others, as well as by himself; allowed the book to circulate undisturbed. In the mean time Raynal so that he thus published by far the most complete introduction to travelled in Holland and England, and collected fresh materials for botany that had then appeared.

his work, of which he published a new and enlarged edition at Geneva, In zoology Ray ranks almost as high as in botany; and his works 10 vols. 8vo, 1780, with his name and bis portrait. on this subject are even more important, as they still in a great The French authorities now took notice of the book. In May 1781, measure preserve their utility. Cuvier says, that they may be con. the parliament of Paris condemned it to be burned by the hand of the





executioner, and ordered the author to be arrested and his property Razzi, and generally styles him a buffoon, "but,” says Lanzi, “Giovio sequestrated, but his friends in office gave him timely notice to quit has written of Razzi in a different manner; when speaking of the France and to place his property in safety. Raynal repaired to Spa, death of Raffaelle, he subjoins, 'plures pari pene gloriâ certantes artem where a young Belgian addressed to him a laudatory epistle, La exceperunt, et in his Sodomas Vercellensis. Xe who objects to the Nymphe de Spa à l'Abbé Raynal,' which drew upon the author testimony of this eminent scholar, will receive that of a celebrated the censure of the prince bishop of Liège, the sovereign of the county, painter: Annibale Caracci, passing through Siena said, 'Razzi appears Raynal replied by another letter, in which he abused the clergy, and a master of the very highest eminence and of the greatest taste, and bishops in particular, in the most virulent manner. He had long (speaking of his best works at Siena) few such pictures are to be seen.'" since openly renounced his priestly character, and spoke of him- Razzi died at Siena, February 14, 1549. He had many pupils; the prin. self as having been once a priest." From Spa he repaired to cipal one was Bartolommeo Neroni, generally called Maestro Riccio. Saxe-Gotha, and from thence to Berlin, where he with some difficulty RÉAUMUR, RENÉ-ANTOINE FERCHĂULT DE, was born at obtained an audience of Frederick the Great, who was displeased at Rochelle in 1683. He was brought up to the law; but being much some passages of his work which reflected upon himself. Frederick attached to scientific pursuits, and possessing an independent fortune, afterwards wrote to D'Alembert concerning his interview with Raynal, he gave up his profession and went to Paris in 1703, where he deterwho, he said, spoke much about the wealth, the resources, and the mined to devote his life to his favourite studies. In 1708 he read power of nations, and in so positive a manner, " that, in listening to some geometrical observations before the Academy of Sciences, which him, I almost fancied that I was listening to the voice of Providence." were so well received that he was admitted a member at the age of In 1787, Raynal was allowed to return to France, but not to Paris. twenty-four. He belonged to that learned body for fifty years, and His friend Malouet, who was intendant-general of the navy at Toulon, contributed a vast number of interesting papers to their 'Memoirs.' received him hospitably in his house. Raynal marked his residence The chief objects of his attention were the improvement of the arts in the south of France by several acts of beneficence and philanthropy, and manufactures of his country, and natural history. In 1711 he as he had done previously during a journey in Switzerland.

made some experiments relative to the manufacture of cordage, and When the first symptoms of the French revolution showed he proved that the strength of a cord is less than the sum of the themselves, Raynal was elected by the city of Marseille as their strengths of the threads of which it consists; whence it follows that representative in the states-general. He declined the honour on the the less a rope is twisted the stronger it is. In 1715, while examining plea of old age; but the fact was that his opinions bad undergone a the process of colouring artificial pearls, he discovered the nature of great change. In December 1790, a letter appeared in the papers, the singular substance which gives the brilliancy to the scales of fishes, purporting to be addressed by Raynal to the National Assembly, and he investigated the mode of formation and growth of these scales. expressive of his altered sentiments on political subjects. This how. He also made some researches of a similar kind on the development of ever was disavowed by Raynal's friends ; but on the 31st of May, 1791, the shells of testaceous animals. When describing in 1715 the mines Raynal did address an eloquent letter to Bureau de Puzy, president of of (occidental) turquoise, which he discovered in Languedoc, and the the National Assembly, in which, after drawing a gloomy sketch of means which are employed to colour these stones, he found that the the state of France, of the persecutions of the clergy, of the inquisito- substances of which these gems consist are portions of the fossil teeth rial power exercised against opinions, of the disorders and violence of an extinct animal. The most important of Réaumur's labours in of every sort which were daily perpetrated by mobs with impunity, the department of the arts were the experiments which he made on and all in the name of liberty, he stated his regret that "he was the manufacture of iron and steel. He published his researches on one of those who, by expressing in his works a generous indignation this subject in a separate work (those which we have before menagainst arbitrary power, had perhaps been the means of putting tioned appeared in the 'Memoirs' of the Academy), entitled “Traité weapons into the hands of licentiousness and anarchy.” This letter, sur l'Art de convertir le Fer en Acier, et d'adoucir le Fer Fondu.' being read publicly by the president, occasioned a violent storm in He here described the process of making steel, which was then the Assembly. Roederer called the president to order for reading unknown in France (that metal being solely obtained from abroad), the letter. ("Moniteur,' 31st of May, 1791.) Journals and pamphlets and he made his discovery public, for which national benefit the vied with each other in abusing Raynal as a renegade and a dotard. Regent Duke of Orleans settled on him a pension of 12,000 livres. : Raypal bowever remained quiet in the neighbourhood of Paris; he He also discovered the art of tinping iron, which was likewise passed unmolested through the period of terror; and he died in unknown in France. During his experiments on metals Réaumur March, 1796, at the house of a friend at Chaillot. Just before his first observed that these substances in passing from a fluid into a solid death the Directory had named him member of the National Institute, state have a tendency to assume certain definite crystalline forms. and his " éloge' was read by Lebreton at one of the first sittings of Among his other useful labours he greatly improved the manufacture that body.

of porcelain in France. He also made a number of experiments on A new edition of Raynal's ‘History' was published at Paris in 11 artificial incubation, which has been practised from time immemorial vols. 8vo, 1820-21, with a biographical notice and reflections on the in Egypt. He endeavoured to introduce the art into common use in works of Raynal, by M. A. Jay. The following works have been France, but was not successful, owing principally to the greater colderroneously attributed to Raypal : 1, "Inconvénients du Célibat des ness of the climate than in Egypt. In 1711 he discovered a species of Prêtres' (by the Abbé Gaudin); 2, Des Assassinats et des Vols Poli- mollusk from which a purple dye might be prepared, analogous to the tiques sous le Nom de Proscription et de Confiscations' (by Servan). purple of the ancients.

RAZZI, CAVALIERE GIOVANNI ANTONIO, called IL SODOMA, In general physics the name of Réaumur is celebrated from the an eminent painter, was born about the year 1479, according to some thermometer which he invented in 1731. He took the freezing and at Verceil in Piedmont, and as stated by others at Vergelli, a village boiling points of water as two fixed points, and then divided the near Siena, of which place he had certainly received the right of interval into 80 degrees, the freezing point

being zero. The centigrade citizenship. He was instructed, according to Vasari, by Giacomo thermometer now in more general use in France was only an improvedalle Fronte, but he chiefly formed his principles by an attentive ment on Réaumur's, the interval between the freezing and boiling study of the works of Leonardo da Vinci. Among his earliest per points being divided into 100 instead of 80 degrees. formances were the pictures he painted in 1502, at Monte Oliveto, Though many of the researches which we have mentioned (most of representing the history of S. Benedetto. He was employed at Rome, which will be found in the 'Memoirs' of the Academy, together with in the pontificate of Julius II., to decorate part of the Vatican; but many papers on other subjects by the same author) were very useful his works, with those of some other artists, were removed to make and important, yet his labours in the field of natural history were way for the frescoes of Raffaelle. Some grotesques however from his much more novel and interesting. In 1710 he described the means hands were preserved. In the Chigi Palace, now called the Farnesina, by which many shell-fish, echinodermata (sea-stars), and other molare some of his pictures, representing the history of Alexander the lusks and zoophytes, execute their progressive movements; and in 1712 Great, the most poted of which is the “Marriage of Roxana,' which he observed the curious phenomena of the reproduction of the claws were executed by order of Agostino Chigi, and which Fuseli con- of lobsters and crabs. sidered to possess much of the chiaroscuro, though not the dignity and Of all the works of Réaumur, " the most remarkable," as Cuvier grace, of Leonardo da Vinci, and to be remarkable for beauties of per- says, "and these which cannot fail to be studied with the most vivid spective and playful imagery. At Siena he painted many works. The interest by those who wish to have just ideas of nature, and of the . Adoration of the Magi," which is in the church of S. Agostino, marvellous variety of means which she employs to preserve the most resembles the style of Leonardo da Vinci; but his chef-d'ouvre is the fragile of her productions, and those which are in appearance the least

Scourging of Christ, which is in the convent of S. Francisco; the capable of resistance," are his · Mémoires pour servir à l'Histoire des 'Swoon of St. Catharine of Sienna,' painted in fresco, in one of the Insectes,' of which 6 vols. 4to appeared between 1734 and 1742. chapels of S. Domenico, is another fine work. The .St. Sebastian,' in Cuvier adds—" The author here carries to the highest point his acutethe gallery at Florence, is supposed to be painted from an antique ness of observation in the discovery of those instincts, so complicated torso. The Sacrifice of Abraham, painted for the cathedral of Pisa, and so constant in each species, which maintain these feeble creatures. was in the Louvre in 1814, where it excited much admiration : it was He unceasingly excites our curiosity by new and singular details. His returned to Tuscany in 1815.

style is a little diffuse, but clear, and the facts which he relates may He is said by Lanzi to bave frequently painted in a hurried manner, always be depended on.” While collecting materials for this work we without any preparatory study, especially in his old age, when, find it recorded that he kept numerous insects of all kinds in his reduced to poverty at Siena, he sought employment at Pisa, Volterra, garden, for the purpose of observing their habits and instincts. and Lucca; but still, though careless of excellence, Razzi never Unfortunately this work is not finished ; and the seventh volume, painted badly. Vasari seems to have been a .systematic opponent of which came into the hands of the Academy of Sciences after the death




of the author, was left in such an imperfect state that it was not passed through several editions. He was also chosen physician to capable of publication. The six volumes which were completed include Edward VI. and Queen Mary, to both of whom he dedicates some all the winged insects, except the crickets (gryllus), grasshoppers, and of his works. With the knowledge of this latter fact, it is scarcely beetles. The first two volumes comprise the various kinds of cater possible to account for the circumstances in which he was at the time pillars, with a description of their forms, mode of life, metamorphoses, of bis decease, a prisoner in the King's Bench. He died in 1558, &c., as well as the different insects which attack them or live parasiti- probably soon after the date of his will (June 28), in which he styled cally within them. The third volume includes the cloth-moths, aphides, himself Robert Recorde, doctor of pbysicke, though sicke in body &c. The fourth embraces the gall-insects and the various two-winged yet whole of mynde.' This document is preserved in the Prerogative flies. The fifth contains the history of bees, and Réaumur made many Office, and furnishes some facts : to Arthur Hilton, under-marshal of interesting discoveries concerning the habits of these curious insects, the King's Bench, bis wife, and the other officers and prisoners, he which however have been greatly added to since by the labours of gave small sums amounting to 61. 168. 8d.; to his servant John, 61.; Huber and others. The smaller communities of wasps, hornets, &c., to his mother, and his father-in-law, her husband, 201.; to Richarde together with an account of the different kinds of solitary bees, occupy Recorde, his brother, and Robert Recorde, his nephew, his goods and the sixth and last volume, which is one of the most curious of the chattels, out of which his debts and the expenses of his funeral were whole.

to be discharged. This last item leads us to think that debt was not, as Réamur formed a large collection of objects of natural history, of commonly stated, the real reason for his imprisonment; although, which Brisson was the conservator, and the principal materials for that indeed, the amount of property enumerated does not constitute a large naturalist's work on quadrupeds and birds were collected from it. sum even for those days. In a codicil to his will, made on the 29th Many of Buffon's plates were also taken from objects in his museum, of June, 1558, he gives directions that his law books should be sold to which, after his death, went to the Cabinet du Roi. Réaumur passed Nicholas Adams, a fellow-prisoner, for 4l. a quiet retired life, and his private history is unmarked by any import. The works of Recorde are all written in dialogue between master ant incident. He is said to have died from the effects of a fall which and scholar, in the rude English of the time. They are enumerated he received while riding in the country. His death took place in by the author himself at the end of his work called . The Castle of October 1757, in his seventy-fifth year.

Knowledge;' and there is reason to think that two of his works (Life, by Cuvier, in Biog. Univ.)

mentioned in that place are irrecoverably lost, at least no trace of REBOLLE’DO, BERNARDINO, COUNT OF, a distinguished Spanish either of them has yet been discovered in print or manuscript. One officer and writer, was born of illustrious parents at Leon, the capital of them appears to have been entitled “The Gate of Knowledge,' and of the province of that name, in 1597. In early youth he embraced the other "The Treasure of Knowledge."---Recorde's most popular the profession of arms, and joined the Spanish army of Italy, where work appeared as early as 1540, under the title of “The Grounde of he so much distinguished himself as to obtain, in 1622, the command Artes, teachinge the worke and practise of Arithmeticke, both in of a galley, with which he assisted in the taking of Port Maurice and the whole numbers and fractions, after a more easier and exacter sort castle of Ventimille from the Genoese. After this he served in the than any lyke hathe hitherto been set forth.' We have taken this army, and was present at the taking of Nice (1626), and the storming title from the edition of 1573. "The Grounde of Artes' was dedicated of the fortress of Casal, where he was severely wounded. In 1632 he to Edward VI., and continued to be repeatedly reprinted until the commanded a considerable body of Spanish infantry in the Low end of the 17th century, the latest edition we have seen being that Countries. Having, in 1636, received orders from his government to edited by Edward Hatton in the year 1699. This work contains march to the assistance of the Emperor Ferdinand II., who was closely numeration, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, reduction, pursued by the Swedes, he succeeded in extricating that monarch from progression, the golden rule, a treatise on reckoning by counters on a his perilous situation, and was by him rewarded with the title of principle much resembling that of the Chinese abacus, a system of Count of the Germanic Empire and the government of the Low Pala- representing numbers by the hand like the alphabet of the deaf and tinate. At the conclusion of the war, Philip IV. appointed bim dumb, a repetition of all the rules for fractions, with the rules of ainbassador to the court of Denmark; and he rendered signal alligation, fellowship, and false position. On the last rule he remarks service to the king of Denmark when Charles Gustavus marched his that he was in the habit of astonishing his friends by proposing army across the frozen sea and bombarded Copenhagen. Though a difficult questions, and working the true result by taking the chance zealous Roman Catholic, Rebolledo felt for the royal house of Denmark answers of suche children or ydeotes as happened to be in the place.' a kind of personal devotion, which he seized every opportunity of The Pathway to Knowledge,' a brief compendium of geometry, transmanifesting in his writings. He had early evinced some talent for lated and abridged from the Elements of Euclid, was published at poetry, and he had whilst in Germany composed a sort of didactic London in 1551. poem on the art of war and state policy, entitled 'Selvas Militares y • The Castle of Knowledge' was published in 1556, dedicated in Politicas,' which he afterwards published at Copenhagen in 1652, English to Queen Mary, and in Latin to Cardinal Pole. This work 16mo. But it was not until his mission to that capital, that Robolledo is written in the form of a dialogue between master and scholar on found leisure to prosecute with assiduity his poetic studies. He astronomy, and from the preface we gather that Recorde had not seems to have taken particular interest in the history and geography altogether abandoned astrology. It begins with an account of the of Denmark, a compendium of which he put into verse, which was Ptolemaic system, and afterwards proceeds in an apparently concealed printed at Copenhagen, under the title of "Selvas Danicas,' 1665, 4to. passage to unfold the elements of the Copernican system of the After a residence of several years at the court of Denmark, Rebolledo universe. Recorde appears to bave been one of the earliest persons was recalled to Madrid, where he was soon after appointed president in this country who adopted the Copernican system, if not the earliest of the Board of War in the council of Castile. He died in 1676, in person who introduced it among us. All that is cited from Euclid the eightieth year of his age. Besides the two above-mentioned works, and Proclus is in Greek and Latin, usually both. Rebolledo wrote—1, 'La Constancia victoriosa y Trinos de Jeremias, In the .Whetstone of Witte,' which was published in 1557, Recorde Colonia (Copenhagen), 1665, 4to, being a paraphrase of the Book of has amassed together the researches of foreign writers on the subject Job and the Lamentations of Jeremiah ; 2, Selvas Sagradas," Ib., of algebra, then in its infancy, and has also incorporated several 1657, and Antwerp, 1661, 4to; 3, a play entitled 'Amor despreciando improvements of his own. In algebra we recognise Recorde as the Riesgos' ('Love dreads no Danger'), possesses considerable interest. inventor of the sign of equality, and of the method of extracting the Rebolledo was particularly successful as a writer of madrigals, some of square root of multinominal algebraic quantities. In perception of which are so good as to remind the reader of the best times of Spanish general results connected with the fundamental notation of algebra, poetry, which in Rebolledo's time was fast on its decline. His lighter he shows himself superior to others, and even, we may say, to Vieta, poems appeared at Antwerp, 1660, 16mo, under the title of Ocios,' although of course immeasurably below the latter in the invention of (Leisure Hours). An edition of Rebolledo's works was collected in means of expression. All his writings considered together, Recorde his lifetime, and appeared at Autwerp, 1660, in 3 vols. 4to. But the was an extraordinary genius; and it must be remembered he was a best and most complete is that of Madrid, 1778, 4 vols. 4to.

lawyer, a physician, and a Saxonist, as well as the first mathematician RECORDE, ROBERT, an eminent mathematician of the 16th cen- of his day. tury, was the first native of Great Britain who introduced the study (Halliwell

, The Connexion of Wales with the early Science of England, of analytical science into this country. There is no memorial of the 8vo, 1840; and an article in the Companion to the British Almanac for exact time of his birth, though it must have been somewhere about 1837, by Prof. De Morgan.) the year 1500. We know that he was a native of Tenby in Pembroke * REDGRAVE, RICHARD, R.A., was born in London in 1804. shire, that be entered himself a student at Oxford about the year The son of a manufacturer, his youth was spent in the counting-house 1525, where he publicly taught rhetoric, mathematics, music, and of his father, his chief employment, he says (Letter in ‘Art-Journal' anatomy, and that he was elected a fellow of All Souls' College in 1531. for February 1850) consisting in making the designs and working Making physic bis profession, he repaired to Cambridge, and in 1545 drawings for the men, and journeying into the country to measure and he received the degree of M.D. from that university, and, says Wood, direct the works in progress." The business became an unprosperous was highly esteemed by all who knew him for his great knowledge in one, and he was permitted by his father to follow his own preference several arts and sciences. He afterwards returned to Oxford, where, for art. He drew in the Elgin and Townley galleries at the British as he had done previously to his visit to Cambridge, he publicly taught Museum, and about 1826 entered as a student in the Royal Academy, arithmetic and other branches of the mathematics with great applause at the same time maintaining himself by teaching drawing. He had According to Fuller, he was of the Protestant religion. He afterwards exhibited many pictures--the Pilgrim's Progress' appearing, from the repaired to London, at which place he resided in 1547, and in that catalogues, to be a favourite text-book - before he met with what year published a medical work entitled The Urinal of Physic,' wbich he terms his first success." This was the sale of a picture exhibited

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