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690 Victor II, in 1057. He had been legate of Leo IX. to the court of given to the firm establishment of Christianity, and no means were Constantinople, and was learned in controversial divinity. His election neglected by him which could induce the few who still persevered in is said to have been unanimous. By the advice of the monk Hilde heathenish practices to adopt it. He divided Hungary into ten brand (afterwards Gregory VII.), he sent two legates to Milan to bishoprics, which were plentifully supplied with monasteries built by enforce the decrees concerning the celibacy of the clergy, which the Greek architects. Schools were also established, the first and best of church of Milan had not yet adopted. This dispute had begun in which was that of St. Gerard, who had been tutor to Prince Emeric, the 1021, at the council of Pavia, and it lasted for nearly half a century. king's son. It was afterwards entrusted to the direction of Walter, a Stephen issued also several bulls against simony, which was prevalent monk of Bákony Bél, the fifth monastery founded by Stephen. The in his time. He sent for the learned Petrus Damianus, who had country itself being now provided with ecclesiastical and school retired to a secluded cloister, and obliged him to come to Rome under establishments, a monastery was built at Ravenna for the use of pain of excommunication, and made him cardinal and bishop of Ostia. Magyar pilgrims on their way to Rome, where the munificent king had The pope also visited his former monastery of Monte Casino, in which erected a college with a foundation for ten canons, and an inn for his he enforced a strict discipline. He also issued a bull exempting the subjects whom the desire of learning might lead to Rome. A large clergy from the jurisdiction of the lay courts, and from paying tribute convent in the neighbourhood of Constantinople was the resting

place to laymen. From some passages of Leo Ostiensis and other chroniclers for Hungarian monks who wished to join their brethren at Jerusalem, it has been surmised that he intended to make his brother Godfrey and who were entirely supported by the king. These and many other king of Italy. But the pope fell ill, and died on the 29th of March, 1058. pious and charitable institutions of St. Stephen, joined to his own On his deathbed he recommended the clergy, and people to wait for exemplary life and precepts, soon rooted out the last remnants of the return of Hildebrand from Germany before they elected his paganism. His civil constitution, of which we have no well-authen. successsor, but the advice was not followed, and a schism ensued. ticated remains, finished the work of civilisation which he had begun [BENEDICT X.; NICHOLAS II.)

thirty years before. STEPHEN, SAINT, first king of Hungary, son of the Magyar chief At this period of his life, being fifty one years of age, he lost his Geysa, and Sarolta, the daughter of Gyula, a Hungarian nobleman who son Emeric, who, under the able tuition of Gerard, had all the accomhad been baptised in Greece, was born about 979, at Gran (Estragan, plishments of his time, and was in every respect worthy of his father. the ancient Strigonium).

Emeric was married to the daughter of Kresimir, king of Croatia, His father

Geysa (Gyözö, that is, 'Victor'), whose fierce and indomi- but he died without issue. Stephen's grief for the loss of his son was table character the Christian Sarolta bad" succeeded in softening, increased by the treachery of Gisela, who put out the eyes of Vazul, allowed Piligrin, bishop of Lorch, to preach the Gospel to the Magyars; whom Stephen had designed for his successor, in order that her own but these first attempts proved unsuccessful, and it was only at a sub- son Peter might succeed to the throne. These causes of sorrow 80 sequent period, when Geysa himself was converted, that a few of his affected Stephen's health that they brought on an illness which countrymen followed his example. The number was however greatly afflicted him till his death. About this time an attempt was made increased upon the arrival in Hungary of St. Adalbert, who advised against his life by a murderer, who was incited by four of the prinGeysa to allow Christians to settle there; and in consequence of this cipal men of the court. Stephen gave a general pardon to all who permission being granted, a number of Germans and Italians estab- were concerned in the crime. He died on the 15th of August 1038 lished themselves in the neighbourhood of the capital, Gran. The (the day of his coronation), forty-one years after the death of his majority of the Hungarians being however still attached to their gods, father. In 1083 his relics were enshrined by St. Ladislaus, in a rich persecution as well as other means of conversion were used against chapel which bears his name, in the church of our Lady of Buda. them. In the midst of preparations for a powerful attack against his The 20th of August, the day of the translation of his relics, is kept in heathen countrymen, Geysa died, and Stephen succeeded him in 997. Hungary as a festival.

The legend says that an angel had announced to Geysa the birth of St. Stephen was canonised by Benedict IX.; and Pope Innocent XI., a son, and that St. Stephen, the protomartyr, appeared to Sarolta,

and in 1686, appointed his festival to be kept on the 2nd of September, the bade her call her offspring after him. The name which he bore Emperor Leopold having on that day recovered Buda from the Turks. before his baptism was Vaik, according to Mailath. Great care was (Chartuitius, Vita S. Stephani.') taken by his mother that he should receive a good education; Count STEPHEN II., king of Hungary, son of Koloman, whom he suc Deodatus à San Severino, in Apulia, was appointed his instructor, ceeded in 1114, at the age of fourteen. He was of a weak intellect, and St. Adalbert, of Prague, baptised him in 995. Shortly after this and unwilling to submit to the judgment of his advisers, but was be married Gisela, the sister of the Emperor Otho III.

accustomed to act from the impulse of the moment. This quality The dissatisfied Magyars, though they had hitherto refrained from gave him the name of the Lightning,

' or 'the Thunderer, and any acts of violence against the Christians, who enjoyed the powerful rendered him odious to his subjects. Soon after his accession to the protection of Geysa, now began to make open resistance. The throne he made war on the Venetians, who could not be reconciled youthful inexperience of Stephen, who had scarcely assumed the reins to the loss of Dalmatia, which had been taken from them during the of government, seemed to give them hopes of succeeding in their reign of Stephen's father. They sent a fleet, with a considerable army, attempts to check the progress of Christianity and restore their under the Doge Ordelaf Faledro, who however did not recover this ancient religion. Indeed it appears that when Kupan, the count of province, the possession of which was of the greatest importance to Simegh, had consented to lead the heathen Magyars, a number of the republic

. The hostilities, which lasted two years, ended with a those who had received Christian baptism joined his standard. In treaty which secured the mainland of Dalmatia to Stephen, whilst addition to this, so wavering was the faith of those who remained with Venice obtained the adjoining islands. This transaction was scarcely Stephen, that the youthful chief could only rely upon the support of concluded, when Stephen went (1116) to meet Wladislaw, the chief the foreigners. Kupan bad assembled all his forces, and marched of the Bohemians, for the purpose of renewing the treaties of friendtowards Weszprim, in the neighbourhood of which town Stephen met ship which had long existed between the two countries. Through him. After a desperate battle, in which Kupan lost his life, the the treachery of Solth, the meeting terminated in a quarrel attended victory so decidedly leaned towards the side of the Christians, that with bloodshed; but after a few months the traitor was executed, the remaining adherents of the party of Kupan quitted it. For the and the old treaty renewed: some writers however assert that Stephen purpose of securing the possession of his throne, Stephen sent an was a participator in this dishonourable transaction. In the two embassy to Pope Sylvester II., at the head of which was Astricus or following years Stephen invaded Poland and Austria, from which Avasbasius, bishop of the newly created see of Kolotz, who was expeditions he derived no material benefit. In 1119 he made an instructed to obtain the title of king for Stephen. Astricus soon incursion into Austria, but the Emperor Leopold, in a decisive battle, returned with a crown and a deed of the pope, which gave Stephen completely defeated the Hungarian army, and pursued it as far as unlimited power in the ecclesiastical affairs of his country. The coro- Eisenberg. nation took place on the 15th of August 1000. From the time of his The bad feeling which such acts had produced in the people was assuming the title of king, the peaceful occupations of Stephen were only checked by the great respect for kingly authority; but Stephen at only interrupted by a few warlike incursions, all of which he success- last excited general indignation by filling the country with foreigners, fully repelled.

to whom he showed a decided preference. This foolish policy was In 1002 Gyula, his cousin, rebelled against him, and publicly followed, in 1127, by a war with the grand-duke of Muscovy, Wladimir abjured Christianity. After a short campaign he was taken prisoner Monomakh. Yaroslav, the exiled prince of Wladimir, applied to with his two sons, and Zoltan was appointed governor of Transylvania Stephen for aid. The Hungarian army marched into Russia, and in his stead. The Bulgarians having assisted Gyula in his rebellion, advanced without opposition as far as Wladimir. At this crisis and threatening to make an incursion into the country, Stephen led Yaroslav died, and with his death the cause of the war ceased. But an expedition against their chief Kean, and gained a decisive victory instead of returning, Stephen insisted upon storming the town; and over him. The third invasion against Stephen was one conducted by in consequence of his obstinacy, the chief nobles of his army, with Henry, the son of the Emperor Conrad, who had already advanced as Rozma Peznan at their head, declared that if he would not immediately far as the Raab with a powerful army, but after some negociations the follow them into their own country, they would elect another king, army returned without having fought a single battle. These were and leave him at the mercy of the Russians. Intimidated by these the only instances in Stephen's long reign which obliged him to have threats, Stephen returned to Hungary; but his conduct compelled recourse to arms. Indeed his court was so well known for the security many of those who were concerned in the revolt to fly to Constanti. which it afforded, that the two English princes Edwin and Edward, nople. Here they were well received by the Emperor John II., who, who had been exiled by Canute, went over to Hungary and lived upon Stephen's threatening to invade the empire, sent a powerful under King Stephen's protection. The whole of his attontion was army against him, which completely defeated the Hungarians at Uja




692 Palanka. When peace was restored, Stephen adopted Bela, the son of connected with the royal house, and distinguished both for military his relative Amos, who had been obliged to seek protection at the talent and popular manners, tended to make still more precarious the court of Constantinople, and resigned in his favour in 1131. He success of his novel project of a woman-king, a thing opposed to all then entered a monastery, and died at Waradin, in the thirty-first the notions and habits of the Gothic nations, and (if we except the year of his age.

single instance of a wife of one of the kings of the West Saxons, who STEPHEN III. was crowned king of Hungary in 1161, under is said to have retained the government in her hands for a year after unfavourable circumstances, arising from the influence which the the death of her husband, and then to have been expelled with disemperor of Constantinople had exercised over Hungary during the dain by the nobles, who would not fight under a woman) unexampled reign of his father. Although Stephen had legitimate claims to the either in England, or in France, or in Normandy, or in the kingdom throne, and was generally beloved by the #ungarian nobles, the of Denmark and Norway, whence the Normans came. At the same Emperor Manuel did not approve of his spirit of independence, and time it was obviously much better for Matilda that she should have signified to the Hungarians that unless they elected Ladislaus, the two such near male relations than if she had only one ; seeing that, brother of the late king, he would invade the country. Ladislaus had if she had to fear a rival in one of them, she might count with equal been brought up at the Byzantine court, and had the Greek interest certainty upon having a defender in the other. But that wbich after much more at heart than the Hungarian. Terrified by the approach all gave her the best chance was the circumstance of her having had of a formidable army, the Hungarian nobles elected Ladislaus, who the good fortune to give birth to a son a few years before her father's however died in 1161.

death. Indeed she had borne two sons to her second husband before STEPHEN IV. On the death of Ladislaus, Stephen IV. was forced her father died. Had it not been for these lucky accidents it may be upon the Hungarians by the Emperor Manuel; though no man could doubted if all her father's provident arrangements would have secured be less acceptable to them than the debauched uncle of the unfor- the recognition of Matilda's pretensions for a moment after the throne tunate Stephen III. A revolt soon compelled him to seek refuge at became vacant. But for the existence of the infant Henry of Anjou, the court of his patron, and the lawful king, Stephen III., was un or of his younger brother, at the time of his grandfather's death, the animously re-elected. During the usurpation of his uncle, Stephen crown might probably have been Stephen's without striking a blowlived under the protection of the archbishop of Gan, Luke Banfi

. unless there had ensued a fight for it between him and his cousin Manuel seemed to approve of the newly elected king, and gave his Gloucester. daughter in marriage to Bela, the brother of Stephen, on condition In 1125, immediately after the death of her first husband the that the prince should live at Constantinople. Stephen agreed to this; Emperor Henry V. (whom she was suspected of having made away but upon the arrival of Bela at Constantinople, the emperor claimed with), Henry had sent for his daughter to Normandy, and, having the his heritage, which consisted of Dalmatia. Stephen refused to next year brought her over to England, he collected all the chief peradmit his claim; whereupon his uncle, Stephen IV., re-appeared at sons of the realm about him at Windsor while he kept his Christmas, the instigation of Manuel, and commenced hostilities. He was how and, having there by presents and promises engaged those among ever defeated in a battle by his nephew, and obliged to fly to Semlin, them of greatest influence to support his views, he came to London, where he died in 1163. Soon after his death Semlin was taken, the and, having proposed the matter in a council consisting of the archkingdom cleared of the partisans of the Greek cause, and in an expe- bishops, bishops, abbots, earls, and all the thanes, obtained, in the dition into Dalmatia, which was conducted by Stephen himself, in beginning of January 1127, though not, says Malmesbury, without 1165, this province was recovered from the hands of Manuel. But great and long deliberation, the unanimous promise of the assembly, whilst engaged in the western part of his kingdom, a Greek army that, if he should die without male issue, they would receive Matilda appeared in Hungary. Stephen went to meet it; and a decisive battle, as bis successor. Every individual present who seemed to be of any in which the Hungarians were defeated, secured the influence of note-quicunque in eodem concilio alicujus, videbatur esse momenti Greece in Hungary. Stephen III. died in 1173, and was succeeded by (to adhere to Malmesbury's remarkable expression)—took a solemn his brother Bela III.

oath to that effect: first, the Archbishop of Canterbury and the other STEPHEN V., king of Hungary, succeeded his father Bela in 1270, bishops and abbots; then the King of Scotland on account of the fiefs and began his reign by a war against Ottocar, king of the Bohemians, he held of the English crown; then Stephen, earl of Boulogne and whom he defeated. A subsequent campaign against the Bulgarians was Mortagne; then the Earl of Gloucester ; then the other barons. A crowned with success; but the course of his victories was interrupted few months after this Matilda was married to Geoffrey Plantagenet, by his death, which occurred in 1272. This king is sometimes called the son of the Earl of Anjou; and in the year 1131, when she was in Stephen IV. by those who do not recognise the usurper of that name. England, having already quarrelled with her husband, the oath of

(Thwrocz, Chronica Hungarorum ; Ranzanus, Epitome rerum Hun- fealty to her was again taken by the bishops and mobility at a grand garicarum Decades Quatuor; Mailáth, Geschichte der Magyaren.) council held at Northampton; and two years after, on the birth of

STEPHEN, king of England, born in 1105, was the third of the Matilda's first son Henry, it was once more renewed, in a council held four sons of Stephen, earl of Blois, by Adela, daughter of William at Oxford, both to her and to her son. the Conqueror; and was consequently nephew of Henry I., cousin to Nevertheless, as soon as Henry had expired in Normandy, December that king's daughter the Empress Matilda, and second cousin to 1st, 1135, Stephen, who, as well as Gloucester, had been for some time Matilda's son, who became king of England as Henry II. Having in attendance on the dying king, instantly set out for England, and been early brought over to England by his uncle Henry I., that king, taking ship at Whitsand, near Calais, the usual port of embarkation, with whom he became a great favourite, besides bestowing upon him landed on the coast of Kent. It appears that, foreseeing his uncle's several valuable estates here, made him earl of Mortagne in Nor decease, he had already secured the support of a powerful faction of mandy. Dr. Lingard says that Stephen "had earned by his valour the clergy and nobility, by means of his younger brother Henry, who, in the field of Tenchebrai the Norman earldom of Mortoil." ("Hist. of having also stood high in the favour of the late king, had been placed Engl.,'i. 158). But when the battle of Tenchebrai was fought, in 1106 by him in the bishopric of Winchester, and had succeeded in winning (HENRY L. vol. iii.col. 358.), Stephen was only about a twelvemonth old. over to his brother's interest the most influential subject in the kingHenry also procured for him a marriage with Matilda, the daughter and dom, Roger, bishop of Salisbury, who, as grand justiciary, was the heiress of Eustace, earl of Boulogne (younger brother of the famous supreme governor of the realm during the vacancy of the throne. Of Godfrey and Baldwin, king of Jerusalem), by which he acquired that Stephen's two elder brothers, it may be here mentioned that William, earldom, and also a new alliance with the royal families both of Eng- the eldest, was almost an idiot, and that the other, Theobald, had land and Scotland, for the mother of Matilda of Boulogne was Maria, succeeded to his father's earldom of Blois; so that Stephen, in aspiring daughter of Malcolm Canmore, and a younger sister of Henry's queen to the English crown, did not find either of them in his way. The Matilda (the good queen Maud). As Stephen therefore was the politic and zealous management of his brother Henry had also gained nephew of Henry I., so his wife was the niece of Henry's queen; and for him the support of William de Pont de l'Arche, who held the by this match the issue of Stephen, as well as the issue of Henry, might castle of Winchester and the key of the royal treasures deposited boast of inheriting the blood of the old Saxon royal family, as being there. The consequence was, that although Stephen was refused equally sprung from Malcolm's queen Margaret, the sister of Edgar admission by the inhabitants both of Dover and of Canterbury, he Atheling, a circumstance by no means without influence in the conten. was received with warm welcome by those of London and Winchester; tions of the two lines.

and after Hugh Bigot, earl of Norfolk, the steward of the royal When Henry, after the loss of his son and the failure of issue by household, had, to remove the scruples, real or affected, of some of his second wife, determined upon securing the succession to the crown his adherents, boldly sworn that Henry on his deathbed had disinfor his daughter the Empress Matilda, the two individuals upon herited his daughter and her issue, and left the crown to his nephew, whom he appears to have principally relied for the support of that it was resolved by the clergy and nobility who had gathered about arrangement were his natural son Robert, earl of Gloucester, and his him that he should be crowned forthwith, and the ceremony was nephew Stephen. It is not improbable that both may have meditated accordingly performed at Westminster on the 26th of December, St. the attempt which Stephen actually made, and that, if the crown upon Stephen's-day, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, assisted by the Henry's death had not been seized by him, it might have been clutched bishops of Salisbury and Winchester. The commencement of the at by Gloucester. The notions of that age were by no means so settled reign of Stephen is reckoned from that day. in favour of legitimate birth as to have prevented the son of the late At his coronation Stephen swore,-1, That on all occasions of king, although illegitimate, from having a fair chance in such a com episcopal vacancies he would appoint a new prelate within a certain petition against his nephew.

time, and meanwhile would leave the temporalities of the see in the Perhaps Henry himself was not without his fears of one or both. charge of some ecclesiastic; 2, That he would make no addition to He must have felt at least that the existence of two males so nearly the royal forests, but would, on the contrary, restore to their owners





such lands as had been made forest by his predecessor; 3, That he would and Nigel, bishops of Lincoln and Ely, he had at a council held at abolish the tax called Danegelt, which, after having been given up by Oxford, in June 1138, arrested Roger and Alexander; and although the Confessor, bad been restored by the Norman kings. On the other Nigel made bis escape, he was eventually compulled to surrender his hand, the bishops tendered their allegiance only for so long as the castle of Devizes, as his brother and his uncle had been to give up theirs king should maintain the privileges of the church; and the lay barons of Newark, Salisbury, Sherburn, and Malmesbury. The inflammation appear to have also qualified their oath by a similar condition as to excited in the whole ecclesiastical body by this attack was terrific. bis preservation of their estates and honours. Nothing like this had Even the king's brosher, the Bishop of Winchester, who had been taken place at the commencement of any previous reign since the lately made papal legate, was either carried away by the general feeling Conquest.

of his order, or, if he did not share in that feeling, found it would be in In January of the following year, 1136, after seeing the body of the vain for him to resist it. He summoned his brother to answer for late king interred at Reading, Stephen convened a great council of the what he had done before a synod of bishops, which met at Winchester. bishops and the nobility at Oxford, and there signed a charter of the Stephen complied so far as to send one of his ministers to plead for liberties of the church and state, in which he styled himself “Stephen, him, who, when a decision upon a preliminary question had been given by the grace of God, elected king of the English by assent of the against the king, appealed to Rome; on which the legate dissolved the clergy and the people, consecrated by William, archbishop of Canter- synod, on the 1st of September 1139. On the last day of the same bury and legate of the holy Roman Church, and confirmed by Innocent month Matilda landed on the coast of Suffolk, and immediately after the Pontifex of the holy Roman see." He had shortly before this the Earl of Gloucester unfurled his standard in the west. The war obtained a bull from Pope Innocent, confirming his election. In this spread rapidly over the whole kingdom. At length, on the 23rd of charter he repeated more distinctly the engagements under which he February 1141, Stephen, while besieging the castle of Lincoln, which had come at his coronation, declaring besides that he would cause to was held by Ranulph, Earl of Chester, was attacked by the Earl of be observed all the ancient and just laws of the kingdom. There is Gloucester, and being taken prisoner, was immediately, by Matilda's also a shorter charter of Stephen's, dated at London, which seems to order, consigned in chains to the castle of Bristol. have preceded this, and which was probably granted at or immediately On that day month Matilda and her brother, attended by a numerous after his coronation. In that he expressly grants to his French and body of barons of their party, met the legate on the open downs in the English subjects all the good laws and good customs which they had neighbourhood of Winchester, when it was solemnly agreed that in the time of the Confessor, a clause which is not found in the larger Henry and the church should acknowledge her as their sovereign, on charter. The confirming clause of the latter also has the qualification, condition that he should be made her first minister, and especially " salva regia et justa dignitate mea "-saving my royal and just that all vacant bishoprics and abbacies should be filled up on his dignity, wbich the other is without.

nomination. Soon after this the Archbishop of Canterbury and all Meanwhile a feeble attempt had been made by Matilda and her the other bishops gave in their adherence. In the beginning of April husband to take possession of Normandy; but the Normans them- the heads of the church met on the summons of the legate at his selves, without any assistance from Stephen, snon drove out the army episcopal city of Winchester; and there he addressed them in a long of Angevins which had entered their country. In England at this speech, which Malmesbury, who heard it, has preserved; and in the moment not a hand or voice was lifted up for the daughter of the late end the meeting unanimously agreed to confirm his treaty with king. Even the Earl of Gloucester came forward with the other Matilda. A remarkable circumstance mentioned in the account of barons, and did homage, and took the oath of fealty, to Stephen. this meeting is the appearance of certain deputies from the citizens. After a short while however opposition arose in various quarters. of London, who, it is stated, on account of the greatness of their city In the spring of the year 1136, King David of Scotland, Matilda's were considered as nobles in England, and who had been summoned uncle, advancing at the head of an army, overran the northern to give their attendance by the legate, although the assembly was counties, and compelled the barons of those parts to swear fealty to otherwise composed only of ecclesiastics. They at first stood up for Matilda, and to give hostages for the performance of their oath ; and Stephen, but were ultimately persuaded to concur with the rest of the although he agreed to a peace when Stephen marched against him, meeting. and restored the lands and castles he had taken, he refused to do But the folly, rapacity, and insolence which Matilda now displayed homage to the king of England for his possessions in that country. in her triumph, were soon found to be insupportable by all parties. He suffered his eldest son Prince Henry however to do homage for the Taking

advantage of the strong popular feeling of disgust, Stephen's honour of Huntingdon, which, with the towns of Carlisle and Doncas- queen Matilda, who had remained in arms for her husband in the ter, was conferred upon him by Stephen. Meanwhile, during Stephen's county of Kent, made her appearance before London while the empress detention on the northern border, an insurrection in Matilda's favour lay there waiting her coronation; and she barely contrived, by springing broke out in Wales, which he could never effectually suppress, but was from table and mounting her horse, to effect her escape to Oxford. obliged to satisfy himself with merely endeavouring to prevent it from The legate now joined his sister-in-law and the Londoners; the emextending itself beyond that quarter of the kingdom. Then, although press, with the King of Scots, the Earl of Gloucester, and others of he had obtained the investiture of the duchy of Normandy from the her principal adherents, besieged in the castle of Winchester, fled French king Louis, it soon appeared that his possession of the country from that stronghold on the morning of Sunday, the 14th of September, was only to be retained by force of arms, and that while he had to when, being immediately pursued, many of the party were killed keep back with the one hand the persevering attacks of the Angevins, most of the rest, including the Earl of Gloucester, were taken prisoners, he had an almost equally troublesome enemy to keep down with the and Matilda herself with difficulty escaped to the castle of Devizes. other in the native chiefs, a large proportion of whom, sometimes Negociations were now opened, the result of wbich was that in the arraying themselves on his side, sometimes on that of Matilda, beginning of November Gloucester was exchanged for Stephen. When evidently aimed at taking advantage of the contest between the two his brother was thus again at liberty, the legate once more summoned rivals, to throw off the yoke of the one as well as of the other, and to a clerical synod at Westminster, on the 7th of December, at which he secure, if not the national independence, at least their individual defended his abandonment of the cause of Matilda, and as usual carried emancipation from all superiority. And the same spirit quickly his brethren along with him in his new course of politics. Stephen began to show and spread itself in England. In some districts the himself, having appeared among them, addressed them with pathetic standard of Matilda was raised by the Earl of Gloucester, and various eloquence on the wrongs and indignities he had sustained ; and they places of strength were seized upon and garrisoned in her name; else- ended by resolving unanimously to excommunicate all who should where the barons fortified their castles on their own account, and set adhere to the “Countess of Anjou." up each as an independent chieftain. Stephen had his hands full of The war now recomienced after Stephen had recovered from an work with all this disorder and rebellion in the south, when the king illness which confined him for some months, and Gloucester had of Scotland again appeared on the northern borders. After having returned from the Continent, whither he had gone to endeavour to ravaged Northumberland with unusual ferocity in the winter of 1137, persuade Matilda's husband to come over to her assistance, an attempt David and his half-barbarian host retired to Roxburgh, on the approach in which he met with no success, although Geoffrey consented to of the English king in the beginning of the following year; but as entrust his eldest son Henry to the earl's care. In the end of Septemsoon as Stephen was recalled to the south, the Scots again crossed the ber 1142 Stephen laid siege to the castle of Oxford, in which Matilda border in the end of March 1188. They had taken the castle of resided; but when the garrison, from want of provisions, could hold Norbam, and laid siege to other fortresses, when they were met by 'out no longer, the empress, on the 20th of December, in a severe Thurstin, arch bishop of York, at the head of an army composed of the frost, and while the ground was covered with snow, slipped out at an retainers of the northern English barons, and defeated by him in the early hour in the morning attended by three knights, made her way famous battle of the Standard, fought on the 22nd of August, 1138, on through the posts, crossed the Thames on the ice, walked to Abingdon, Cutton Moor, in the neighbourhood of Northallerton. Peace however and thence rode to Wallingford. Other sieges, battles, and skirmishes was not concluded with the Scots till the 9th of April in the following followed, and the kingdom remained subject generally in the eastern year, when Stephen found himself under the necessity of yielding up counties to Stephen, in the western to Matilda, till the death of the to Prince Henry the earldom of Northumberland, with the exception Earl of Gloucester, the main support of the latter, in 1146, upon which of the forts of Newcastle and Bamborough, for which he engaged to she retired to Normandy. But her absence brought little more quiet make over to him estates of equivalent value in the south of England. to Stephen. The next two or three years of his reign were disturbed

But by this time the unfortunate English king had found another, by a formidable rebellion of a confederacy of the barons headed by and, as it turned out, by far his most formidable enemy. He had Ranulf, earl of Chester, and also by another quarrel with the clergy, quarrelled with the Church. Resolved to reduce the inordinate whose hostility Stephen brought upon himself this time by his support power of Roger, bishop of Salisbury, and his two nephews, Alexander of their old leader his brother Henry, when that intriguing and





696 ambitious prelate, whom the pope, at the instigation of Theobald, Maud, through her granddaughter Elizabeth, the wife of Albert I., archbishop

of Canterbury, had deprived of his office of legate, sought duke of Brunswick, is among the ancestors of the present English royal to avenge himself on the primate by the aid of the royal authority. family. Two natural sons are also attributed to Stephen : William, Matters proceeded so far that Theobald at last published a sentence of whom nothing is known except the name; and Gervais, by a lady of interdict, the first of which this country had ever been the object, named Daneta, made by his father abbot of Westminster, which against all the dominions of the Englieh king; and Stephen, assailed dignity he held till his death August 26th, 1160. Stephen's youngest by the cries of the alarmed people, found himself forced to yield. brother Henry, the bishop of Winchester, who figures so conspicuously But his last and worst antagonist now appeared in the person of throughout the reign, died August 6th, 1171. Matilda's son Henry, who, having by the death of his father, in Sep The chief contemporary chroniclers of the time of Stephen aretember 1151, become Earl of Ănjou, and having soon after added to the writers of the Saxon Chronicle,' the anonymous author of the his paternal dominions the territories of Poitou and Aquitaine by bis 'Gesta Stephani' (published in Duchesne), Richard, prior of Hexham marriage with Eleanor, the divorced wife of Louis VII. of France, (Hagulstadensis), Serlo, and Ailred, abbot of Rivault (all in Twysden's landed at Wareham, on the 6th of January 1153, at the head of a Decem Scriptores'), William of Malmesbury, and Henry of Huntingforce of only 3000 foot and 140 knights, which however was soon don. Many additional facts are also mentioned by Ralph de Diceto, augmented by the junction of considerable numbers of his mother's Brompton, Gervas of Canterbury, and other later writers. friends. · Yet po swords were crossed by these rival claimants of the STEPHEN, BATHORI, one of the most remarkable individuals of same crown. Henry having forced his way into the town of Malmes- the 16th century, and the greatest king that Poland ever had. He was bury, lay there, while the Avon, rendered impassable by the rains, born in 1533 at Shomlo in Hungary, of an old and noble family of prevented Stephen from attacking bim. Stephen then retired to that country. The agitated state in which his native land continued London, on which Henry advanced to Wallingford ; but when Stephen during the 16th century-being torn by domestic factions, and troubled had also marched to this point, and both parties were preparing for by the Turks and the Austrians, presented a vast field for the display battle, the principal persons in the two armies, at the suggestion of of great talents, united to a daring and adventurous character, and the Earl of Arundel, interfered, and an agreement was made, by which Stephen Bathori rose after many vicissitudes to the sovereigoty of the effusion of blood was prevented, and which was confirmed in a Transylvania in 1571. In 1575 he was elected to the throne of Poland, great council held at Winchester in November following. By this vacant by the flight of Henry of Valois (Henry III. of France); and compact, Stephen, whose eldest son Eustace, fortunately for the peace he owed this elevation to the renown of his valour and wisdom. He of his country, died suddenly at Canterbury during the negociation, took possession of the crown; married, according to the conditions of having been seized, it is said, with fever and phrenzy, while he sat at his election, the Princess Anna Jaguellon, sister to the deceased king table, constituted Henry, whom he styled duke of Normandy, " bis Sigismund Augustus ; repressed by his vigour the party which supsuccessor in the kingdom of England, and his heir by hereditary ported his competitor Maximilian of Austria ; and pacified the country right." Henry in the meantime did homnge and swore fealty to by conciliatory measures. Stephen; Stephen's surviving son William did homage to Henry, and After having regulated the internal affairs of the country, he settled received from him a grant of all the lands and honours held by his its foreign relations in a satisfactory manner, particularly by ensuring father before his accession to the throne; and, lastly, the bishops and the friendship of the Sultan of Turkey. He then turned his attention abbots, the earls and barons, and the inhabitants of all the boroughs towards Muscovy. This power had recently obtained an extraordinary in the kingdom, swore fealty to both the king and the duke. One of developement under the celebrated Ivan Vasilovich, who invaded å the most strenuous supporters of this arrangement was the Bishop of part of Livonia belonging to Poland, shortly after the accession of Winchester. Stephen survived its ratification not quite a year, he Stephen. His first care was to organise a military force adequate to died suddenly in a convent at Dover, on the 25th of October 1154, encounter such a formidable enemy, and to secure at the same time being in the fiftieth year of his age, and having reigned nineteen years the tranquillity of the borders. He formed the Cossaks of the Ukraine all but two months. [Hexey II.)

into a regular force, allowing them the choice of their own hetman or England during the whole reign of Stephen was probably in a state supreme commander, and conferring on them many advantages as a of greater anarchy and misery than it had ever known since the first reward for the services which they were obliged to perform. The settlement of the Saxons, or has ever experienced in the worst of the castles were repaired and provided with permanent garrisons; a intestine wars and confusions of which it has since been the theatre. formidable ordnance was created; and a body of life-guards and a Indeed the country appears to have got far back towards barbarism. regular infantry were organised. “In this king's time," says the Saxon Chronicle, "all was dissension, Having completed his military preparations, he took the field in the and evil, and rapine. Thou mightest go a whole day's journey, summer of 1579 with a numerous army composed of national troops, and not find a man sitting in a town, nor an acre of land tilled. The German mercenaries, and five thousand Hungarians, commanded by poor died of hunger ; and those who had been men well to do begged Bekesh. Bekesh, a countryman of Bathori, had been his enemy and for bread. Never was more mischief done by heathen invaders. competitor for the throne of Transylvania, but finally, struck with To till the ground was to plough the sands of the sea. This lasted the admiration of the superior qualities of Bathori, he disclaimed his nineteen years that Stephen was king, and it grew continually worse enmity and requested the honour of serving under his command. and worse."

These sentiments were fully responded to by Bathori, who placed in Yet Stephen personally appears to have had many qualities which his former enemy an unlimited confidence, which Bekesh justified by would have adorned a throne more fortunately circumstanced. The his services. party zeal of the old historians has given very opposite representations On commencing the campaign, Bathori issued a proclamation to the of his character; but his general conduct, and the best or most impar people of Muscovy, declaring that he was making war against their tial authorities, bear out what has been said of him by Stow :-“This tyrannical sovereign, and not against them, and promising protection was a noble man and hardy, of passing comely favour and personage: to their lives and property. The Russian historians bear evidence he excelled in martial policy, gentleness, and liberality towards all that this promise was strictly fulfilled, and that this campaign was men, especially in the beginning; and, although he had continual war, free from all those atrocities by which war was usually accompanied in yet did he never burthen bis commons with exactions." His valour those times. The Muscovites were defeated in several battles. Polotzk and clemency indeed, as well as the beauty of his person, are admitted was taken after a desperate resistance; but the garrison and inbabion all bands, and are attested by the whole of bis career, and by many tants were spared by the conqueror, who inmediately

granted to the remarkable incidents. He is especially spoken of in terms of the town the liberties enjoyed by the cities of Poland, and the same priwarmest eulogy by one contemporary writer-the author of the Life vileges and security to the Greek church which he had enjoyed under of St. Cuthbert, first printed by the Surtees Society, Reginaldi the dominion of Moscow. Having restored that important place to Monachi Dunelmensis Libellus de Admirandis Beati Cuthberti Virtu- Poland, from which it had been taken several years before, he obtained tibus,' &vo, Lon., 1835. See bis 64th chapter.

some other advantages during the same campaign, and returned in By his queen Matilda, who died May 3, 1151, Stephen had the fol- the winter to Warsaw to attend the diet, which received him with lowing sons and daughters :-1, Baldwin, who died in infancy ; 2, great enthusiasm, and willingly granted the necessary means for the Eustace, after bis father's acquisition of the crown styled Earl of Bou- continuation of the war. Bathori resumed it with great vigour in logne, who was born in 1125, married in 1140 Constance, daughter of the summer of 1580; the town of Veliki Luki and several others Louis VI. and sister of Louis VII. of France (afterwards the wife of were taken; and in the next year, 1581, the city of Plescow was Raymond III., earl of Toulouse), and, as already mentioned, died 10th besieged by Zamoyski, one of the greatest statesmen and warriors that of August, 1153, without issue ; 3, William, who married Isabel, Poland had produced [ZAMOYSKI), and to whom Bathori had entrusted daughter and heiress of William, earl of Warren and

Surrey (after the command of the army. The progress of the Polish arms was wards the wife of Hamlyn Plantagenet, natural son of Geoffroy, earl arrested, and the fruits of so many triumphs were destroyed, by the of Anjou), became Earl of Mortagne and Boulogne after the death of intrigue of the Jesuit Posgevinus, who, deceived by the promises of his elder brother, and died without issue in October 1160; 4, Maud, the czar Ivan Basilovich to acknowledge the supremacy of the pope, who died in childhood; 5, Mary, who, after becoming á nun and induced Stephen Bathori to conclude peace with Muscovy on the 6th abbess of the nunnery of Romsey in Hampshire, succeeded, on the of January 1582, by which the Polish conquests were restored to the death of her brother William, to his honours of Boulogne and Mor. czar, with the exception of Polotzk and a few other towns and castles tagne, and some years afterwards married Matthew, son of Theodoric Bathori employed the interval of peace in introducing different im. of Alsace, earl of Flanders, with whom she lived ten years, and was provements, and was making preparations for another war with then (in 1189) divorced by the pope and sent back to her convent, Muscovy, the dangers of which his policy could easily foresee. The after having borne Matthew two daughters, the youngest of whom, pope, Sixtus V., deceived by the czar, who as soon as the danger was





over thought no more about submitting to Rome, granted the Polish temporary literature. Among other slighter things which Sir James king a considerable subsidy. The projects of Bathori against Muscovy, has published, are one or two lectures delivered to popular institutions, which are supposed to have had for their object a change in the form One of Sir James's sons, who has followed the legal profession, is likeof the government of that country, were cut short by his death, wise known by various writings. His brother,


STEPHEN, is after a short illness at Grodno, on the 12th of December 1586, at the also known as the author of Adventures of a Gentleman in Search of a age of fifty-four.

Horse,'' Adventures of an Attorney,' 'The Juryman's Guide,' 'The The wars in which he was engaged did not prevent Bathori from Clerk,' and 'The Governess,' in C. Knight's series of Guides to paying due attention to the civil affairs of the country, in which the Trade;' of a novel, entitled “The Jesuit at Cambridge ;' and of a following improvements were introduced during his reign. The pamphlet on "The Niger Trade and the African Blockade,' as conprovince of Mazovia, which had hitherto been governed by a separate nected with the slave-trade, a subject in which he has always taken code, was induced by Stephen to adopt the general laws of Poland, much interest. (See SUPPLEMENT. with some few exceptions. The statute-book of Lithuania was en STEPHENS (French, ETIENNÉ or ESTIENNE; Lat., STEPHA. larged by the addition of many new articles. The statute of Culm, NUS) is the name of a family of the most illustrious scholars and by which the towns of Prussia were governed, was revised. Many printers that has ever appeared. Several of the members of this salutary laws respecting the property of the crown and the privileges family bore the same Christian name, which has produced much conof the nobles were enacted. But the most important civil act of this fusion in the accounts that have been giver of them. We shall give king was the establishment of tribunals or supreme courts of justice the lives of them in a chronological success on, and distinguish those for Poland and Lithuania. They were composed of members elected of the same name by the epithets the first, the second, &c. The for the session by the same voters who returned the nuncios, or earliest among them who distinguished himself ismembers of the diet. This institution, which supplanted the admi HENRY STEPHENS I., who was born at Paris ; the year of his birth nistration of justice by the king, and rendered it independent of the is uncertain, though it appears probable that it was about 1460. crown, continued till the dissolution of Poland.

He had his printing establisbment at Paris, in a place which he calls Stephen Bathori was very fond of learning and a great patron of "e regione scholæ decretorum,” which is now called "Rue de l'École learned men. In his early life he was imprisoned for two years in a de Droit.”. The earliest work which is said to have been printed by fortress, by the emperor of Austria, which time he spent in the study him is of the year 1502, the year before that in which his son Robert of the classics, and particularly in that of the Commentaries' of was born. The works which he printed were mostly on theological, Cæsar, which he is said to have known by heart. He is supposed to philosophical, mathematical, and medical subjects, and he published have been originally a Protestant, but to have been induced by the very few editions of the classical writers. On the title-page of his representations of a Roman

Catholic bishop to abjure secretly his publications are represented two men looking at a shield which stands creod and become a Roman Catholic on his accession to the crown of between them, and contains three lilies, and above them a hand hold. Poland, so that many believe that he had always conformed to the ing a closed book. Above the heads of the two men is the deviceRoman Catholic church. Some learned Jesuits having gained his Plus olei quam vini.' At the bottom of the title-page he sometimes confidence, he became a great patron of their order, and founded for gives only his initials, H. S., and sometimes his full name. All the them the University of Wilna and the College of Polotzk, which he works that came from his press were very correctly printed, as le richly endowed. He was however strongly opposed to religious into always revised the proofs. A list of his publications is given by lerance, and maintained evenhanded justice amongst the various Maittaire ('Historia Stephanorum," ii

. 1, p. 1-9, and by Renouard, denoruinations which prevailed in Poland. He left no issue, and yol

. i.), from which we extract the following :-In 1512 he published resigned, on his election to the throne of Poland, the principality of the Itinerarium Antonini ;' in 1519 the works of Dionysius AreoTransylvania to his brother Sigismund.

pagita; in 1521 an extract of the 'Arithmetica' of Boethius. In 1522 STEPHEN, THE RIGHT HON. SIR JAMES, K.C.B., LL.D., his son Robert was engaged in the printing establishment of his fatheris the son of James Stephen, Esq., Master of Chancery, (well known in-law Simon de Colines, who calls himself the successor of Henry for his writings and exertions between 1815 and 1830 on the subject Stephens, and married his widow. From this fact we must infer that of colonial slavery) and was born about the year 1790. He was Henry Stephens died in 1521 or 1522. Some authorities, however, educated at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1812. give 1520 as the year of his death. Having chosen the legal profession, he was called to the Bar at FRANCIS STEPHENS I., was the eldest of the three sons of Henry Lincoln's-Inn. He had hardly begun practice as a Chancery barrister, Stephens. He was a partner of Simon de Colines : there are very when, in 1812 or 1813, he became connected officially with the public few books known to be printed by him. The earliest is a work called service as counsel of the Colonial Department. For eleven years he Vinetum, printed in 1537. In 1543 he published a 'Psalterium was at once counsel for this department and a Chancery barrister in Græcum, in 16mo, in which the titles and initials of the verses are extensive practice. He then retired from the Bar, and became at the printed in red. The last of the publications is the 'Andria' of same time both counsel to the Colonial Department and counsel to Terence, in 8vo. His mark on the title-page is a tripod, which stands the Board of Trade. He held these offices jointly for ten years ; after upon a book, and from which a vine-branch rises. He is believed to which, during the Whig government which succeeded the Reform Bill

, have been born in 1502, and died in 1550. A list of his publications is he left the Board of Trade and became assistant-under-sccretary for given by Maittaire, p. 31, and by Renouard, vol. i. the Colonies. From the assistant-under-secretaryship he was sub ROBERT STEPHENS I., the second son of Henry Stephens I., was born sequently promoted to the permanent under-secretaryship; spending at Paris in 1503. In his youth he studied the Latin, Greek, and fourteen years in the two offices together. He was thus connected Hebrew languages, and he made such progress, that at an early with the civil service thirty-five years in all, during the whole of period of his life he gave extraordinary proofs of his learning, and which time his relations were mainly with the Colonial Department was subsequently placed by his contemporaries above the greatest His impressions of the state of our government offices, and of the scholars that had ever lived. After the death of his father, he was colonial office in particular, derived from this long experience, were for some time engaged in the printing-office of Simon de Colines, his published, with other opioions on the same subject, in a Blue-book in father-in-law, and he appears, as early as his nineteenth year, to have 1855, when the question of the re-organisation of the civil service, by had the entire management of the printing, correcting, and editing the adoption of the system of appointments, by competitive examina. of several works, for in 1522 there appeared from the establishment tion instead of by patronage, was first agitated. The opinion there of De Colines, an edition of the New Testament (Novum Testamentum, expressed on the condition of the public service, as regards the Latine, 16mo), which, although a copy of the Vulgate, was more intellectual capacity and culture of the majority of those comprising correctly printed than any previous edition, and also contained some it, is by no means favourable; but the writer speaks of splendid corrections by Robert Stephens. The professors of the Sorbonne, exceptions. Of these exceptions the writer himself was certainly one. alarmed at the appearance of a new edition of a book which they While in the Colonial Office he was one of the ablest and most efficient wished to keep from the public, especially at a time when Protespublic servants that the state possessed ; and his final retirement from tantism was making rapid progress, inveighed in their lectures against the colonial under-secretaryship in 1847 was a great loss to that the audacious youth, and declared that the book should be burnt. department. He then received the honour of knighthood. It was But their anger produced little effect. A short time after this he not only however as a public official that he had up to that time dis- married Petronella, a daughter of the celebrated scholar and printer tinguished himself. A man of general thought and culture, he had all Jodocus Badius, a woman of great talents, who understood and spoke along employed his leisure in studies ranging beyond the topics that Latin as well as her mother-tongue. As the house of Stephens was interested him as an official ; and he had latterly contributed exten- visited by scholars and eminent men of all countries, Latin became sively to the Edinburgh Review' on subjects relating to the History the ordinary language of conversation; and it is said that the children of the Church and the developement of religious opinions. A collection and even the servants acquired some facility in speaking it. After his of these articles, already widely known and appreciated in their marriage he established a separate printing office for himself, though scattered shape, was published in two volumes in 1849, under the title he remained in the same street in which his father's office was of . Essays in Ecclesiastical Biography.” In the same year Sir James situated. The earliest publication from his own establishment was Stephen was appointed to succeed William Smyth, M.A., as Regius Apuleii Liber de Deo Socratis,' 8vo, 1525. Others believe that he Prof.ssor of Modern History in the University of Cambridge ; which had no separate establishment till two years later, and that Cicero's office be still holds. In 1851, he published in two volumes, Lectures Partitiones Oratoriæ' and 'Persii Satyra' (1527) were the first works on the History of France. This work is now in a third edition, and that were issued from it. These works were followed by a great there have been several editions of its predecessor. The two together number of Roman authors, and Latin translations from the Greek have given the author a high and peculiar place in our graver con and other languages, some of which were made by himself. For many

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