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709 STEPHENSON, GEORGE.
710 In 1816 therefore he took out a patent for an improved form of rail tions for assistance and advice from projectors and inventors of all and chair, and for further improvements in the locomotive engine, kinds, to whom however he was invariably attentive and kind, he one of which was placing it on springs, and they were attended with passed the remainder of his days in ease and peace, and died after & marked success.
short illness on August 12, 1848, leaving a name rendered illustrious The construction of railroads had for some time occupied much of by the patient perseverance of a high-minded industry, and the widely. the public attention. The first contemplated was the Stockton and developed productions of a remarkable genius. A valuable biography Darlington, for which an act of parliament was obtained by Mr; of this eminent man has been written by Mr. S. Smiles, to which we Pease in 1820, to be worked "with men and horses, or otherwise." are indebted for many of the facts in this notice. In 1819 the owners of Hetton Colliery, desiring to turn their tramroad STEPHENSON, ROBERT, the son of the preceding, was born, as into a railway, employed Mr. Stephenson in its construction. The we have already said, at Willington, on December 16, 1803. His length was about eight miles, and being over a hilly country he took father, who had felt the want of early education, resolved that his son advantage of the heights to form self-acting inclines, the locomotive should not suffer from the same cause, and accordingly, though at working on the level part; and on the 18th of November 1822 it was the time he could ill afford it, sent him to a school at Long Benton, opened for traffic. He was next employed to construct the Stockton and in 1814 placed him with Mr. Bruce at Newcastle. Robert soon and Darlington line, which the proprietors had agreed, on his recom- displayed a decided inclination for mechanics and science
, and becoming mendation, to make as a railroad and not as a tramroad, with a member of the Newcastle Literary and Philosophical Institution, stationary engines for the steep, gradients, but horse-power was to be was
enabled to take advantage of its library ; so that, as the
Saturday used for the levels, for Mr. Stephenson's confident anticipations of the afternoons were spent with his father, the volume which he invariably success of his locomotive engines were still regarded with suspicion, took home with him, formed the subject of mutual instruction to He began the work in May 1822, in 1823 an amended Act was procured father and son. Robert's assiduity attracted the attention of the for working the line with locomotives, and Mr. Stephenson was Rev. Wm. Turner, one of the secretaries to the Institution, who readily appointed resident engineer at a salary of 3001. per annum, upon assisted him in his studies, and was also of much service to his father which appointment he removed to Darlington. The line was opened with whom he soon after became acquainted. Under Mr. Bruce, Robert ip September, 1825, and an engine driven by Mr. Stephenson himself acquired the rudiments of a sound practical education, and under bis drew a load of ninety tons at the rate of a little more than eight miles father's direction was always ready to turn his acquirements to account. an hour. It proved highly remunerative, for besides a far larger There still exists in the wall over the door of the cottage at Killingamount of goods traffic than had been calculated on, a passenger traffic worth, a sun-dial of their joint production, of which the father was arose that had been wholly unthought of; the passengers however always proud. In 1818 Robert was taken from school and apprenticed were for a time conveyed in carriages drawn by a horse at a speed of to Mr. Nicholas Wood as a coal-viewer, acting as under-viewer, ten miles an hour. It may be mentioned, that this railway has created and making himself thoroughly acquainted with the machinery and the town and port of Middlesborough-on-Tees, then the site of a farm, processes of coal-mining. In 1820 however, his father being now somebut now containing 15,000 inhabitants.
what richer, he was sent to Edinburgh University for a single session, In 1824, while the Darlington line was in progress, Mr. Stephenson, where he attended the lectures of Dr. Hope on chemistry; those of Sir feeling the difficulty he had experienced in constructing his engines John Leslie on natural philosophy; and those of Professor Jamieson on in a blacksmith's shop, proposed to Mr. Pease, of Darlington, his geology and mineralogy. He returned home in the summer of 1821, firm friend and
great patron, the establishment of an engine-factory having gained a mathematical prize, and acquired the most important at Newcastle. The proposal was adopted, and for a considerable time knowledge of how best to proceed in his self-education. In 1822 he it was the only manufactory for locomotives in the kingdom; it is was apprenticed to his father, who had then commenced his locomotive now increased to an enormous extent, and has been the training-school, manufactory at Newcastle, but after two years' strict attention to the whence has issued a vast number of skilled workmen and eminent business, finding his health failing, he accepted, in 1824, a commission practical engineers.
to examine the gold and silver mines of South America, whence he was In 1824 the project of a railway, or tramroad between Liverpool and recalled by his father when the Liverpool and Manchester railway Manchester began to be agitated. Increased facility of communication was in progress, and he reached home in December 1827. He took was imperatively required, but there was much controversy as to the an active part in the discussion as to the use of locomotives on the means." At length a railway was decided on, Mr. Stephenson was line, and in conjunction with Mr. Joseph Locke, wrote an able employed to make the survey, and application was made to parliament pamphlet on the subject. He also greatly assisted his father in the for an Act. A strong opposition was raised both within the House of construction of the successful engine, which we believe was entered Commons and without Landowners drove the engineers off their in his name, though he himself ascribes the merit entirely to his grounds, and before the Committee the most absurd objections were father and Mr. Henry Booth, on whose suggestion the multitubular urged against the whole scheme, the idea of any quick transit being a boiler was adopted. subject for especial ridicule. The Bill was however carried on a second Robert Stephenson's next employment was the execution of a application, and Mr. Stephenson was appointed principal engineer. The branch from the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, near Warrington, work was commenced in June 1826, and after struggling through many now forming a portion of the Grand Junction Railway, between difficulties--one, and not the least, being the carrying the railway over Birmingham and Liverpool. Before this branch was completed, he Chat Moss-it was opened on Sept. 15, 1830. During its progress undertook the survey and afterwards the construction of the Leicester eminent engineers had reported against locomotives being worked on and Swannington Railway, and on the completion of that work he the line, recommending horse-traction; but at length Mr. Stephenson commenced the survey of the line of the London and Birmingham prevailed on the Directors to offer a prize for a locomotive engine, con- Railway, of which he was ultimately appointed engineer, and removed forming to certain conditions, which was done, and the prize of 5001. to London. Under his direction the first sod was cut at Chalk Farm was won by the Rocket engine, in the construction of which he had on June 1, 1834, and the line was opened on Sept. 15, 1838. Fully availed himself of the assistance of his son Robert.
aware of the vital importance of obtaining good means of rapid transit, From this moment his fortune was made. Employment of a most he still continued to devote much of his time to improvements in the remunerative character poured in from all sides. Railways were pro- locomotive engine, which were from time to time carried out under jected in every direction, and he became the chief engineer of several his direction at the manufactory in Newcastle, which for some years of them. With these he was incessantly engaged till 1840, when he was exclusively devoted to engines of that class, and still supplies resigned most of them, and settled at Tapton in Derbyehire, where larger numbers than any other factory in the kingdom, independent of he commenced a fresh pursuit in working the Clay Cross collieries. At many marine and stationary engines. His engagements on different this time he took much interest in the well-doing of the Mechanics' lines of railway have since been very numerous, but he is more Institutes in his neighbourhood, and on more than one occasion related remarkable for the magnificent conceptions and the vastness of some to them the circumstances of his own career, as an encouragement to of his successfully-executed projects, such as the High Level Bridge the members to adopt a course of steady and persevering industry. over the Tyne at Newcastle, the viaduct (supposed to be the largest His interest in railway extension however continued unabated, and be in the world) over the Tweed valley at Berwick, and the Britannia took an active part, either as engineer, chairman, or shareholder, in tubular bridge over the Menai Strait—a form of bridge of which there the Whitehaven and Maryport, the Yarmouth and Norwich, and the had been previously no example, and to which, considering its length Newcastle and Edinburgh East Coast Line, with which the stupendous and the enormous weight it would bave to sustain, the objections and work of the High Level Bridge at Newcastle (designed by his son), difficulties seemed almost insuperable. With the assistance however is connected; he was one of the committee of management, but he of Professor Hodgkinson, Mr. Edwin Clark, and Mr. Fairbairn in did not live to see it completed. He was also employed in Belgium, experiments on the best forms of the various portions of the strucand ho travelled into Spain to inspect a proposed line from the ture, the difficulties were triumphantly overcome, and in less than Pyrenees to Madrid, but the project was fruitless. On his return four years the bridge was opened to the public on March 18, 1850. from Spain in 1845 he relinquished still more his attention to railway Mr. Stephenson has also been employed in the construction of many matters, and occupied himself almost entirely with his collieries foreign railways. He was consulted, with his father, as to the Belgian and lime-works, with the cultivation of bis farm and gardens, and lines ; also for a line in Norway between Christiania and Lake Miösen, indulged in his old fancy for keeping birds and animals. With the for which he received the grand cross of the order of St. Olaf from the exception of promoting the Ambergate and Manchester Railway, king of Sweden; and also for one between Florence and Leghorn, inventing a new self-acting break, of attending the ceremony of opening about sixty miles in length. He visited Switzerland for the purpose the Trent Valley Railway (when Sir Robert Peel made a speech com- of giving his opinions as to the best system of railway communicaplimentary to him), and of being considerably troubled by applica. tion. He designed and is now constructing the Victoria tubular bridge
712 over the St. Lawrence, near Montreal, on the model of that over the which made him afterwards socially celebrated. From Trinity Menai Strait, in connection with the Grand Trunk Railway of Canada, College, Sterling removed, along with his friend Maurice, to Trinity for unitiog Canada West with the western states of the United States Hall, with an intention of studying law; but in 1827 he left Cambridge of America. He has recently completed the railway between Alex- altogether, without taking his degree. In 1828 the 'Athenæum,' andria and Cairo, a distance of 140 miles, and has, during its construc- then recently started by Mr. Silk Buckingham, was purchased by tion, several times visited Egypt. On the line there are two tubular Sterling, or at his instance, and he and Maurice conducted it and bridges ;-one over the Damietta branch of the Nile, and the other wrote in it for some time. The speculation however in their hands over the large canal near Besket-al-Saba. The peculiarity of the did not answer commercially, and the journal was sold to its present structures is that the trains run on the outside upon the top of the proprietor. Sterling, to whom it was not absolutely necessary that tube instead of inside, as in the case of the Britannia Bridge. He is he should engage in any employment for his living, continued to now constructing an immense bridge across the Nile at Kaffre Azzayat, reside in London, the centre of a circle of ardent and thoughtful to replace the present Steam Ferry which is found to interfere too young men, including not only his college friends, but such additions much with the rapid transit of passengers.
as John Stuart Mill. An eager radicalism of opinion was then In addition to his railway labours Mr. Stephenson has taken a gene- Sterling's characteristic. It was about the year 1828 that he first ral interest in public affairs and in scientific investigations. In 1847 became acquainted with Coleridge, then living his recluse life at he was returned as member of parliament, in the Conservative interest, Highgate ; and Coleridge's influence on Sterling was great and for Whitby in Yorkshire, for which place he continues to sit. He has enduring. It was evident in a three volume novel, entitled ' Arthur also acted with great liberality to the Newcastle Literary and Philo. Coningsby,' which he wrote in 1829-30, but which was not published sophical Society, paying off in 1855 a debt amounting to 31001. in till a year or two later. In November 1830 he married; and shortly gratitude, as he expressed it, for the benefits he derived in early life after, being in ill-health, he and his wife went to the West India from that establishment, and to enable it to be as practically useful to island of St. Vincent, where a valuable sugar estate had been be. other young men. He has most liberally placed at the disposal of Mr. queathed to him, his elder brother, and a cousin, by one of his Piazzi Smyth, bis yacht and crew, to facilitate the interesting investi- mother's uncles. He stayed about fifteen months in St. Vincent, gations undertaken by that gentleman at the Island of Teneriffe, and returning to England in August 1832. In the spring of 1833 his very valuable results have been obtained. He has been an honorary novel was published, but obtained little recognition except among the but active member of the London Sanitary and Sewerage Commis- few. Chancing in that year to meet again his tutor, the Rey. Julius sions ; he is a Fellow of the Royal Society, a member of the Institu- Hare, at Bonn, the effect of their conversation on Sterling's mind, tion of Civil Engineers since 1830, of which institution he was member then vibrating under the prior infuence of Coleridge, was that he of council during the years 1845 to 1847, vice-president during those resolved to take holy orders in the English Church. He was ordained from 1848 to 1855, and president during the years 1856 and 1857. deacon at Chichester, on Trinity Sunday, 1834, and immediately He has received a Great Gold Medal of honour from the French Expo- became curate of Hurstmonceaux in Sussex, where his friend was rector. sition d'Industrie of 1855, and is said to have declined an offer of Sterling retained his curacy only eight months, resigning it in knighthood in Great Britain. He is also the author of a work on February 1835, on account of delicate health. It is not improbable the Locomotive Steam-Engine,' and another on the Atmospheric that at the same time there was a change, or a tendency to change, in Railway System,' published in 4to by Weale. [See SUPPLEMENT.] bis opinions. From this time, at all events, there was a gradual
STEPNEY, GEORGE, descended from an ancient family in Pem- divergence in his views from the fixed creed of the Church of England, brokeshire, was born in Westminster, in 1663. In 1676 he was sent though his relations to many of its most excellent members continued to Westminster School, where he continued his studies till 1682, to be as intimate and affectionate as ever. It was in 1835 that he first when he removed to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he distinguished became acquainted with Mr. Carlyle, then recently setttled in London; himself in 1683 by a Latin ode on the marriage of the Princess Anne and it seems evident that gradually the influence of Mr. Carlyle to Prince George of Denmark. He took the degree of M.A. in 1689. modified the results of that of Coleridge. “ Coleridge,” says Mr. At Westminster he had formed a friendship with Charles Montague, Carlyle himself, in his memoir of Sterling, "was now dead, not loug afterwards Earl of Halifax, which was continued at Cambridge. They since; nor was bis name henceforth much heard in Sterling's circle; came to London together, and were both introduced into public life by though, on occasion, for a year or two to come, he would still assert the Earl of Dorset. Stepney's life, which was short, was chiefly spent his transcendant admiration, especially if Maurice were by to help. in diplomatic employments. In 1692 he was sent as envoy to the But he was getting into German, into various inquiries and sources of Elector of Brandenburg; in 1693, to the Emperor of Germany; in knowledge new to him, and his admirations and notions on many 1694, to the Elector of Saxony. In 1695 he published a poem, things were silently and rapidly modifying themselves.” Literature dedicated to the memory of Queen Mary; in 1696 he went as envoy was thenceforward Sterling's chief occupation; though, from all the to the Electors of Mentz and Cologne, and to the congress at Frank accounts that remain of him, what he accomplished and has left fort; in 1698 to Brandenburg, in 1699 to the King of Poland, in 1701 behind him in literature gives but a faint idea of the influence he to the Emperor, and in 1706 to the States-General. He was made one exerted in intellectual society, and especially in that of London, by of the commissioners of trade in 1697. He died at Chelsea in 1707, bis frankness and powers of talk. Very few men had so many friends and was buried in Westminster Abbey.
or was so loved by them. It was unfortunate for them and him that Stepney's poems are few, and of little value. He was one of the his extremely precarious health caused him every now and then to 'eminent hands' who were united with Dryden in the translation of absent himself from London and seek a warmer climate. In 1836 he "Juvenal' in 1693. Johnson says," he is a very licentious translator, went to the south of France; and in the following year he went to and does not recompense the neglect of his author by beauties of Madeira. While at Madeira he wrote much, and sent some contrihis own."
butions, in prose and verse, to 'Blackwood's Magazine.' In the spring STERLING, JOHN, was born at Kaimes Castle, in the island of of 1838 he returned to England, and for a time he resided on the Bute, Scotland, on the 20th of July 1806. Both his parents were southern sea coast, making frequent visits to London. He began to Irish by birth, though of Scottish descent; and his father, Edward write for the Westminster Review,' then under the charge of Mr. Sterling (afterwards well known as a leading writer in, and editor of, John Stuart Mill; he was also busy privately with various composi. the Times' newspaper, but then pursuing the occupation of a tions in prose and verse. It was at this time too that, in order to gentleman-farmer, after having been educated for the Irish bar, and secure Sterling's meeting with as many of his friends as possible on having served for some time as a captain in the army) had rented his flying visits to London, the famous so-called “Sterling Club" was Kaimes Castle a short time before his son's birth. John was the formed. A list of the members of this club is given in Mr. Carlyle's second child of seven, five of whom died while he was still a Life of Sterling,' at page 208. youth, leaving only himself and an elder brother, who survived him. Part of the years 1838 and 1839 were spent by Sterling in Italy; In 1809, the family removed to Llanblethian, in Glamorganshire, and on his return he took up his abode in Clifton. It was while Wales; and here John Sterling received his first school-education. residing here that he published under the general title of Poems, by His father about this time began to contribute to the Times' as an John Sterling' (Moxon, 1839), a collection of his metrical effusions up occasional correspondent; and the interest he thus took in politics, to that time. The two next years were spent in migrations from led bim, on the peace of 1814, to remove again with his family to place to place, including a second visit to Madeira, on account of Paris. Driven from Paris by the return of Napoleon from Elba and health. In 1841, while living at Falmouth, he published 'The Electhe resumption of the war, the family in 1815 settled in London, tion: a Poem, in Seven Books'—a poem of English life and society. where gradually the father rose to his eminent position in the world He was then engaged on what he intended to be his best workof politics and journalism. He was destined to outlive his son. "Strafford, a Tragedy,' which however was not published till 1843.
After havirg been at various schools in or near London, Sterling This year, 1843 (he had again been absent in Italy in the interim), was sent to the University of Glasgow ; whence, after a brief stay, he was one of calamity to him and his. His wife died in April, and his was removed in 1824 to Trinity College, Cambridge. Here Julius own always feeble health was rendered more precarious than ever by Hare, afterwards Archdeacon of Lewes, was his tutor, and here he the accidental bursting of a blood vessel. Sterling retired to Ventnor formed the acquaintance of various young men afterwards dis- in the Isle of Wight in June 1843, where his last labours were on a poem tinguished, including Frederick Maurice, Richard Trench, Spedding, on the subject of Cour de Lion,' still unpublished. Here he sank J. M. Kemble, Venables, Charles Buller, and Monckton Milnes. In gradually, and on the 18th of September 1844, he died at the age of the Union Debating Club of Cambridge, of which these and others thirty-eight. A collection of his "Essays and Tales' from the Athewere members, Sterling was one of the chief speakers; and it was here næum, Blackwood,' and other periodicals, was edited in two volumes, perhaps that he first exhibited the qualities of intellect and character with a memoir prefixed, by Archdeacon Hare, in 1848; the well
known Life of Sterling' by Mr. Carlyle, representing the man less in Meanwhile Sterne remained with his master at Halifax, to whom, his ecclesiastical than in his general human relations, appeared in from an anecdote which he relates, his dawning genius seems to have 1851; and in the same year Twelve Letters by John Sterling' were been already clearly discernible, till he was sent by his kinsman to edited by his relative Mr. Coningham of Brighton.
the University of Cambridge, in 1733. He was admitted of Jesus STERNE, LAURENCE, was the great-grandson of Dr. Richard College on the 6th of July in that year; and he took the degree of Sterne, who died archbishop of York in 1683. His father, Roger B.A. in January 1736; and that of M.A. at the commencement in Sterne, second son of Simon Sterne of Elvington and Halifax, having 1740. On leaving the university, in what year has not been stated, he entered the army, became a lieutenant in Handaside's regiment, and took orders, and his uncle, the Rev. Jaques Sterne, LL.D., a younger on the 25th of September 1711, o.s., married in Flanders, Agnes, the brother of his father's, and a well-beneficed clergyman, bring a prewidow of Captain Herbert, and stepdaughter of a person of the name bendary of Durham and of York, and rector of Rise and of Hornsea of Nuttle, whom Sterne himself, in a memoir written for the infor- cum Ri-ton, procured him the living of Sutton, in Yorkshire. It was mation of his daughter a short time before his death, describes as “a in the city of York that he met with the lady whom he married in noted sutler in Flanders in Queen Anne's wars." His mother's own 1741, after having courted her, as he tells us, for two years. Her name family name he professes to have forgotten. Roger's first child, born is not koown; all that appears is that her Christian name began with at Lisle, in July 1712, was a daughter, Mary, who grew up to be a L., being probably Lydia, like that of her daughter. She brought very beautiful woman, but made an unfortunate marriage, and died him some fortune, but probably of no great amount. Sterne's uncle early of a broken heart. Laurence was brought into the world on the now procured him a prebend in York cathedral; “ but he quarrelled 24th of November 1713, at Clonmel in Ireland, where his father and with me afterwards," says Sterne, “because I would not write mother had arrived with the regiment from Dunkirk only a few paragraphs in the newspapers : though he was a party man, I was days before. "My birthday," says Sterne," was ominous to my poor not, and detested such dirty work, thinking it beneath me: from father, who was, the day after our arrival, with many other brave that period he became my bitterest enemy." Notwithstanding all this officers, broke, and sent adrift into the world, with a wife and two virtuous indignation however, Sterne appears to have gone on doing children." The lieutenant upon this betook himself with his wife and this "dirty work" for his uncle for a very considerable length of time family to the family seat at Elvington, near York, where his mother, -not much less than twenty years. In a letter to a Mrs. Fwho had inherited the property from her father, Sir Roger Jaques, written in November 1759, on the eve of the publication of the first resided, her husband having died ten years before; here they all two volumes of bis . Tristram Shandy,' he says, in reply to an inquiry sojourned for about ten months, after which, the regiment being re- bis correspondent had made as to the reason of his turning author, established, they set out to join it at Dublin, whence Lieutenant “Why truly, I am tired of employing my brains for other people's Sterne being within a month ordered to Exeter, his wife and her two advantage. 'Tis a foolish sacrifice I bave made for some years to an infants followed him thither. They remained a twelvemonth in Eng- ungrateful person.” It has been asserted that he wrote, or conducted land, and then the lieutenant, with his family increased by another for some time, a periodical electioneering paper published at York in boy, born at Plymouth, was forced once more to turn his face to Ire- the Whig interest. Soon after his marriage, a friend of his wife's land. This must have been about the end of the year 1715, if the presented bim with the living of Stillington, also in Yorkshire; and chronology of the account is to be depended upon. Having got to he tells us he remained near twenty years at Sutton doing duty at Dublin, they continued there till the year 1719, which however would both places, which seem to have been within a mile and a half of each be for above three years, instead of only a year and a half, as Sterne other. "I had then," he says, "very good health: books, painting, seems to state. In that year, he says, “all unhinged again.” The fiddling, and shooting were my amusements.” During all this space, regiment was ordered to the Isle of Wight, to embark for Spain on his only publications, or all at least to which he put his name, were the Vigo expedition. On their journey thither from Bristol the two sermons: the first, entitled “The Case of Elijah and the Widow younger boy died, but his place was supplied by a girl (who died how- of Zarephath considered,' in 1747; the second, entitled . The Abuses ever in childhood) born in September 1719, in the Isle of Wight, of Conscience,' in 1750. This latter is the same which he afterwards where the lieutenant left his wife and children till the regiment got introduced in the second volume of his Tristram Shandy' as a Serback to Wicklow, in Ireland, whither he then sent for them. They mon of Yorick's: in the preface to the first two volumes of his collived a year in the barracks at Wicklow, where Mrs. Sterne gave birth lected sermons, which appeared the following year, he says, “I suppose to another boy; and then they spent six months with a relation of it is needless to inform the public that the reason of printing these hers, a Mr. Fetherston, parson of a place called Annamoe about seven sermons arises altogether from the favourable reception which the miles from Wicklow. "It was in this parish," says Sterne,“ during sermon given as a sample of them in "Tristram Shandy'met with our stay, that I had that wonderful escape, in falling through a mill- from the world that sermon was printed by itself some years ago, race whilst the mill was going, and being taken up unhurt; the story but could find neither purchasers nor readers." Both sermons were is incredible, but known for truth in all that part of Ireland, where republished in the collection. hundreds of the common people flocked to see me." The incident, it The first two volumes of "Tristram Shandy' were originally pubseems, is still traditionally remembered in the district. After this lished at York, towards the end of 1759, and were reprinted at Loudon they were in barracks for another year in Dublin-the year 1721 early in 1760. Although anonymous, the work seems to have been -in which, Sterne tells us, he learned to write. The regiment was known to be Sterne's from the first; and it raised him at once from next ordered to Mullingar, where a collateral descendant of Arch-obscurity to universal notoriety and high literary fame. This and bishop Sterne found out his relations, or was found out by them, and, his subsequent publications—two volumes of Sermons in 1760, vols. taking them all to his castle,' entertained them kindly for a year, and 3 and 4 of Tristram Shandy'in 1761, vols. 5 and 6 in 1762, vols. 7 then sent them after the regiment to Carrickfergus. On the journey and 8 in 1765, two more volo. of Sermons in 1766, the 9th vol. of thither, which took six or seven days, and is described as most rueful Tristram Shandy' in 1767, and the 'Sentimental Journey' in 1768— and tedious, or shortly after, the youngest boy died, and also another probably also brought him a good deal of money; and his circuminfant, a girl, which had been born when they were last in Dublin. In stances were further improved by his being presented by Lord the autumn of this year (1723), or the spring of the next, Laurence, Falconbridge, in 1760, with the curacy of Coxwold, also in Yorkshire, now ten years old, was sent over to England, and put to school, near which he calls "a sweet retirement, in comparison of Suttou." His Halifax," with an able master," says ke, with whom I stayed some celebrity also, it is to be feared, introduced the Yorkshire parson to time, till, by God's care of me, my cousin Sterne of Elvington became a new habits of life, and to some kinds of dissipation not quite so father to me, and sent me to the university." It will be perceived innocent as "fiddling and shooting." In 1760 he took a house at York from this detail, that, although Sterne was of English descent and for his wife and his only child, a daughter; but his own time he seems parentage, he was not only by accident a native of Ireland, but spent from this date to have spent mostly either in London or on the in that country a considerable part of his early boyhood. No doubt Continent. In 1762, before the conclusion of the peace, he went to some effect was produced upon his opening powers of thought and France, whither he was soon after followed by his wife and daughter. observation, by his having been allowed to run wild, as it were, in Leaving them both in that country, he seems to have in the first that land of wit and whim from his seventh to his tenth year. instance returned to England, whence, in 1764, he proceeded to Italy,
His father next followed his regiment to Londonderry, where, says with a view to the recovery of his health, now greatly impaired. He the autobiographical sketch, "another sister was brought forth, returned to England in the earlier part of 1767, and, having after Catherine, still living, but most unbappily estrarged from me by my some time persuaded bis wife to come over to him with their daughter, uncle's wickedness and her own folly." From Londonderry the regi- he remained at York till he had written all that we have of his ment was sent out to defend Gibraltar at the siege (in 1727), where 'Sentimental Journey, the first part, which he then brought up with Lieutenant Sterne was run through the body by a brother officer in a him to the metropolis, and published, as has been already stated, in duel, and only recovered with much difficulty, and with so shattered a the beginning of the following year. He lived merely to see the work constitution, that when, shortly after, he was sent out to Jamaica, he brought out; having died, at his lodgings in Bond-street, on the 18th speedily felí a prey to the country fever, dying at Port Antonio, in of March 1768 (not the 13th of September, as is stated on his monuMarch 1731. "My father," says Sterne," was a little smart man- ment erected some years after in the burying-ground of St. George's, active to the last degree in all exercises-most patient of fatigue and Hanover-square, where he was interred). He bad saved nothing, if disappointments, of which it pleased God to give him full measure ; he did not die in debt; but it is said that, soon after, his wife and he was in his temper somewhat rapid and hasty, but of a kindly, daughter being at York during the races, a collection which amounted sweet disposition, void of all design, and so innocent in his own inten- to a thousand pounds was made for them by some gentlemen there; tions, that he suspected no one ; so that you might have cheated him and they also received a liberal subscription for three more volumes ten times in a day, if nine had not been sufficient for your purpose." of his Sermons, which were afterwards published. In 1775, after her
mother's death, Sterne's daughter, who calls herself, at the end of the author of the first English metrical version of the Psalms attached to dedication to Garrick, Lydia Sterne de Medalle (having been married the Book of Common Prayer. He had undertaken to versify the to a person of the latter name), published three small volumes of his whole of the Psalms, but completed only fifty-one : the rest were *Letters to his Friends,' along with the short autobiographical memoir translated by John Hopkins and others. Sternhold's version was not from which many of the above facts have been taken.' Some of the published till after bis death— All such Psalm of David as Thomas letters in this collection are of a very extraordinary character to have Sternholde did in his Lyfe drawe into English Metre,' 8vo, London, been either published by a daughter, or left for publication, as we are 1549. He was also the author of Certain Chapters of the Proverbs assured they were, by a wife. The same year there appeared, under of Solomon, drawen into Metre,' 8vo, London, 1549. The complete the title of Letters to Eliza,' ten letters addressed by Sterne, in version of the Pealms by Sternhold and Hopkins was not published March and April 1767, to an East Indian lady, who is described by till 1562, when it was first annexed to the Book of Common Prayer, the editor as a "Mrs. Elizabeth Draper, wife of Daniel Draper, Esq., with the title of The whole Booke of Psalmes, collected into Eoglish counsellor at Bombay, and at present chief of the factory at Surat." Metre, by T. Sternhold, J. Hopkins, and others, conferred with the Having come to England for the recovery of her health, she and Sterne Ebrue, with apt Notes to sing withal.'. The printing was in black became aoquainted and were greatly taken with each other. Sterne's letter, and the music consisted of the melodies only, without base or letters however do not warrant us in concluding that they were other part. Many of the best melodies were adaptations from the attached by any other feelings than those of a very warm friendship. German and French. The lady had been dead some years, as well as Sterne himself, when The Reformation introduced metrical versions of the Psalms.. The his letters to her were published; and the latter part of her life, the Earl of Surrey, who was beheaded on the 19th of January 1546-7, editor tells us, had been attended with circumstances which were translated some of the Pealms and Ecclesiastes into verse, which, "generally said to have reflected no credit either on her prudence or together with a few poems, were printed by Dr. Percy, but never pubdiscretion. But whether there is any real ground for this slander lished, the whole impression having been consumed in the fire which we greatly doubt. Mrs. Draper returned to her husband in India destroyed the printing-office of Mr. Nichols in 1808. Sir Thomas after her correspondence with Sterne, and, then making a second visit Wyatt also published Certayne Psalmes, chosen out of the Psalmes of to England, died at Bristol, and was interred in the cathedral, where Dauid, commonly called vij. Penytentiall Psalmes, drawn into Englishe there is a marble monument erected to her memory. With the excep- Metre; whereunto is added a Prolog of the Aucthore before euery tion of one or two fragments, the only other remains of Sterne that Psalme, very pleasant and profettable to the godly Reader,' 8vo, have been printed consist of a second collection of letters, in one London, 1549. In the same year was published "The Psalter of volume, which also appeared in 1775; with the addition of a piece of Dauid, newly translated in Englyshe Metre, in such sort that it may humorous satire entitled "The History of a Watchcoat,' which how more decently and with more delight of the mynd be reade and songe ever had been published separately about seven years before.
of al men; whereunto is added a Note of four parts, wyth other In 1793 Dr. Ferriar, of Manchester, published an Essay in the third thynges,' &c., London, 1549. “ Then," as Campbell, in his 'Speci. volume of the 'Memoirs of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical mens of English Poetry' (vol. i., ' Essay on English Poetry'), observes, Society, afterwards enlarged and published separately in 1798, and "then flourished Sternhold and Hopkins, who, with the best intentions again in 1802, under the title of Illustrations of Sterne,' with the and the worst taste, degraded the spirit of Hebrew Pealmody by flat view of showing that many passages in his writings were suggested by and homely phraseology ; and mistaking vulgarity for simplicity, or imitated from various old and commonly neglected authors, espe- turned into bathos what they found sublime. Such was the love of cially Rabelais and Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy.' In a literal versifying holy writ at that period, that the Acts of the Apostles were sense, the charge is sufficiently established; there are some passages rhymed and set to music by Christopher Tye." Tye's book is entitled in Sterne which may be fairly said to be copied from Burton, Rabelais, The Actes of the Apostles; translated into Englyshe Metre, and dediand others; and the germs of a good many of his thoughts and expres- cated to the Kynge's moste excellent Majestye, by Cristofer Tye, sions may be found in their pages. Of course also the general spirit Doctor in Musyke and one of the Gentylmen of his Grace's most of his wit and turn of writing must have taken something from the honourable Chappell; wyth Notes to eche Chapter, to synge and also sources with which he is thus proved to have been familiar. But to playe upon the Lute, very necessary for studentes after theyr studye however these detections may affect Sterne's reputation for honesty, to fyle theyr wyttes, and also for all Christians that cannot synge to the question of the originality of his genius is not touched by them. read the good and godlie storges of the Liues of Christ hys Apostles, A writer of original genius, under the pressure of haste or indolence, sm. 8vo, Lond., 1553. See further, Warton’s ‘Hist. of English Poetry,' may, if not a scrupulous man, borrow or steal occasionally, as well as vol. iii., 149-57, &c., ed. 1840. the most common place writer. Sterne, we know, was the reverse of STESI'CHORUS, one of the earliest and most celebrated lyric poets scrupulous ; but he may also have had no very felonious intention in of ancient Greece. The few and fragmentary accounts which we have the appropriations that are laid to his charge; it will be admitted that of him, are not only in direct contradiction to one another, but are he has for the most part really put a new life into what he has thus manifestly interwoven with various mythical elements. All accounts resuscitated; and he probably thought that in all such cases he gave however agree that he was a native of Himera in Sicily, and son of more than he took. The nature of his writings, it is to be remembered, Euphemus. (Plat., 'Phædr.,' p. 244; Steph. Byz., 8. v. Maravpós.) precluded him from making any formal acknowledgment of his obliga. Among the various statements of the date of his birth, the most tions; he could not finish off a chapter in "Tristram Shandy' with a probable is that it was about B.C. 643. He lived to the age of eightylist of references such as might be appended to a chapter of a history three, his death having probably taken place in B.c. 560. In his later or an article in a dictionary. Beyond all controversy, he is, in his years therefore he witnessed the tyranny of Phalaris, against whom conceptions and delineations separately considered, as well as in his he is said to have cautioned his fellow-citizens in an apologue called general spirit and manner, one of the most original of writers. His the 'Horse and the Stag.' (Aristot., ' Rhet.,' ii. 20; Conon, Narrat.,' humour is quite as much sui generis as that of either Rabelais or 42; comp. Horat., 'Epist.,' i. 10, 34, &c.) The population of Himera Cervantes or Swift. Whatever he may have in common with any or consisted of Zanclæans and Syracusans, but the family of Stesichorus all of these, he has much more in which he differs from them, and that had come to the colony from Metaurus. He is said to have been blind is wholly his own. He is, of all English humourists at least, the for some time, and, according to the story, this punishment was airiest and most buoyant. And it is wonderful what a truth and real inflicted on him for having offended by bis poems the shade of Helen. humanity there is even in his most startling and eccentric creations ; His original name was, according to Suidas (s. v. Etnolxopos), Tisias, how perfectly unity of character and every artistic probability is and he assumed the name of Stesichorus as indicating the art to which preserved in each of them; how they all draw our sympathies towards he mainly devoted his life, that is, the art of training and directing them; how they live like actual existences in our memories and our the solemn choruses at the religious festivals. This art appears to hearts. It is rather a simple fact than an opinion that the first class have been hereditary in his family, which may be inferred from the of Sterne's dramatis persone, his Uncle Tobys, his Corporal Trims, fact that, according to some writera, he was descended from Hesiod, his Yoricks, rank in that department of our literature next to the and that after his death there occur two Himeræans of the same name, Launces and Touchstones, the Malvolios and Justice Shallows, of who were likewise distinguished in this art. (Marm. Par., 'Ep.,' 50 Shakspere, and far apart from all else of the same kind in the language. and 73.) But Stesichorus Tisias was the most celebrated of the family. In the mere art of writing also, his execution, amid much apparent It was he who gave to the choral songs the artistic form which was extravagance, is singularly careful and perfect; it will be found tüat subsequently brought to perfection by Pindar. Before his time a every touch has been well considered, has its proper purpose and chorus simply consisted of strophes and antistrophes. Stesichorus meaning, and performs its part in producing the effect; but the art of added the epode, during the recitation of which the choruses stood arts, the ars celare artem, never was possessed in a higher degree by still. The movements and arrangement of the chorus-dancers were any writer than by Sterne. His greatest work, out of all comparison, likewise settled by him in a manner which was afterwards observed is undoubtedly his Tristram Shandy;' although, among foreigners, by other teachers of the chorus and poets, and lastly, he introduced a the 'Sentimental Journey' seems to stand in the highest estimation greater variety of characteristic metres than had been hitherto used But that will hardly be the judgment of any Englishman,—though it in the composition of choruses, and had them accompanied by the may be of some English women.
cithara. In short, Stesichorus was regarded by the ancients as the STERNHOLD, THOMAS, was a native of Hampshire. The date creator of the perfect form of this species of poetry, although his of his birth is not known. He was educated at Oxford. Be was choruses were much more simple than those of later times, and bore groom of the robes to Henry VIII., and retained the same office under greater resemblance to epic poetry. The dialect which he used was Edward VI., in whose reign he died, August 1549.
that of the Epos, interspersed with Dorisms. The subjects of his Sternhold's only claim to distinction is that he was the principal poetry were all taken from the mythical and heroic ages of Greece, as
718 Quinctilian (x. i. 62) states, and as is clear from the titles and frag. seded, and is interesting chiefly in connection with the history of ments still extant. Some of these epico-lyrical choruses were very political economy. long: thus the Oresteia' is said to have consisted of two books, and STEVENS, GEORGE ALEXANDER, was born in London, and the series of scenes representing the taking of Troy, on the so-called brought up to a trade, which he deserted at an early age for the proIliac Table, was taken from this poem. The greater part of these fession of a strolling player, in which he continued several years, choruses must have consisted of epic narrative; but owing to the chiefly in the Lincoln company. In 1751 he had an attack of illness, solemn character of choral poetry in general, the tone of the narrative and published a poem entitled Religion, or the Libertine Repentant. is more exalted than in an ordinary epic poem. Quinctilian says that In 1752 the Libertine had ceased to be repentant, and obtained an he represented his heroes with their appropriate dignity, and that he engagement at one of the Dublin theatres, where he produced a might have rivalled Homer himself if he had kept within bounds, and burlesque tragedy, called 'Distress upon Distress. In 1753 he was not indulged in an exuberance of words, and not given the reins too engaged for Covent Garden Theatre, and came to London. Stevens much to his imagination. This censure is perfectly justified by the was not a good actor, but he wrote songs which he sang at convivial extant fragments.
societies, where he and his songs were much admired. He led a life Besides his choruses Stesichorus composed pæans and hymns which of dissipation, was generally necessitous, and always extravagant. In were of a more purely lyrical character. He is also the first Greek 1760 he published a novel, The History of Tom Fool,' 3 vols. 12mo. poet who wrote erotic poems containing celebrated love stories. The The first sketch of the work by which Stevens is chiefly known, the bucolic poetry of Sicily was likewise indebted to him, as he raised it Lecture on Heads,' was intended for Shuter the actor, to be used at from a rude and unpolished state to classical perfection.
his benefit; but he did not avail himself of it. Stevens then enlarged Stesichorus, whom the ancients always mention with high admira- the plan and improved the details, and having furnished himself with tion, is as a lyric poet totally different from what we usually understand the necessary apparatus of heads, &c., in 1763, or thereabouts, he by this term, for his works did not contain any effusions of his own began to perform it in the principal towns of England and Scotland feelings and thoughts, nor did they even, as it would appear, bear any with great success and a large profit. He afterwards went to North relation to the time and circumstances in which he lived; the subjects America, where he was not less successful than he had been in were stories belonging to past ages, and taken either from the early England. After a stay of about two years he returned, and then traditions of Greece, or from the legends current among the Sicilian proceeded to Ireland. In a few years he realised abont 10,000l. In peasantry.
1766 he produced a 'Supplement; being a New Lecture upon Heads.' After his death the Himeræans erected a statue, which represented It was only performed six nights.' In 1770 he brought out a burletta, him as a man weighed down by old age, with a book in his hand. The Court of Alexander,' which was set to music by Dr. Fisher, but (Cic., 'c. Verr.,' ii. 35.) Catana disputed with Himera the honour of added nothing to the fame of either author or composer. In 1772 he possessing the tomb of Stesichorus, and magnificent monuments in published his Songs, Comic and Satirical,' 12mo, Oxford. In 1773 honour of him were erected in both places.
he exhibited 'A Trip to Portsmouth.' After giving his ‘Lecture' a The fragments of Stesichorus have been collected by J. A. Suchfort, few times more, he sold it to Lee Lewis, who, with the assistance of 4to, Göttingen, 1771, and by Blomfield, in the 'Mus. Crit.,' No. 6. Mr. Pilon, made some improvements, and continued to perform it with The best collection however is that by Kleine, which was published tolerable success for some years. Meanwhile Stevens's faculties began in Svo, Berlin, 1828, under the title, 'Stesichori Himerensis Frag to fail, and he sank into a state of fatuity, in which he continued menta collegit, Dissertationem de Vitâ et Poesi Austoris præmisit, č. several years, till his death, which took place September 6, 1784, at Fr. Kleine. The yare also contained in Gaisford's Poet. Græc. Minor.' Biggleswade, in Bedfordshire, or, according to the 'Biographia Dra.
(Müller, Hist. of the Lit. of Ant. Gr., i., p. 197-203; Bode, Gesch. matica,' at Baldock, in Hertfordshire. After Stevens's death was der Lyrischen Dichtkunst der Hellenen, ii., p. 40-85.)
published, in 1788, The Adventures of a Speculist; compiled from STEUART, SIR JAMES, born at Edinburgh, October 21, 1712; the Papers of G. A. Stevens: with his Life, a Preface, and Notes, by was the only son of Sir James Steuart, solicitor-general for Scotland, the Editor.' under Queen Anne and George I. After being admitted at the Scotch Stevens's 'Lecture on Heads' has a thin sprinkling of wit, many bar at the age of twenty-four, he proceeded to the Continent, where he bad puns, much caricature, and a good deal of satire more extraspent several years, and at Rome was introduced to the young Pre vagant than forcible; but the absurdities of dress, manners, modes of tender. He was unfortunately called to Edinburgh by the illness of speaking, and other peculiarities of the day, were exhibited with so his wife at the period of the rebellion of 1745, where his intercourse much liveliness, if not truth, as to render the performance exceedingly with Charles Edward was resumed, though he took no part in pro. attractive. One of the best bits is perhaps the report of the trial, moting his designs. After the battle of Culloden he found it prudent Bullum versus Boatum.' 'Daniel versus Dishclout is not so good! to retire to the Continent, where he remained for the next seventeen Stevens's 'Songs, Comic and Satirical, amount to more than a years. In 1763 he was permitted to return to his native country on hundred. They were considered classical by the choice spirits of that the understanding that he would not be molested so long as he time, being filled with heathen deities, Venus, Cupid, Mars, Bacchus, remained quiet, but it was not until 1771 that he received a free and so forth, together with personifications of the virtues and vices. pardon. Having settled at Coltness, the seat of his family, in the They are chiefly bacchanalian and amatory, several are satirical, a few county of Lanark, he finished the most important of his works, on licentious, but not one comic.' Only one has retained its popularity, which he had been engaged during his long exile. It was purchased "The Storm,' which is indeed the only one which deserves to be by Andrew Miller, the bookseller, for 5001., and appeared in London, popular. It appears in Stevens's Songs as 'The Marine Medley,' but in 1767, in two quarto volumes, entitled 'An Inquiry into the Prin- it has since been considerably altered. (Life, attached to Stevens's ciples of Political Economy. As the British law of copyright did not Works ; Baker, Biographia Dramatica.) extend to Ireland, an edition in three volumes octavo was published in STEVENS, RICHARD JAMES SAMUEL, a composer of numerous Dublin in 1770, which is said to have been circulated rather extensively glees, many of which display the most brilliant traits of genius, was in the British colonies; and in 1770 a second edition of the work was born in London, about the year 1755, and educated in St. Paul's called for in England. He wrote also on the coinage of Bengal; on a Cathedral, under Richard Savage, almoner and master of the choristers. plan of uniform weights and measures; and while on the Continent His first appointment was as organist to the Temple Church. In published in French, a Vindication of Sir Isaac Newton's Chronology;' 1795 he succeeded Mr. Jones in the office of organist of the Charter and he was also the author of several metaphysical disquisitions, the house; and in 1801, on the death of Dr. Aylward, was elected protwo principal ones being on Beattie's 'Essay on Truth,' and Mirabaud's fessor of music to Gresham College. In 1782 he gained the prize‘System of Nature. He died in November 1780, aged sixty-seven. medal from the Catch Club for a serious glee, and another in 1786 for His only son, General Sir James Steuart, erected a monument to his a cheerful glee. These, with many more compositions of the same memory in Westminster Abbey, and in 1805 he published a complete class, particularly his five-voiced glee, from Ossian, Some of my edition of his father's works, in six volumes octavo.
heroes are low, in which the poetry and science of music are equally It is remarkable that Adam Smith, whose work on the same subject blended, speedily and deservedly obtained the stamp of public approappeared nine years after Steuart's, has not once referred to his pre- bation, which they will never lose so long as vocal harmony shall be decessor. He is stated to have said that he understood Sir James's admired. Mr. Stevens published three sets of glees and some songs, system better from his conversation than his volumes ('Life of Sir J. and edited a useful collection of anthems, &c., in three folio volumes. Steuart'); and Mr. M'Culloch remarks, that his statements and reason. He died in 1837, leaving one son. ings are "singularly perplexing, tedious, and inconclusive," though he STEVENSON, ROBERT, the celebrated engineer of the Bell Rock adds that his work "is by no means destitute of enlarged and ingenious Lighthouse, was born at Glasgow on June 8, 1772. His education views." The first book treats of population and agriculture; the was conducted under the care of his mother (his father having died second, of trade and industry; the third, of money and coin; the when he was young), and when completed he was placed with Mr. fourth, of credit and debts, and incidentally of interest and banks; Thomas Smith, of Edinburgh, who had projected the mode of improve and the fifth book relates to taxes. At the end of each book there is ing the illumination of lighthouses by the substitution of oil lampa a useful resume of the argument. The first book has the merit of with parabolic mirrors for the open coal.fires. When that gentleman placing the theory of population in nearly the same light as that in was appointed engineer to the Northern Lighthouse Commissioners, which it is now generally viewed. The author's want of confidence Stevenson became his assistant; and when only nineteen had the super in the efficacy of the commercial principle is in striking contrast with intendence of the construction of the lighthouse on the island of Little the views of Adam Smith. He proposed that granaries should be Cumbray, in the Frith of Clyde, between the southern point of the isla established for the purpose of collecting stores of corn in cheap years of Bute and Kilbride on the coast of Ayr. In 1797, having a short and selling them in dear years. But the work is now entirely super- time previously succeeded Mr. Smith as engineer to the Northern