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Lord of the Universe, whose mind can be read in His works ($ 19). Harmony prevails in heaven and earth and ocean; day and night succeed each other in regular order; the seasons follow in due course; all created things perform their functions peacefully ($ 20). Let us therefore act as becomes servants of this beneficent Master. He is near at hand, and will punish all unruliness and self-seeking. In all relations of life behave soberly. Instruct your wives in gentleness, and your children in humility ($ 21). For the Holy Spirit in the Scriptures commends the humble and simple-hearted, but condemns the stubborn and double-tongued. The Lord will come quickly (8$ 22, 23).'

• All nature bears witness to the resurrection; the dawn of day; the growth of the seedling (§ 24); above all the wonderful bird of Arabia ($ 25). So too God Himself declares in the Scriptures (§ 26). He has sworn, and He can and will bring it to pass (§ 27).'

“Let us therefore cleanse our lives, since before Him is no concealment ($ 28). Let us approach Him in purity, and make our election sure ($ 29). As His children, we must avoid all lust, contention, selfwill, and pride ($ 30). Look at the example of the patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob ( 31). See how the promise was granted to their faith, that in them all the nations of the earth should be blessed ($ 32). To their faith; but we must not therefore be slack in works. The Creator Himself rejoices in His works, and we are created in His image. All righteous men have been rich in good works ($ 33). If we would win the reward, we must not be slothful but ever diligent, as the angels in heaven are diligent ($ 34). And how glorious is the hope held out to us! Well may we strive earnestly to attain this bright promise: well may we school ourselves to lay aside all bitterness and strife, which, as the Scriptures teach us, are hateful in God's sight (§ 35). Nor shall we be unaided in the struggle. Christ our HighPriest is mightier than the angels, and by Him we are ushered into the presence of God ($ 36).'

'Subordination of rank and distinction of office are the necessary conditions of life. Look at the manifold gradations of order in an army, at the diverse functions of the members in the human body (8 37). We likewise are one body in Christ, and members in particular (§ 38). They are fools and mad, who thirst for power; men whom the Scriptures condemn in no measured terms (§ 39). Are not the ordinances of the Mosaic law – where the places, the seasons, the persons, are all prescribed - a sign that God will have all things done decently and in order ($$ 40, 41)? The Apostles were sent by Jesus Christ, as Jesus Christ was sent by the Father. They appointed presbyters in all

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churches, as the prophet had foretold ($ 42). Herein they followed the precedent of Moses. You will remember how the murmuring against Aaron was quelled by the budding of Aaron's rod ($ 43). In like manner the Apostles, to avoid dissension, made provision for the regular succession of the ministry. Ye did wrongly therefore to thrust out presbyters who had been duly appointed according to this Apostolic order, and had discharged their office faithfully (§ 44). It is an untold thing, that God's servants should thus cast out God's messengers. It was by the enemies of God that Daniel and the three children were persecuted of old ($ 45). There is one body and one Spirit. Whence then these dissensions ($ 46)?. Did not the Apostle himself rebuke you for this same fault? And yet you had the excuse then, which you have not now, that they whom you constituted your leaders—Cephas and Paul and Apollos—were Apostles and Apostolic men (§ 47). Away with these feuds. Reconcile yourselves to God by humility and righteousness in Christ ($ 48). Love is all-powerful, love is beyond praise, love acceptable to God. Seek love before all things, and ye shall be blessed indeed; for so the Scriptures declare ($$ 49, 50). Ask pardon for your offences, and do not harden your hearts like Pharaoh. Else, like Pharaoh, ye will also perish (§ 51). God asks nothing from us, but contrition and prayer and praise ($ 52). Moses spent forty days and nights in prayer, entreating God that he himself might be blotted out and the people spared ($ 53). Let the same spirit be in you. Let those who are the causes of dissension sacrifice themselves and retire, that strife may cease ($ 54). Nay, have not heathen kings and rulers been ready to offer themselves up for the common weal? Even women have perilled their lives, like men, for the public good. So did Judith; so also did Esther ($ 55). Let us intercede for one another; let us admonish one another ($ 56). And you especially, who were the first to stir up this feud, be the first to repent. Remember the stern threats, which the Scriptures pronounce against the stubborn and impenitent ($ 57).'

[Here a leaf of the manuscript is torn out, but we are enabled from quotations in different authors to supply the lacuna, as follows:

“The end is near, when all things shall be burnt up by fire. So the Prophets and Apostles testify: so also the Sibyl has declared. Prepare for this great and terrible day. God is tempting you, as He tempted Abraham. But be not dismayed. He is a living God'.]

Finally, may He grant all graces and blessings to them that call upon His name, through Jesus Christ our High Priest ($ 58).'

* Ephebus and Bito and Fortunatus are the bearers of this letter. Despatch them speedily, that they may return with the glad tidings of your peace and concord.'

“The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you and with all men (8 59).'

3.

The Epistle to the Corinthians was widely known and highly esteemed at a very early date. POLYCARP, who wrote early in the second century, appears to have been acquainted with it, for his extant Epistle presents many striking coincidences of language (see the notes on Polyc. Phil. 1, 2, 4, 7, 9; the parallels are collected by Hefele Patr. Apost. p. xxvi.). It is less certain whether the passage in IGNATIUS Polyc. 5, εί τις δύναται εν αγνεία μένειν εις τιμήν της σαρκός του Κυρίου, év ákavxyvią pevétw, is a reminiscence of a passage in Clement's Epistle ($ 38); though this is not improbable (see Hilgenfeld p. xxi). The language of the PSEUDO-IGNATIUS also, Ephes. 15 oudèv lavóável tov Κύριον αλλα και τα κρυπτα ημών εγγυς αυτω έστιν, closely resembles a passage of Clement ($ 27). Many parallels to the Epistle of BARNABAS have also been produced (Hilgenfeld p. xix sq.), but these are unconvincing; and, even if they were so close as to suggest a historical connexion, it would still remain a question whether Clement was not indebted to the Epistle of Barnabas rather than conversely. The reputation of Clement as a letter writer among his contemporaries may be inferred from the passage in the Shepherd of HERMAS already quoted (p. 3).

The testimonies in the ages immediately following are more precise and definite, and come from the most diverse quarters. We have seen in what manner this epistle is mentioned and quoted by HEGESIPPUS of Palestine, by DIONYSIUS of Corinth, by IRENÆUS of Asia Minor and Gaul, and by CLEMENT and ORIGEN of Alexandria. To these witnesses we should probably add TERTULLIAN of Carthage; for in one passage (de Resurr, carn. 12, 13) where he is speaking of the resurrection, he uses the same arguments as Clement ($$ 24, 25), appealing first to the succession of night and day, of winter and summer, and then to the ma

ellous resuscitation of the phonix. THEOPHILUS of Antioch also (ad Autol. i. 13) seems to have copied from the earlier part of this same passage (see the notes §§ 24, 25). In like manner a coincidence of expression with Clement's epistle ($ 43) in Justin MARTYR (Dial. 56), where Moses is called και μακάριος και πίστος θεράπων Θεού, suggests that it was known to this writer also ; (see again the note on 12). And again the treatise of CYPRIAN, de Zelo et Livore, seems to betray the influence of the corresponding passage in Clement ($ 4 sq.).

Three false Clements also, who wrote during the second century, seem to have been acquainted with the genuine Epistle. The so-called SECOND EPISTLE TO THE CORINTHIANS offers more than one parallel to this letter (see the notes on § 11 of the Second Epistle). The EPISTLES TO VIRGINs also (see below, p. 14) seem to aim at reproducing the style of the true Clement by repeating his favourite words and expressions (see the parallels collected by Beelen, p. lx sq.). And lastly, the EPISTLE OF CLEMENT TO JAMES, prefixed to the Clementine Homilies, presents one coincidence at least with the genuine writing, which is probably not accidental (5 Ι και της δύσεως το σκοτεινότερον μέρος κ. τ.λ. : see $ 5. of the Epistle to the Corinthians with the note).

Early in the third century PETER of ALEXANDRIA (Routh's Rel. Sacr. III. p. 34) in his account of the Apostles Peter and Paul treads closely in the footsteps of Clement (8 5). The testimony of EUSEBIUS who wrote a few years later has been quoted already. Not long after him S. BASIL quotes a passage from 'Clement's Epistle to the Corinthians,' which is not found in the ms but may have occurred in the lacuna (see the note at the end of $ 57). His selection of examples also in his homily de Invidia (II. p. 91) may have been suggested by the parallel passage in Clement (§ 4 sq.). About the same time CYRIL OF JERUSALEM refers to Clement by name as an authority for the story of the phoenix (Catech. xviii. 8). The writer of the APOSTOLIC CONSTITUTIONS too (v. 7), when describing this bird, though he does not mention his authority, obviously has the passage of Clement in his mind, as the coincidence of language shows. In the same way the descriptions of the phoenix in S. AMBROSE (Hexaem. v. 23, 1. p. 110; in Ps. cxviii. Expos. xix. § 13, I. p. 1212; de Fide resurr. 59, II. p. 1149) so closely resemble the account of Clement, that they must be derived from this father directly or indirectly. On the other hand, when EPIPHANIUS handles the same subject (Ancorat. 85, 11. p. 86), he presents no striking parallels, and his account of the marvellous bird would seem to be derived from some other source. It will be seen presently that, when he refers to the genuine epistle, he does so at second hand, and betrays no personal knowledge of it. A little later JEROME quotes this letter more than once (see below, p. 16). We are thus brought to the beginning of the fifth century. If the PSEUDO-JUSTIN (Quæst. et Resp. ad Orthod. 74) may be assigned to this age, we have another witness of about the same date; for he also alleges the authority of the blessed Clement in the Epistle to the Corinthians' (see the note after $ 57).

I use

About the close of the sixth century it is quoted by LEONTIUS and John (Sacr. Rer. lib. II. 5 in Mai's Script. Vet. Nov. Coll. vii. p. 84), and in the seventh by MAXIMUS the CONFESSOR (Sermon. 49). It is a wrong inference however (in Hilgenfeld p. xxv, and others), that a passage of ANTIOCHUS PALÆSTINENSIS (Hom. xliii. in Bibl. Vet. Patr. 1. p. 1097, Paris 1624) is founded on the language of Clement ($ 13), for the words of Antiochus are much nearer to the original Lxx (1 Sam. ii. 10) than to Clement's quotation. In the eighth century John of DAMASCUS more than once quotes this epistle (see the notes on 8$ 33, 57), and in the ninth PHOTIUS (Bibl. 126; comp. 113) mentions having read both Epistles to the Corinthians, and criticises them at some length (see the notes on sș 2, 17, 20, 25, 36).

In the eleventh century the genuine letter is cited by Nicon of RHÆTHUS (see $$ 14, 46), and in the twelfth by ANTONIUS MELISSA (see § 48).

But more important than the fact of its being quoted with respect by individual writers is the liturgical position which it held. this word rather than canonical, because there is no evidence to show that it was ever placed by any respectable writer in the same category or invested with the same authority as the canonical books. of Scripture. The Church of Corinth to which it was addressed, soon after the middle of the second century, and probably earlier, read it from time to time in the congregation, as they also read another letter which they had just recently received from the same Church of Rome (see p. 3): nor is there any reason for supposing that they attached more weight to the one document than to the other. This use however seems soon to have extended beyond the Church of Corinth. In the fourth century Eusebius (H. E. iii. 16) speaks of it from personal knowledge (@yvwuer) as 'read publicly in very many churches both in former times and in his own day' (èv πλείσταις εκκλησίαις επί του κοινού δεδημοσιευμένην πάλαι τε και καθ' ruas aútoús). A generation or two later S. Jerome, speaking more cautiously and perhaps without any direct knowledge, says (Vir. ill. 15) that it is 'read publicly in some places in nonnullis locis publice legitur).' At all events, when Photius wrote, the practice was a thing of the past; for he describes the letter as “a notable epistle which among many was deemed worthy of reception so as even to be read in public' (ήτις παρα πολλούς αποδοχής ήξιώθη ως και δημοσία αναγινώσκεσθαι, Bibl. 113).

For this purpose however, it was sometimes for convenience bound up with the books of the Canon. So we find it in the Alexandrian MS of the Greek Bible. But the position which it there occupies separates it from the canonical Scriptures; for it comes after the Apo

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