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« Third, The farmer's share 201.

« Fourth, As the Farmer himself may stand for one servant, I state only the wages and maintenance of another 121. • Fifth, The maintenance of the four horses 241.

Laftly, The money paid for shearing, threshing, &c. lumped at 81.

• Thefe deductions amount to 98 1. 18 s: But if the land can be managed with two horses, the deductions will amount to 82 l. 2 s. only, beside saving a driver.

· N. B. Reparation of houses, and other small articles, are too minute to enter into a general view. But if any article be thought too high, they may serve to balance what is fubtracted from that article.

• The account then stands thus. On the one hand the produet

£ 1550 Subtract on the other hand

98 18 0

56' 2' o This balance of 561. 2 s. is the landlord's rent.

• Supposing the product to be but four bolls per acre, or 40 s. inde the product

f. 125 a O Subtract as before

98 18 0


26 2 0 • Supposing the product to be 37 bolls per acre, or 35 s. inde

£. 110 Subtract

98 '18 0

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4. 112 2 O • Here an unexpected discovery is made of very great importance in farming; which is, that a farm yielding no more but an average of 31 bolls per acre, had better be wholly fet for pafture. For fuppofing it in that shape to yield no more but 55. per acre, which is 15l. for the whole, the clear profit is greater than when the farm is in corn; and the landlord draws more rent: he draws the whole 15 l. as land set in pasture is not burdened with any expence. This discovery may be of use to many a poor tenant, who labours and toils at the plough from year to year, to his own lofs. If his farm produce not more than 31 bolls per acre, better abandon the plough, turn his farm into pasture, and fit idle.'

We give this article as a specimen of the ideas entertained by the gentlemen in Scotland of the stock, &c. necessary for a farm, and of the manner in which a farmer ought to live. If this be compared with articles of the same kind in England, many of which occur in Young's Tours, it will ferve to evince


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the vast difference between the state of a Scotch and an English farmer.

As we have not room for a minute detail of what his Lordship has written on the theory of agriculture, we shall content ourselves with informing the Reader that he adopts the opinion that seems, at present, to be most universally received among the literati in Europe concerning the food of plants, viz. that, water or air, not excluding the substances that are contained; in them, is the common food of all plants; that, by confequence, soil is only of utility in affording, a steady support to plants, and that manures operate chiefly on the soil, by altering its texture, and rendering it more capable of adminiftering the common food to the roots of plants than it, naturally would be. In explaining and illustrating this theory, he employs, about one hundred and fifty pages; but as arguments would fuffer by being abridged, we refer the speculative reader, who wishes for farther satisfaction on this head to the book itself: after warning him, that theories in agriculture are, in general; but too apt to mislead the mind, by making it disguise facts-fo as to suit the favourite idea that has been preconceived.

We cannot avoid, although with regret, reprehending his Lordship for a vague and unphilosophical application of termo, which we think highly blameable. The term Elective Attraction is now sufficiently understood by all philosophers, and is universally employed to denote that quality in certain bodies by which they are determined to unite with one of two substances in preference to another with which it would have united if no other substance had been joined with them ; but here we find it employed to denote almost every kind of junction of one body with another. Not only all chemical solutions, but even mechanical diffusions are denominated elective attractions—Water is said to have an elective attraction for salt, and diffolves it Water has also an elective attraction for clay; - powdered clay, says he, is suspended in water, but the elective attraction is not so Atrong as to dissolve the clay : it continues visible in the mixture and makes the water turbid. c. Their mutual attraction yields by degrees to the repeated impulses of gravity : the clay, subsides, leaving the water transparent as originally,' According to this mode of reasoning, all fubstances that admit of being minutely divided have an elective attraction for water. Gold, by a mechanical process, may be reduced to such a degree of fineness, as to be not only suspended for a time, but even pera, manently suspended in water. Even oil, by strong agitation, can be so intimately blended with water as to render the mixture turbid : the mutual attraction, indeed, yields by degrees to the repeáted impulses of gravity : the water subsides, leaving ihe oil tran



sparent as originally. Many of the discoveries of modern times must be attributed to the attention that has, of late, been paid to the terms used in philosophical reasoning, which, instead of being left vague and indeterminate, as in the present instance, and as was but too common of old, are now accurately defined, and employed with the most philosophic precision. We hope, therefore, to see this fmall blemish corrected in a future edition.

To this work are subjoined several differtations of a miscellaneous nature. In the first, the Author points out the principal imperfections in the common husbandry of Scotland. The recond contains a proposal for improving agriculture in that kingdom: an institution which, we think, might be attended with many beneficial consequences. The third treats of the general heads of a lease for a corn farm, in which it is intended to point out the plan by which both the proprietor and tenant should be secured from injury, and the ground most perfectly cultivated. As this is an object of the utmost consequence to a country beginning to improve, which we suppose is the case with Scotland, it merits particular regard ; and, if we are not misinformed, it actually does obtain a very particular degree of attention from the gentlemen of that kingdom.

It appears to us, however, that his Lordship had not considered this branch of his subject with that degree of attention it required; as several of the clauses here enumerated are altogether inconsistent with one another, and could not take place in the same lease; and some of them would be urineceffary if other parts of the plan were to be executed.

He begins with recommending leases that shall have an uncertain issue; that is, to terminate with the life of the holder of the farm. But to this we see two great objections. The first is, that a prudent man will be afraid to lay out much money in improving a farm in these circumstances, lest he should hurt his family by fo doing. It therefore checks industry, and has a tendency to introduce a degree of languor and defpondency, which must ever be prejudicial to the community. The lecond objection is, that it must often subject the furviving family to the most cruel bardships when they are least able to bear it. The idea is certainly unworthy of a generous mind, as it prompts the landlord to secure himself by {natching from the widow and the orphan those harvests that had been prepared for them by the labour of the indulgent husband and parent, and of driving them out to misery and want, at that moment when they are deprived of him wno alone could have been their stay and support. Is it not enough that they should be deprived of his aflistance in fupplying their wants? Their sufferings ought rather to be alleviated than augmented on this mourniul occasion. Rev. Feb. 1778.



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In the sequel he approves of reftrictive clauses, limiting the tenant to a certain routine of crops, which he thinks would be beneficial. Were the knowledge of agriculture arrived at the utmost poffible degree of perfection, it might be doubted whether clauses of this nature would be advantageous; but in the present imperfect state of our knowledge in this art, nothing, to us, appears more ridiculoufly absurd than such a proposal. It is acknowledged that the farmer must, on many occasions, explore his way in the dark; he is a traveller in an unknown country, where he may meet with many unforeseen obstructions : yet he must be obliged to walk right forward in a line chalked out to him, without either deviating to the right hand or to the left, but at the peril of utter ruin. It is acknowledged that he alone must make the necessary discoveries in that unexplored country, yet others, who are themselves unacquainted with it, prescribe rules which he must on no account transgress :-was ever any thing more absurd than fuch a thought!

We reprobate these clauses with the less reserve, because we have it in our power to bestow the most ample applause on another article proposed by his Lordship; an article that entirely supersedes the use of these imperfect regulations ; which gives to the tenant that effectual security he wants; which tends in the most powerful manner to improve the country, to enrich the propricior, and render every person interested in the transaction happy in their several stations, as well as useful members of society. It is founded on equity, and therefore deserves the highest praise; it is dictated by wildom, and therefore cannot fail to be most extensively useful. After this exordium the Reader is, no doubt, desirous of knowing what this applauded article is.- Nothing can be more simple or natural. We give it in the Author's words :

· The following, says he, or some such clause, will excite a tenant's highest industry to improve his farm to the utmost, fuppofing it to be only for nineteen years. At expiry of the leate, the tenant shall be entitled to a second nineteen years, upon paying a fifth part (or any other proportion, he might have faid, agreed upon by the parties] of more rent; unless the landlord give him ten years purchase of that fifth part. The rent, for example, is 100l. The tenant offers 1201. He is entitled to continue his pofleflion a second nineteen years at the advanced rent, unless the landlord pay him 2001. If he offers a still higher rent, the landiord cannot turn him out, unless he pay him ten years purchase of that offer.'

We perfectly agree in opinion that this clause would excite a tenant's highest industry to improve his farm to the utmost, and in consequence would fuperfede the use of all other claufes.


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We would only propose this small alteration, to render it entirely unexceptionable, viz. chat instead of terminating with the second nineteen years, the lease should be renewable at the end of every nineteen years in infinitum, on the tenant's agreeing to pay a like proportional rife; the proprietor always being at liberty to buy the lease at ten years purchase of the rise of rent, as above, at the renewal of every nineteen years, if he hould fo incline. In this case, it is plain, that the tenant, by considering his lease as a perpetuity, would exert himself to the utmost, to render it worth the rent at which he could insure it to himself and heirs. But if, by accidental circumstances, he should find that it could not poffibly bear the additional rent, he is free to give it up whenever that additional rent ought to commence. On the other hand, should the proprietor find that, from any cause whatever, the farm would yield a greater rent than was ftipulated by the lease, he has it in his power to purchase the lease at the moderate rate of ten years purchase of that additional rent, which he may then lett to another, at the farther additional rent it may be worth. In short, turn this clause how you will, we imagine it impoflible to state a cafe in which either the proprietor or tenant could be injured in their interest: and we make no doubt that if the proprietors of land in Scotland should universally agree to adopt this method of letting land, it would soon become the richest and best improved country on the globe ; and the revenues of the land holders be encreased in a more rapid proportion than has ever been experienced in any other country. In such case justice would demand that a statue should be erected in honour of the beneficent author who first suggested the idea of it.

We beg pardon of the Reader, who may have no taste for the study of agriculture and husbandry, for having dwelt so long on this Article. The remaining part of the Appendix treats of the propagation of plants and animals, where we meet with several entertaining observations.

We cannot dilmiss the present Article without warmly recommending this volume to the notice of every person who has any concern with rural affairs. For although there are a few passages which we think less perfect than others, and which, on account of the smallness of their number, we have pointed out as we went along; yet it abounds with such useful infor. mation as cannot fail to render it highly beneficial to those who attentively peruse it.

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