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thefe unjuft oppreffors have the daring effrontery to lift up their head, and with impious boldness appeal to the impartial justice of Heaven for the necessity they are under of creating them thus, to eradicare the 'vices with which their own merciless cruelty hath debased the likeness of the Divinity originally ftamped upon the mind of all mankind !
• Leave then to the despots of other regions the guilt of such aggravated crimes, and let them not once be named in this land of happiness and freedom.--Complain no more of the ignorance or wickedness of your dependents, if you with to conceal your own shame, or wipe off a stain from the memory of your forefathers ;for those are vices that spring only from weakness and dependence. If they are dependent on you, give them proper security ;- if they are rendered weak by your superior power, remove the rod from above them, and only wield it to guard them from the attacks of others.--Soon shall all these vices disappear, and you shall have the pleasure of finding yourself placed above men who are in sank and dignity of ftation only inferior to yourselves; and who, in candour of mind, and undisguised fiocerity, are every way your equals.
Firmly convinced of the juftness of these remarks, we cannot help wishing that they may obtain that degree of attention from men in authority which they deserve. The nature of man, is, we believe, in some cases, so much depraved, as to render chafa tisement necessary; but this woald much feldomer be the case were more attention bestowed in removing those circumstances that tend insensibly to debase the mind. The apology usually made by owners of Naves for maltreating them, viz. that they are incapable of feeling any sentiments of gratitude, is, we think, ill founded, even without the aid of our Author's ingenious argument in their favour; for we have often known inItances of amazing attachment in slaves to such masters as have treated them with lenity. And if other instances can be produced in which they have retaliated on their cruel masters with a merciless barbarity, it does not invalidate our remark. The most vigorous minds feel in the most sensible manner, and reai sent with the greatest vehemence those humiliating indignities to which llaves are too often exposed, and are thus most apt to fall into barbarous excefles. Happy would it be for mankind, and much good would result to society, could the world in general as readily practise the humane precept conveyed in the following passage, as they will be disposed to admit the juftness of the remark:
• Every good man must be sensible, that heaven has endowed all sanks of people with talents nearly equal; and that these talents are often buried under a load of ignorance among the lower classes of people, so as never to appear. It therefore behoves those who have had the benefit of a liberal education, inftead of imitating the vulgar in their illiberal prejudices, and adding insult and contumely to the other misfortunes of the pocr, rather to commiserate their hard
lot in life, and while they have a grateful sense of their own superior good fortune, endeavour to smooth those dificulties that lie in the way of the others, and, with a merciful forbearance, not be irritated at their absurdities or errors, but with kindness and lenity gearly lead them from error to cruth-- from prejudire to right reason, and from misery to happiness. Thus would they show themselves truly worthy of that eminent ftation they enjoy, and prove in the most unequivocal manner that they are indeed exalted above the vulgar.'
These sketches are drawn, con amore, and the Reader will easily perceive that our Author is not only firmly persuaded, himself, of the juftness of these observations, but that he is also solicitous to convince others of the same momentous truths. So anxious indeed does he appear about the welfare of the lower ranks in society, that some may, perhaps, imagine, he looks upon the higher orders with an evil eye, and endeavours to excite, in the minds of the poor, that disaffection toward the great which seems to be too natural to them. But this would be far from answering the beneficent views with which he appears, on all occasions, to be actuated ; for instead of fomenting divisions, his reasoning tends, in the strongest manner, to unite all ranks and conditions of men in the most cordial esteem of one another, as he proves that the prosperity of each individual is most powerfully promoted by that of the whole.
When men of low station, he argues, are enabled to raise themselves to life and independence, they are rendered capable of paying to their superiors, without depresting themselves, those dues, whether under the name of rent, or of taxes, that are necessary for establishing themselves in business, and securing the enjoyment of their own property: as their property increases, they, therefore, become not only more able but inore willing to contribute to the support of their superiors, and are more contented and happy in their own minds.
On the other hand, those in higher stations, being freed from the cares that accompany indigence, and finding the people who contribute toward their support fo chearful and hearty, naturally view them with a greater degree of benignity, than when they see them unable, or, as they think, unwilling to contribute what they imagine they have a juft title to demand. From hence results a reciprocation of good offices, instead of mutual recriminations and abuse, and each is left at liberty to promote the general good in his own sphere; the poor by their asiduity and labour, and the rich by enacting wholesome laws, and seeing them faithfully cxecuted,-by guarding against the inroads of others, and allowing the labourers to follow their several employments in tranquil fecurity,-by preventing frauds and abuses among interested individuals, and by removing, as much as posible, all the common obstructions to industry. Thus,
like the several members of the body, which are indispensably necessary to one another, the well-being of the whole is necer sary for the prosperity of each.
When our Author comes to treat of the principal modes in which national industry may be exerted, viz. Agriculture, Trade, and Manufactures, he shews in what manner the prosperity of each naturally depends upon the flourishing state of all; and that every attempt to promote one of these arts, by depressing the others, must prove hurtful to the community, and, in the end, destructive to that very art it was intended to serve. No state can be in its highest degree of prosperity but where an happy alliance subsists between these three great sources of employment and beneficial intercourse, as they then mutually support and strengthen one another. He agrees, with most political writers, in thinking that agriculture forms the sureft basis for the prosperity of any face, because the ad, vantage derived from thence is less liable to be affected by the accidents or vicissitudes of the times, than any of the others. It also happens that every plan which tends to promote the interests of agriculture, must, of neceffity, promote the general prosperity of the state ; whereas it may sometimes happen that manufactures or commerce may produce a contrary effect. There is not therefore the fanie danger in having the legislative council influenced by the landed as by the trading interest; for it is clearly, at all times, the intereft of those of landed property to promote trade and manufactures, although it is not at all times 1o evidently the interest of merchants to promote the prosperity of agriculture.
Sometimes, however, men have been so short-sighted as to think that agriculture might be promoted at the expence of the, two sister arts; the futility of which idea he thus exposes :
• There are some instances, he observes; of nations peculiarly fi:uated which have flourished by means of commerce withoutagriculture; -there are also a very few examples of manufactures flourishing among a people who could have little dependence on the produce of the soil : but there is not among all the records of pait ages a fingle proof of a people who have enjoyed for any length of tire a spiritedagriculture, without the aid of commerce, or manufactures, or boch.
• Nor is it posible that it hould be otherwise. For without commerce or arts, what inducement has the farmer to cultivate the soil? In this case every man will only with to rear as much as is suficient. for his own sustenance, and no more; so that if the soil could afiord a hondred times the produce that is suficient for them, it will be allowed to remain an uncultivated walte. And if, in that country, any man should be fo foolish as to rear large crops, what would it benefit him! Every man has enough for his own fubGllence, fo. that he wants none of that superfluous produce. It must cheiefore be. fuffered to perish without being of any use at all to the owner.
Rev. Mar. 1778.
. For this reason a nation peopled only by farmers, must be a region of indolence and misery.-If the soil is naturally fertile, little labour will procure abundance ; but for want of exercise, even that little labour will be barthensome, and often neglected ;-want will be felt in the midst of abundance, and the human mind be abased nearly to the same degree with the beatis that graze the field. If the region is more barren, the inhabitants will be obliged to become somewhat more industrious, and therefore more happy. But miserable ac beft must be the happiness of such a people.
• Those, therefore, who wish to make agriculture Aourish in any country, can have no hope of succeeding in the attempt, but by bringing commerce and manufactures to her aid; which, by taking from the farmer his superfluous produce, gives fpirit to his operations, and life and activity to his mind.
• Without this fimulus to activity, in vain do we use arguments to rouse the sluggish inhabitants,-in vain do we discover that the earth is capable of producing the most luxuriant harvests with little labour :-our own abundant crops are produced as undeniable proofs of this in vain.-But place a manufacturer in the neighbourhood, who will buy every little article that the farmer can bring to market, and he will soon become industrious. The most barren fields will then become covered with some useful produce.--Inftead of lifless vagabonds, unfit for any service, the country will abound with a hardy and robust race of men, fit for every valuable purpose; and the voice of feftivity and joy be heard in every corner, inftead of the groans of misery, and the sighs of discontent.'
As a striking example of the justness of this reasoning, he gives the following very curious account of the present state of the town of Aberdeen; the authenticity of which cannot be disputed, as the Author lives in its neighbourhood :
* The cown of Aberdeen has made great advances in trade and manufactures within these thirty or forty years past. The number of inhabitants has encreased greatly within that period.-Money has become more plenty there than formerly.—Their manner of living is now more elegant and expensive; articles of luxury have encreased. In consequence of good roads having become more common, horses and wheel-carriages have also become extremely numerous.- On all which accounts, the demands for fresh vegetables has greatly encreased in that place within the period above mentioned.
• But, on account of the particular situation of that town, it was a matter of some difficulty to augment the produce of the fields in that neighbourhood, and supply the daily encreasing demand for these. This city is placed in the midst of a country that is naturally the most sterile that can possibly be imagined. For, unlefs it be a few hundred acres of ground that lie between the mouths of the rivers Dee and Don, close by the town, there was not an inch of ground for many miles around it that could supply the inhabitants with any of the necessaries of life. On the east is the German ocean ;-on the fouth the Grampian mountains come close to the river, terminating in a head-land on the south side of the harbour called the Girdle Nefs; -and on the welt and north, it is environed for many miles with an extended waste, the most dismal that can be conceived, in which
nothing can be discovered but large masses of stone heaped upon one another, interspersed here and there with a few bushes of starved heath, or disjoined by uncomfortable bogs and spouting marshes, the most vopromising to the views of the farmer that can postbly be imagined.
But what is it that human industry cannot perform !—what undertaking is too bold for man to attempt when he has the prospect of being repaid for his labour! Even these dismal wastes, it was imagined, might be converted into corn-fields. The ground was trenched ;- The ftones are blatied by gun-power, and removed at an immense expence ;-manures were purchased :-and thousands of acres of this sort of ground are now waving with the most luxuriant har. vests, and yield a rent from 51. to 81. Sterling per acre.
• In any other part of the world that I have seen, it would be reckoned imposible to convert such soils to any valuable use; and the most daring improver that I have met with any where else, would fhrink back from attempting to cultivate a fie'd which an Aberdeens. man would consider as a trifling labous, Long habit has familiarised them to fuch arduous ondertakings,~undertakings which could not be attempted any where else, as, unless in such a particular situation as I have described, the improver could never be repaid.- For in what other part of Europe could a man lay out 1001. Sterling, or upwards, on an acre of ground, before it could be put under crop, with any prospect of being repaid ?-yet this is no uncommon thing in that neighboorhood.
• Nor is this all : For to such a height is the spirit for improvement risen in that part of the world, that they are not only eager to cultivate these barren fields, but even purchase these dreary waites at a vast expence for that purpose. The lal: spot of ground of this sort that was to dispose of in that neighbourhood, was feued off by the town of Aberdeen in the year 1771, for ever, at an annual quite rent, or, as we call it, feu-dury, of thiriy-three or thirty-four Thillings Sterling per acre, although it was not then, and never could have been worth fixpence per acre, if left in its native flate,-nor could be converted into corn ground but at an expence nearly equal to that above mentioned.
• It ought to be farther remarked in favour of the Aberdeen improvers, that as they are at an unusual expence in firit bringing their grounds into culture ;--so they continue afterwards to cultivate thein with greater care and attention than is common perhaps in any part of the island, fo that they have more abundant returns, and can afford to pay greater rents. than in any other part of Great Britain.
• Could I produce a more fatisfaétory proof, that a good market will always produce a spirited agricultures or is it poflible to bring a more convincing argument in favour of the poor people in other corners of the country, who are accused by their proprietors of obilia pacy, and other bad qualities, because they do nor improve their fields in the manner the proprietors could with ;—seeing many of those who carry on improvements about Aberdeen, are people who bave come from distant parts of the country, where no sort of improvements were ever carried on, --and have no other arguments made