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port, is worfe than filly and uncandid, it is INSOLENT! But as this Correfpondent is a ftranger to the Monthly Reviewers, he may be pardonable.


What is faid, as above, may ferve as an acknowledgment of another Letter, on the fame fubject, and of a fimilar import, figned OBSERVATOR to whom we cordially return his own advice,"fet a double watch on yourself, when remarking on the labours of a person whom you either esteem or diflike." This has ever been our maxim.

It is aftonishing to fee how unmindful mankind are of that good old precept which enjoins us to give even the DEVIL his due! Be this, however, the critic's invariable rule; and may the Monthly Reviewers never depart from its honest principle!

We would recommend to all the bigotted fons of fectaries and parties, the laudable example of the late amiable Mr. Pope; who, though he utterly defpifed the Laureat, was invincibly fuperior to that narrowness of mind which would have prompted little fouls to deny the CARELESS HUSBAND praife." He knew that this play was written by Cibber, but he knew, too, that it was the best comedy of the age: and he spoke of it accordingly.


* If our rough Correfpondent, A. B. had pointed out the inftances in which we have confounded the Abbé with the Abbot, we › fhould have been ftill more obliged to him. Perhaps he may yet do us that favour. No circumftances, however minute, that may tend toward rendering the Monthly Review the moft correct, as well as the most useful of our periodical publications, will be difregarded by THE EDITOR.


+++ The continuation of Mrs. Macaulay's Hiftory of England, from the Revolution to the prefent Time, has been unavoidably deferred this month; but we propose to resume that Article in our


P. 93, par. 3, 1. 7, for of Peter, r. to Peter.

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ERRATA in the Review for February.

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96, par. 4, 1.5, for former, r. latter.

101, 1. 3 from bottom, for require half, r. require but half.

118, par. 3, 1.5, for fall, r. fect.

121, in the fecond note, for Review, vol, lvi. r. vol. xlvi.

-159, par. 2, 1. ult. for precure, r. procure.

Our refpectable Correfpondent S. M. S. is very right in his remark on "the crepuscles of twilight," in the extract, p. 140, of our laft Month's Review. The expreffion, certainly, ought not to have efcaped, without, at least, the filent criticism of talies; be-. caufe, as the Gentleman very properly obferves, fuch nonfenfe, 'uncenfured, and coming from an author justly praised, on the whole," may tend to miflead young readers, and poffibly young writers too.. The Reviewer of that Article, however, honeftly confeffas, that he did not take particular notice of the paffage, till SM. S pointed it out to him, in his obliging letter.



For APR I L, 1778.

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ART, I. WILLIAMS's Hiftory of the Rife, Progress and prefent State of the Northern Governments, continued: See our laft Month's Review.

in life,

R. Williams's long refidence* abroad, and his extensive in feveral of the horthern courts, having given him peculiar advantages for a work of this kind,-we, accordingly, meet with Tome curious details of notable and recent tranfactions, the circumftances of which have, hitherto, been little known in this country.

The following narration of one of the most remarkable events of the prefent age, will be acceptable, we are perfuaded, to many of our Readers:

In the month of January 1772, it was refolved, by a party which was formed at Copenhagen, at the head of whom was the Queen-mother and the Prince Frederic, with feveral of the firft nobility of Denmark, to accufe the Counts Struenfee and Brandt, the former minifter of the cabinet, and the latter the King's particular favourite, together with the King's physician,

His fettled abode, as we learn from thofe to whom the ingenious Doctor is well known, has been, for fome years paft, at Aix la Chapelle, where he practifed phyfic with fuccefs and reputation? We are informed that he is now declining practice; which accounts for the alteration made in the addition to his name, as it stands in the title-page of the prefent work. We have, formerly, reviewed feveral of this Author's Medical publications, particularly his very fenfible and judicious Treatise on the Medicinal Virtues of the Waters of Aix la Chapelle and Borfet: fee Review, vol. xlvii. p. 464, Dec. 1772. See, alfo, his Treatife on the Gout (in which he diffents, in fome points, from Dr. Cadogan) Review, vol. li. Sept. 1774, p. 239. Likewife his Select Cafes in Phyfic, which have been treated at the Waters of Aix la Chapelle, &c. Review, vol, lii. p. 276.



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and a great number of their friends, with having formed a defign to render the King incapable of governing; and of course, according to the royal law before-mentioned, to declare the Queen-confort regent of the kingdom during the minority of his fucceffor. This was what was declared to the Public to be the cause of all the violent measures that were taken by the before-mentioned party during this whole tranfaction; but as those Counts were fupported by the Queen-confort, and had moreover the ear of the King, it was at the fame time resolved to make the former a party in the plot, and to furprize the King to fign an order for their being all confined in feparate prifons. The danger which the execution of this great plan might be attended with, at firft gave much uneafinefs to the whole party, but at length the Queen-mother and Prince Frederic undertook to furprize the King, and to make him fign the order, which had been prepared for several days before, for confining his Queen and the other perfons before-mentioned; whilft fome of their friends undertook to execute it with the utmost rigour. Between three and four o'clock in the morning the Queen-mother, with Prince Frederic, entered the King's apartment, waked his Majefty out of his fleep, accufed his Queen and the Counts Struenfee and Brandt, with feveral others, of having formed a defign to dethrone him, and with having otherwife made a bad ufe of his favour, and defired him to fign the order, while he was in fafety, for their being confined. Surprized at this meffage, and believing it to be ftrictly true, the King immediately figned the order, which was executed with the utmoft difpatch. The Queen was taken out of her bed and fent to the caftle of Cronenburg, and all the reft of the accufed were fent to different prifons, and loaded with irons. A thousand falfe reports were fpread to blacken the characters of the accufed, which the King was made to believe were as true as the gospel, so that he now thought his Queen, and all his former friends, were so many enemies, who were endeavouring to deftroy him. An extraordinary commiffion was granted to try thefe fuppofed criminals, and every method was employed to procure witnesses to condemn them upon the first accufation; but when it was found that no proofs could be procured to fhew that the accused had ever any fuch intention, this grand affair was dropped; the Queen was accused of having had a criminal conversation with Struenfee; the latter of having abused his authority, as minifter of the cabinet, and of having applied a great part of the public money to his own ufe; the Count Brandt was charged with having given the King a blow, and other ways ill treating him; and others were charged with being accomplices. But, unlucky for the Queen-mother and her friends, no legal proofs could be procured to condemn the prisoners upon these charges


'any more than upon the former. However as they had carried things fo far, either the Queen-confort, together with Struenfee and Brandt, must be deftroyed or banished the kingdom for ever; or otherwife, if ever they came to fee the King again, their accufers muft fuffer the punishment which fo violent a meafure might justly merit. The integrity and humanity of the members of the high-commiffioned court were now extolled to the skies by all the friends of the Queen-mother and her party, and perhaps with much reafon on their part, as they were all appointed by them, and ready to obey their commands; so that in fact the judges and accufers were in the fame intereft, and confequently very little formalities were neceffary towards giving fentence against the accufed.

To deftroy the Queen-confort, or at least to separate her from the King, was the firft and great object of the deliberations of this court; for while fhe had any access to the King the other party must have been in the greateft danger; and therefore as they could procure no legal proofs to fupport their accufation, they refolved to bring Struenfee before the court, and by violence to make him confefs as much as was neceffary to condemn the Queen, or at leaft to procure a feparation between her and the King for ever.

'I have already fhewn, that by the laws of Denmark, which had exifted for many centuries in that kingdom, no perfon ought to be forced to accufe himself by the torture, or, as it is called, by the question: however, Struenfee was brought before the court for this purpose; and for two or three days answered all their interrogatories with great candour, and with the appearance of truth, accufing himfelf of many faults which he had committed in the courfe of his administration; but when he was afked about his having any connection with the Queen, he abfolutely denied having any criminal intercourfe with her; and although he was given to understand, that if he would make a thorough confeffion of that affair, his punishment might be mitigated, he again declared that he was entirely innocent of what he was accused respecting his royal miftrefs. Hereupon he was taken into another apartment, and fhewn all kinds of inftruments of torture, and told, that if he did not confess every thing that was demanded of him refpecting the Queen, he must immediately prepare to undergo the torture; the executioner and others being ready to receive their orders: upon which Struenfee fell upon his knees, and burst into tears, begged that they would not put him to the torture, and he would fay any thing that they would have him to fay, or make any declaration they thought proper. This was all they wanted; and it is faid, that he afterwards confeffed his having been intimate with the Queen. Moreover, other witneffes came before the court, and

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declared that they had feen the Count Struenfee drive the Queen in a fledge over the fnow, and that she had often spoke to him in public, with other things of the like nature.

The practice of driving the princeffes and ladies of the court over the fnow in fledges is very common in all the North, though it was upon this particular, joined to Struenfee's confeffion, after he was threatened to be put to the torture, that these upright judges declared the Queen and the Count Struenfee to be guilty of what they were accused; and the former was hereupon feparated in form from the King; and if fhe had not been powerfully protected, would have fallen a facrifice for having brought a Prince into the world, who obftructs in fome measure the ambitious views of her envious rival.

The Counts Struenfee and Brandt, after having undergone a formal examination which lafted near two months, at length received fentence. All mankind were eager to fee this fentence, and to hear the proofs which had been given to fupport the accufations before mentioned: but how much were they furprised, at least all those who knew the present state of Denmark, when they faw this fentence compofed of notorious falfehoods, contradictory to the laws then eftablished in this kingdom, and glaring with every abfurdity!


The fentence which was paffed upon Struenfee begins with fetting forth," that he had been first convicted, and even confeffed his having been guilty of a great crime which comprehends the crime of treafon in the highest degree, and which, according to the first article of the fourth chapter of the fixth book of the code, merited to be punifhed with death." But the fact was not fo; Struenfee was never convicted of any fuch crime, according to the laws then eftablished in this kingdom. Undoubtedly the King could change the old, or make new, laws for the punishment of any crime every hour: and it is certain that new laws were made for convicting the Queen and Struenfee, even fome time after they were imprifoned: but I believe every impartial perfon will join with me in faying, that this is a fpecies of tyranny which is unworthy of any chriftian Prince in this enlightened age. Struenfee first denied what he was accufed of, with refpect to the Queen, with fuch an air of candour and veracity, and corroborated his affertions with so many reasons, that many of the commiffioners believed that he spoke the truth; but when this poor wretch, who was now half dead, by being chained to the wall in a cold dungeon, was threatened alfo with the torture, nature could not fupport it, and he immediately cried out in this manner, "Tell me what I must confefs and I am ready to do it, but do not put me to the torture." And will thofe judges, or their, I had almost said infamous, protectors dare to infult mankind fo much as to tell them that

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