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this is evidence to convict the Queen? They could not, according to the laws then subsisting in Denmark, condemn the poorest wretch in the kingdom upon this evidence. After which, they go on in this sentence to condemn Struensee with having been the cause of all the errors and changes which were committed and made in the administration during the present reign, many of which the King and his favourites had projected before Struensee came to Copenhagen. But the grand point upon which they tondemned Struensee, with any colour of a reason, was that of having defrauded the King, and applied a great part of the public money to his own use; but this was a particular of which they had not the least idea, before they get Struensee's books into their own power. Struensee, as minister of the cabinet, had received a confiderable sum of the public money, to make good some payments which depended upon his office, and kept a book wherein he minuted all the payments which he had made ; and when he was imprisoned, this book, with all the rest of his papers, fell into the hands of his enemies, and was produced as evidence against him. For one article of expence, which could not amount to 20,coo rixdollars, there appeared a charge upon this book of near 120,000 when it was brought before the judges ; but it appears by the sentence, that even these judges saw that the book had been altered since it was first written, and that one of the figures which made the fum, which was meant originally to be under 20,000, to be so much above 100,000, was placed out of the line, and evidently formed by another band. When Struensee was examined upon this head, he declared that this book was written by him, but that this charge, as well as several others, had been fallified by some other hand since it had been out of his poffeffion : however, notwithstanding this declaration appeared to agree so well with what appeared upon the book, this was made one of the principal articles for which he was condemned. Struensee was far from being a fool; and therefore could any reasonable person fuppofe that if he was disposed to defraud the public of this sum of money, he would keep a book to record his infamy in this manner, when he could easily have had the King's acquittance for any sum of money he wanted, without being called to account for it? Brandt was condemned for having given the King a blow, and otherwise ill. treating him ; though the very evening before he was sent to prison the King fhewed him all the favour poffible, as he had always been accustomed to do: and thus fell these two unhappy men a sacrifice to the unbounded malice of their enemies. If they had ordered them to be assassinated in prison, they would not have rendered themselves so odious to all the sensible part of mankind as they have done : but to do this under the fanction of a court of justice, is what must shock even the humanity of an
Indian or a Tartar. All the others, who were originally accused of being in the plot against the King, were condemned, some to perpetual imprisonment, others to be banished the kingdom for ever; and others again for a certain time, though no crime whatever was proved against them, except their having received favours from the King, through the intercession of the Counts Struensee and Brandt, may be called such.'
The review of Dr.Williams's History, will be concluded in our next. Art. [I. ANDERSON's Observations on the Means of exciting a Spirit
of national Industry, continued, N our last month's journal we laid before our Readers a
general view of the principles which this Author deems essentially neceffary for exciting a spirit of national industry; and we shall now proceed to some of the most remarkable cases to which those principles are applied.
His book consists of a series of letters ; a form which we are far from thinking the best that could have been imagined, as it is unfriendly to that conciseness, and perspicuity of method fo defireable in political disquisitions. It may be urged that in the epistolary form, greater freedom is allowed to introduce collateral subjects than in a more regular treatise; and that this serves to amuse the Reader and keep his attention awake :-we question, however, if this be sufficient to counterbalance the defects above mentioned. In the present case, it is particularly to be regretted that any circumstance incompatible with conciseness was not carefully avoided, as it may be feared that the size of the book may operate strongly in preventing those from dipping into it who have the greatest chance of being benefited by it, and thus prevent the work from being of that extensive utility which it otherwise might have produced.
Our Author begins by explaining the cause of those frequent emigrations from the Highlands, and western ifles of Scotland, which began to be extremely alarming before the present disputes in America put a stop to them. This he ascribes to that alteration of manners and customs which has gradually crept into the Highlands by a change in their municipal law; the ancient pre
. judices of the country tending to oppose for a time those falutary Jaws that must in the end be the strongest means of promoting its prosperity. The poor people being thus obliged to relinquish their former modes of living, and unacquainted with the means of availing themselves properly of the advantages they might derive from a well regulated industry, are reduced to the molt deplorable state of indigence. This misery they feel in the moft fenfible degree, and finding themselves unable to satisfy the demands of the proprietors, they naturally attribute the whole of their misfortunes to the rapacity of the men of landed property.
Thefe gentlemen however, our Author observes, are not so much to blame for continuing to exact their rents (which must be allowed by every one to be jufly their due), or for withing, that these hould bear some sort of proportion to the general decrease in the value of money in every part of the island, as for not having in time endeavoured, by every gentle incitement that a prudent forefight could discover, to lead the poor people into fuch a train, as, without directly thwarting their deep-rooted prejudices, might have enabled them to provide for their own subsistence, and to pay, without distrelling themselves, that acknowledgment which is lo juftly due to their superiors.'
This, Mr. A. thinks, the gentlemen have too long neglected, and that they ought, instantly, to attempt to introduce among their tenants a spirit of industry, instead of that listlessness-that indolence, for which they are often reproached.
• Some, says he, may perhaps deem it impoflible ever to effectoate a change fo defirable; and therefore, with a desponding indifference, think that every proposal to effecluate this change is chimerical. But I cannot bring myself to view it in this light. Experience may easily convince us, that no two men differ more widely from one another, than the same person may do from himfelf in different circumstances. Like a spark of fire concealed under a heap of rubbilh, the human mind may long be buried under the overpowering load of ignorance and oppression; but free it from these chains, and it will quickly de. velope its powers. Feeble, indeed, are its first exertions, and easily repressed; but if these are encouraged, it gradually waxes Atronger and stronger, till at length it blazes forth with irresistible power
and glory. It is thus that South Britain, that once poor despised country,--the prey of every invading power, and save of many successive conquerors, has at length become the envy or the dread of all she nations around it. Nor will the same means fail of producing similar effects in every other country. We have seen, that a small spot of this peculiarly favoured ifle is unfortunately involved in circumitances which render the inhabitants less comfortable than those of other parts of Great Britain. But the æra seems to approach, when they will partake of the same blessings as the other parts of the island. Almolt all the disagrecable part of the change is already effected.The anarchy that arose from the loss of their chieftains, is now in a great measure ceased, by the establishment of the civil power, which has now got such firm footing among them as rotally io abolish all marks of their former jurisdiction. The old men, who were unreasonably wedded to their former customs, are now almost the whole of them dead; and with them a great part of their ancient prejudices have disappeared.-The late wars carried many of the common people abroad, who have acquired some knowledge of the advantages of civil society; and the idea they have given of the blessings of liberty, and the spirit of independence that they have disseminated among their fellows, has, no doubt, contributed to excite that desire of emi. grating which aç present prevails among them. Even this fpirit for emigration I consider as one of the mot favourable symptoms of their being ready to adopt any rational plan of improvement, as it proves,
that their own customs and country are in some measure indifferent to them ; and that they are sensible of the disagreeableness of their fitu. ation, and would willingly exert themselves to render it more comfortable. It is the crisis
of the disease which has long harassed them. If nothing is now done to restore their exhaused strength, the consequences may be fatal; but if they are duly cared for, and have proper cordials administered to them, they will quickly attain that health and vigour of which they have been so long deprived.'
Firmly convinced of these facts, he proceeds to enquire into what channel their industry may be most easily directed. The climate and nature of the Highlands, &c. he obseryes, for ever preclude the hope of making any essential improvements in agriculture; so that the only probable view of being able to turn their industry to advantage, must arise from the having proper manufactures established among them. These manufactures he fews, ought to be such as consume the native produce of the country: but fax, he endeavours to demonstrate, can never become a staple produce of that part of Scotland; from whence he infers, the linen manufacture must labour under such inconveniencies as for ever to prevent its being successfully established.
The same objections, however, do not seem to lie against the introduction of the woollen manufacture. The hills we are told are well adapted for rearing sheep, and the irregularity in the surface of the country, seems, at the first view, to be favourable for carrying on every branch of the woollen manufacture ; he therefore proceeds to enquire whether good wool could be grown in Scotland, in fufficient quantities to furnih materials for an extenfive national manufacture.
In discusing this question, he first shews, from good authority, that very fine wool has actually been produced in Scotland. On this subject we doubt not, but the Reader will be much surprised by the following well authenticated facts :
• About The beginning of the late war, he observes, the magiftrates of a confiderable town in the north of Scotlard, famous for its manų. facture of worsted Nockings,' (he might have said Aberdeen) • degrous to express, in some mcature, the eftecm they bore for their country. man the late Marshal Keith, resolved to make him a present of a pair of tockings of their own manufaclure, of an uncommon degree of fineness. With this view they commissioned from London some of the finest wool that could por:bly be fourd; without any limitation of price. In consequence of which, some pounds of the very finest Spanish wool, picked out by very good judges of this matter, were fent to them.
• When it arrived, the magistrates sent for the women who were to manufacture it; and having told them what they wanted, shewed them the wool they had got for that purpose. But when the women had examined it, they complained of its quality ; saying it was so coarse that they could not undertake to draw above forty beeres * from the pound of is; but added, that if the magistrates would wait till An beere is a thread, too yards in length.
the Highland wool came to their own market in the month of June, they would there pick out wool for themselves, that they would uqderiake to spin to the fineness of seventy beeres from the pound.
* As they were entirely unanimous in this opinion, the difference appeared so very great, that the magiftrates agreed to their requelt, and waited till the Highland wool came to market ; where the women provided themselves with wool that they spun to the fineness they had promised. The stockings when finished were valued at upwards of five guineas the pair, having been so fine that they could be with ease drawn through an ordinary thumb ring together, although they were of the largest fize. They were fent in a box of curious workmanship to Marshal Keith; who thought them such a curiosity as to be worthy of the acceptance of the Empress of Rullia, to whom he afterwards presented them.
• This fact happened not many years ago, and can be authenticated by thousands of witnesses now alive, mould it be judged necelsary; and proves in a very satisfactory manner that the Highlands of Scotland are capable of producing as fine wool as is perhaps to be met with in the world.
• Nor is this the firft fact upon record that points out the fineness of the Highland wool.- For it deserves to be remarked, that the author of the Atlas-General, a book published above forty or fifty years ago, when enumerating the several manufactures in Scotland, observes, - they make worsted stockings at Aberdeen from ten to thirty shillings per pair.” They are spun of fine wool from the Highlands; and to much valued, that mens fockings of that sort are sometimes sold at fifty shillings or three pounds per pair.'
The Author produces other authorities, which, for the sake of brevity we omit.
· Nor should we perhaps, says he, have deemed this a circumstance of such an extraordinary nature, had not our minds been prepossessed with an undue bias in prejudice of northern climates. For if we had seasoned from analogy, and judged of the effect that it might have been expected cold hould have had upon the wool of sheep, by what it is known to have upon the furs of other animals, we would have been led to expect that the finest wool could only be produced in the coldett climates; as it is well known, that cold climates alone are naturally fitted to produce, and rear to the utmolt perfection, animals bearing warm furs; the fineness and closeness of which are always in proportion to the coldness of the climate, nature having thus provided for the inhabitants of these cold regions a plentiful supply of those materials which are best suited for defending them from the rigours of the season ; while the inhabitants of warmer regions are blessed with the more delicate folk-worm, which affords them materials for forming vestments more suited to their wants. Now, as the sheep is evidently an animal of this class, and its wool the most plentiful and beneficial kind of fur, we ought naturally to have been led to expect, that like every other kind of fur, it would have been closes and finelt in cold regions, and in every other respect more valuable than that which should be produced in warmer climates.'
To confirm this remark, he shews by an accurate examination of the nature of all those countries that are remarked for pro