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this is evidence to convict the Queen? They could not, according to the laws then fubfifting in Denmark, condemn the poorest wretch in the kingdom upon this evidence. After which, they go on in this fentence to condemn Struenfee with having been the caufe of all the errors and changes which were committed and made in the administration during the prefent reign, many of which the King and his favourites had projected before Struenfee came to Copenhagen. But the grand point upon which they Condemned Struenfee, with any colour of a reafon, was that of having defrauded the King, and applied a great part of the public money to his own ufe; but this was a particular of which they had not the leaft idea, before they got Struenfee's books into their own power. Struenfee, as minifter of the cabinet, had received a confiderable fum of the public money, to make good fome payments which depended upon his office, and kept a book wherein he minuted all the payments which he had made; and when he was imprifoned, this book, with all the reft of his papers, fell into the hands of his enemies, and was produced as evidence againft him. For one article of expence, which could not amount to 20,000 rixdollars, there appeared a charge upon this book of near 120,000 when it was brought before the judges; but it appears by the fentence, that even these judges faw that the book had been altered fince it was first written, and that one of the figures which made the fum, which was meant originally to be under 20,000, to be so much above 100,000, was placed out of the line, and evidently formed by another hand. When Struenfee was examined upon this head, he declared that this book was written by him, but that this charge, as well as feveral others, had been falfified by fome other hand fince it had been out of his poffeffion: however, notwithstanding this declaration appeared to agree fo well with what appeared upon the book, this was made one of the principal articles for which he was condemned. Struenfee was far from being a fool; and therefore could any reasonable person fuppofe that if he was difpofed to defraud the public of this fum of money, he would keep a book to record his infamy in this manner, when he could eafily have had the King's acquittance for any fum of money he wanted, without being called to account for it? Brandt was condemned for having given the King a blow, and otherwife ill-treating him ; though the very evening before he was fent to prifon the King fhewed him all the favour poffible, as he had always been accustomed to do: and thus fell these two unhappy men a facrifice to the unbounded malice of their enemies. If they had ordered them to be affaffinated in prifon, they would not have rendered themselves fo odious to all the fenfible part of mankind as they have done: but to do this under the fanction of a court of justice, is what muft fhock even the humanity of an
Indian or a Tartar. All the others, who were originally accused of being in the plot against the King, were condemned, fome to perpetual imprisonment, others to be banished the kingdom for ever; and others again for a certain time, though no crime whatever was proved against them, except their having received favours from the King, through the interceffion of the Counts Struenfee and Brandt, may be called fuch.'
The review of Dr.Williams's Hiftory, will be concluded in our
ART. II. ANDERSON's Obfervations on the Means of exciting a Spirit of national Industry, continued.
N our last month's journal we laid before our Readers a general view of the principles which this Author deems effentially neceffary for exciting a spirit of national industry; and we fhall now proceed to fome of the moft remarkable cafes to which thofe principles are applied.
His book confifts of a series of letters; a form which we are far from thinking the best that could have been imagined, as it is unfriendly to that concifenefs, and perfpicuity of method fo defireable in political difquifitions. It may be urged that in the epiftolary form, greater freedom is allowed to introduce collateral fubjects than in a more regular treatise; and that this ferves to amuse the Reader and keep his attention awake:-we question, however, if this be fufficient to counterbalance the defects above mentioned. In the prefent cafe, it is particularly to be regretted that any circumftance incompatible with concifenefs was not carefully avoided, as it may be feared that the fize of the book may operate ftrongly in preventing those from dipping into it who have the greatest chance of being benefited by it, and thus prevent the work from being of that extenfive utility which it otherwife might have produced.
Our Author begins by explaining the cause of those frequent emigrations from the Highlands, and weftern ifles of Scotland, which began to be extremely alarming before the prefent disputes in America put a stop to them. This he afcribes to that alteration of manners and cuftoms which has gradually crept into the Highlands by a change in their municipal law; the ancient prejudices of the country tending to oppose for a time those falutary Jaws that muft in the end be the ftrongeft means of promoting its profperity. The poor people being thus obliged to relinquifh their former modes of living, and unacquainted with the means of availing themfelves properly of the advantages they might derive from a well regulated induftry, are reduced to the moft deplorable ftate of indigence. This mifery they feel in the moft fenfible degree, and finding them felves unable to fatisfy the demands of the proprietors, they naturally attribute the whole of their misfortunes to the rapacity of the men of landed property.
Thefe gentlemen however, our Author obferves, are not fo much to blame for continuing to exact their rents (which must be allowed by every one to be jufly their due), or for withing, that thefe fhould bear fome fort of proportion to the general decreafe in the value of money in every part of the island, as for not having in time endeavoured, by every gentle incitement that a prudent forefight could difcover, to lead the poor people into fuch a train, as, without directly thwarting their deep-rooted prejudices, might have enabled them to provide for their own fubfiftence, and to pay, without dif treffing themselves, that acknowledgment which is fo juftly due to their fuperiors.'
This, Mr. A. thinks, the gentlemen have too long neglected, and that they ought, inftantly, to attempt to introduce among their tenants a fpirit of induftry, inftead of that liftleffness-that indolence, for which they are often reproached.
Some, fays he, may perhaps deem it impoffible ever to effectuate a change fo defirable; and therefore, with a defponding indifference, think that every propofal to effectuate this change is chimerical. But I cannot bring myself to view it in this light. Experience may eafily convince us, that no two men differ more widely from one another, than the fame perfon may do from himfelf in different circumstances. Like a fpark of fire concealed under a heap of rubbish, the human mind may long be buried under the overpowering load of ignorance and oppreffion; but free it from thefe chains, and it will quickly develope its powers. Feeble, indeed, are its firft exertions, and easily repreffed; but if thefe are encouraged, it gradually waxes ftronger and stronger, till at length it blazes forth with irrefiftible power and glory. It is thus that South Britain, that once poor defpifed country, the prey of every invading power, and flave of many fucceffive conquerors, has at length become the envy or the dread of all the nations around it. Nor will the fame means fail of producing fimilar effects in every other country. We have feen, that a small spot of this peculiarly favoured ifle is unfortunately involved in circumstances which render the inhabitants lefs comfortable than thofe of other parts of Great Britain. But the æra feems to approach, when they will partake of the fame bleffings as the other parts of the island. Almost all the difagreeable part of the change is already effected.The anarchy that arofe from the lofs of their chieftains, is now in a great measure ceased, by the establishment of the civil power, which has now got fuch firm footing among them as totally to abolish all marks of their former jurifdiction.-The old men, who were unreafonably wedded to their former customs, are now almost the whole of them dead; and with them a great part of their ancient prejudices have disappeared.-The late wars carried many of the common people abroad, who have acquired fome knowledge of the advantages of civil fociety; and the idea they have given of the bleffings of liberty, and the spirit of independence that they have diffeminated among their fellows, has, no doubt, contributed to excite that defire of emigrating which at prefent prevails among them. Even this fpirit for emigration I confider as one of the most favourable fymptoms of their being ready to adopt any rational plan of improvement, as it proves, S4
that their own customs and country are in fome measure indifferent to them; and that they are fenfible of the difagreeableness of their fituation, and would willingly exert themfelves to render it more comfortable. It is the crifis of the disease which has long haraffed them. If nothing is now done to restore their exhaufied ftrength, the confequences may be fatal; but if they are duly cared for, and have proper cordials adminiftered to them, they will quickly attain that health and vigour of which they have been fo long deprived.'
Firmly convinced of these facts, he proceeds to enquire into what channel their induftry may be moft eafily directed. The climate and nature of the Highlands, &c. he observes, for ever preclude the hope of making any effential improvements in agriculture; fo that the only probable view of being able to turn their induftry to advantage, muft arife from the having proper manufactures established among them. Thefe manufactures he fhews, ought to be fuch as confume the native produce of the country: but flax, he endeavours to demonftrate, can never become a staple produce of that part of Scotland; from whence he infers, the linen manufacture must labour under fuch inconveniencies as for ever to prevent its being fuccefsfully established.
The fame objections, however, do not seem to lie against the introduction of the woollen manufacture. The hills we are told are well adapted for rearing fheep, and the irregularity in the furface of the country, feems, at the first view, to be favourable for carrying on every branch of the woollen manufacture; he therefore proceeds to enquire whether good wool could be grown in Scotland, in fufficient quantities to furnish materials for an extenfive national manufacture.
In difcuffing this question, he first fhews, from good authority, that very fine wool has actually been produced in Scotland. On this fubject we doubt not, but the Reader will be much furprised by the following well authenticated facts:
About the beginning of the late war, he obferves, the magiftrates of a confiderable town in the north of Scotland, famous for its manu. facture of worsted flockings,' (he might have faid Aberdeen) defirous to exprefs, in fome mcafure, the eftecm they bore for their countryman the late Marthal Keith, refolved to make him a prefent of a pair of flockings of their own manufacture, of an uncommon degree of fineness. With this view they commiffioned from London fome of the finest wool that could poffibly be found; without any limitation of price. In confequence of which, fome pounds of the very finest Spanish wool, picked out by very good judges of this matter, were fent to them.
When it arrived, the magiftrates fent for the women who were to manufacture it; and having told them what they wanted, fhewed them the wool they had got for that purpofe. But when the women had examined it, they complained of its quality; faying it was fo coarfe that they could not undertake to draw above forty heeres from the pound of it; but added, that if the magiftrates would wait till
An heere is a thread, 600 yards in length.
the Highland wool came to their own market in the month of June, they would there pick out wool for themselves, that they would undertake to fpin to the fineness of feventy heeres from the pound.
As they were entirely unanimous in this opinion, the difference appeared fo very great, that the magiftrates agreed to their request, and waited till the Highland wool came to market; where the women provided themfelves with wool that they fpun to the fineness they had promifed. The ftockings when finished were valued at upwards of five guineas the pair, having been fo fine that they could be with eafe drawn through an ordinary thumb ring together, although they were of the largest fize. They were fent in a box of curious workmanship to Marshal Keith; who thought them fuch a curiofity as to be worthy of the acceptance of the Emprefs of Ruflia, to whom he afterwards prefented them.
This fact happened not many years ago, and can be authenticated by thousands of witneffes now alive, fhould it be judged neceffary; and proves in a very fatisfactory manner that the Highlands of Scotland are capable of producing as fine wool as is perhaps to be met with in the world.
Nor is this the first fact upon record that points out the fineness of the Highland wool.-For it deferves to be remarked, that the author of the Atlas-General, a book published above forty or fifty years ago, when enumerating the feveral manufactures in Scotland, obferves, "they make worsted stockings at Aberdeen from ten to thirty fhillings per pair." They are spun of fine wool from the Highlands; and fo much valued, that mens flockings of that fort are fometimes fold at fifty fhillings or three pounds per pair.'
The Author produces other authorities, which, for the fake of brevity we omit.
Nor should we perhaps, fays he, have deemed this a circumftance of fuch an extraordinary nature, had not our minds been prepoffeffed with an undue bias in prejudice of northern climates. For if we had reasoned from analogy, and judged of the effect that it might have been expected cold fhould have had upon the wool of fheep, by what it is known to have upon the furs of other animals, we would have been led to expect that the finest wool could only be produced in the coldett climates; as it is well known, that cold climates alone are naturally fitted to produce, and rear to the utmoft perfection, animals bearing warm furs; the fineness and clofenefs of which are always in proportion to the coldness of the climate, nature having thus provided for the inhabitants of thefe cold regions a plentiful fupply of thofe materials which are best suited for defending them from the rigours of the feafon; while the inhabitants of warmer regions are bleffed with the more delicate filk-worm, which affords them materials for forming vestments more fuited to their wants. Now, as the fheep is evidently an animal of this clafs, and its wool the most plentiful and beneficial kind of fur, we ought naturally to have been led to expect, that like every other kind of fur, it would have been clofeft and finest in cold regions, and in every other refpest more valuable than that which fhould be produced in warmer climates.'
To confirm this remark, he fhews by an accurate examination of the nature of all thofe countries that are remarked for pro