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gan, which was necessarily “ precipitate" by reason of the upgency of the case. Instead, therefore, of blaming inoculation for the loss of 60 lives, in this instance, we should rather give it the credit of saving several hundred ; fince, in all probability, the disease would have gone through the town, even without this additional infection.
VIII. FOREIGN LITERATURE.
I T A L Y.
E Vita et Rebus Geftis BESSARIONIS, Cardinalis Nicæni
Commentarius, &c. i. e. An History of the Life and Actions of Cardinal BESSARION. 4to. Rome. 1777. The subject of this history is one of the most celebrated persons that have adorned the conclave, and one of the moft learned men of his time; and the Author of this history, the Abbot BANDINI, has done justice to his subject. He follows Beffarion from his obscure birth at Trebizonde, in 1395, through all the transactions of his life, and the stages of his promotion, (which was once likely to end in the papal chair) and exhibits an interesting view of the merits of this great man, both as an ecclesiastical po litician, and a scholar.
II. Del l’Esystenza di Dio dá Teoremi Geometrici dimostrata, &ca i. e. The Existence of God demonstrated by Geometrical Theorems. By a correspondent member of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris, &c. 8vo. Adino. 1777. Atheism is the frenzy of logic, or the arrogant despair of ignorant pride that cannot beac to suspend its judgment when difficulties arise, but would have all the universe laid open at once to its reptile-eye. Common fense, found logic, and a modeft conviction of the limits of the human understanding, are the true preservatives against this une comfortable species of folly, and therefore we begin by blaming this learned Author for depreciating too much the popular arguments that have been hitherto used (and which we think ought gever to be neglected) in proof of the existence of God. Even bis argument, as it is presented in this work, is not exempt from difficulties : and, indeed, no argument is so,--because against propositions proved with the greatest evidence, objections may be raised; but as all objections of this kind arise from our ignorance, they cannot invalidate, even when they remain unanswered, truths previously supported by fufficient proofs.. The Geometrical proof or demonstration of the existence of God, laid down by our Author, may be judged of by the knowing ones from the following summary : “ Geometry is a science, which QK! Its only in the understanding-it is an infinite science in its
combinations, relations, and connexions; and therefore its existence supposes an infinite intelligence, both as the subje£t in which it resides and the principle, from whence all geometrical truths, (though eternal and necessary, as truths) must originally proceed :-The concatenation of geometrical theorems forms an immense plan of order, ends and means, and wherever these three things take place, we must necessarily admit as their efficient causes, reason, knowledge, and direction. These points being settled, our Author proves, in the third place, that geometrical science is a part of the divine omniscience, and belongs to the essence of God. Fourthly, that the system of the universe, being constituted and combined according to geometrical proportions, must have had, for its Author, a Being in whom the plenitude of geometry resides, and whose creating power must be equal to his infinite knowledge. Our Author proceeds to fhew that liberty or free agency is an essential property of the supreme Being, because, as the geometrical combinations, that are possible, exceed infinitely those which actually exift, this fupposes preference and choice; he proves also that the Deity is infinitely wise and good, as he is the source of all truth, and the Author of all intelligences, and that he is poffeffed of necessary existence, infinity, eternity, and immenfity, because geometrical proportions are necessarily infinite, eternal, and exist throughout all space.
III. Discorso Filosofico full Ijoria Naturale dell'anima umana, &c. i. e. 'A Philosophical Differtation on the Natural History of the Human Mind. 8vo. Rome. 1777. There are several ingenious disquisitions in this new work of Father FALETTI, Regu. lar Canon of the Lateran; who has displayed his inetaphysical genius in other publications.
IV. Iftituzioni de Musica Teorico - Pratica, &c. i.e. Theoretico -práctical Institutes of Music. By D. ANTONIO Rocchi, a Priest of Padua. 400. Venice. 1777. We have here the first book of a large and important work on musical science, in which the curious Reader will find deep researches, and much inftruction. The mathematical part of this work is comprehended in three books. In the first, now before us, the Author treats of the Diatonic genus, or kind, of music; the chromatic and enharmonic (of which this is the basis, as it is of all music both theoretical and practical) are the subjects of the two following, which are not yet published. Among many curious things that we are led to expect in the progress of this work from the Author's preface, one is particularly worthy of being mentioned, viz. that he has been led, by the method he has followed, to a demonstration of the enharmonical scale.-- This kind of music, says he, may be called new, because it has been loft, for three thousand years, nothing of it remaining but the name and the proportion of the enharmonical diefis. He acknowledges, that,
at present, we might seek, in vain, for a person who could found the notes of this scale ; but in the part of his work, that is to treat of the union consonant and femi-consonant voices or of imperfect consonances, he proposes to indicate a method of employing in harmony and in a good counter-point, the three kinds, and to give such lights and lay down such principles, as may enable a musician to found the enharmonic gammut.
V. La Poetica di Q: Orazio Flacco restituita all'ordine fuo, &c. i. e. Horace, bis Art of Poetry restored to its true Order, and translated into Italian, with a Critical Preface. 8vo. Rome. 177?: An ingenious attempt to remove the obscurity that still perplexes the interpreters of the art of poetry, by placing the ideas and reasonings of Horace in an order, which either he himfelf facrificed to the negligent ease of the epiftolary ftile, or which fome copyists have violated by hasty transpositions of lines and phrases. The real order observed by Horace in this poem is (according to our critic) as follows. After having shewn the deformity of a composition whose parts are disproportioned, and in which there is no unity of design, and proved the necessity of guiding poetical genius and invention by art and judgment, the Roman bard speaks of the general structure of a poem, of the choice of a subject, and of method and diction; he observes that the commencement or setting out should be modeft, the parts proportioned, the ornaments natural, and the terms well chofen; --that pleasure and entertainment ought to be blended with in struction; and that the measure should be adapted to the kind of poetry in which it is used. He remarks, on this occafion, that the Romans did not confine themselves rigourously to the rules of jambic verse in their dramatic productions. He then proceeds to treat of the origin of tragedy and comedy, of the different kinds of stile they require, of the distinction between the cha. racters which are brought upon the scene, and the care that is to be taken to exhibit certain actions only by recital, while others are presented to the view of the spectators; of the chorus, and theatrical music, and of the ancient species of dramatic composition, which was called satire. He afterwards points out the faults with which poets are frequently chargeable; advises them not to publish their works before they have been submitted to the judgment of a sincere and intelligent friend ; and concludes by observing, that mediocrity, though allowable in all other profeflions, is contemptible in poetry:
VI. The learned Abbot ARENA has published the firstvolume of a large work, in which he solves some of the principal questions in natural philosophy by new experiments and observations. In this volume are four differtations which treat of the following subjects : Of light of the physical nature of comets, -of the atmosphere of the earth, which is
lengthened into the form of a tail of the solar spots-of free motion in a plenum-of the dimensions and figure of the earth. This work is composed in Latin, and its title is, Phyfice quæstiones præcipuæ novis experimentis et observationibus refoluta, Autore Philippo Arena, Siculo Platiensi, Phyficæ Experimentalis et Mau thematicæ olim Profefore in Academia Melitensi, Tomus I. Dissertat. 1. de Lumine, 2. de Natura Phyfica Cometarum, 3. de Atmofphæra Telluris in Caudam producta, 4. de Maculis Solaribus, 5. de Motu libero in fpatio pleno, 6. de Menfura et Figura Telluris: 4to. Romæ. 1777. There are several peculiarities and novelties in this volume. The hypothesis of the ingenious Author with respect to the formation of comets (whofe existence he believes more recent than that of the planetary system) is entirely new, but too fanciful to deserve much attention.
G E R M ANY. VII. Versuch einer Theorie, G. An attempt to establish a theory, adapted to explain the phenomena, which have been ato tributed to Fixed Air or, the acidum pingue. 8vo. Leipfic. 1777. This is one of the keenest attacks that has been yet made upon the theory of fixed air, particularly as it is exhibited in the experiments and reasonings of the famous chymist of Edinburgh and his followers. The Author (whose name is Daniel) turns their weapons against themselves, and from fixty-four propofitions or maxims acknowledged by them, undertakes to prove that fixed air has been absurdly subitituted in the place of phlo, gifton, which he proposes to restore to its primitive rank in the natural world.
VIII. Biographie kayfer Carl des Sechsten, &c. i. e. The Life of the Emperor Charles VI. By M. GoT. BENED. SCHIRACH, 8vo. Halle. 1777. This interesting piece of biography is divided into fix periods. The first extends from the birth of Charles, to his setting out for Spain--the fecond comprehends the events, which happened so far down as the death of Joseph, and the accession of Charles to the imperial throne. The third takes in the peace concluded with the Turks at Paflarowitz, the quadruple alliance of the southern part of Europe, and the Emperor's renunciation of the crown of Spain. In the fourth our Author gives an account of the war of Sicily, the Congress of Cambray, the peace of Vienna in 1725, the pragmatic fanction and its important consequences - The death of Auguftus II. King of Poland, and the wars to which it gave rise, and which were concluded by the pacification of 1735, form the subjects of the fifth period, and we find in the sixth the articles relative to the marriage of Maria Theresia,- the war with the Turks, the peace of Belgrade in 1739, the state of the arts and sciences under the reign of Charles VI., and the death and character of that Emperor.
IX. Those who are pleased to see illustrious characters, that have been too little mentioned in history, drawn from oblivion, will applaud the learned and industrious researches of Mr. VON HOLZSCHUHER, of Nuremberg, in the following work; Lebensbefcreibung des berühmten Ritters Sebastian Schoertlin von Burtenbach, &c. i.e. The Life of the celebrated Knight Sebastian Schoertlin van Burtenbach, drawn from his own Memoirs, and from other Family Papers, together with several Remarks and Additions. 8vo. Francfort and Leipfic. 1777. The subject of this piece of biography was one of the most eminent Captains in the timę of Charles V., the most obstinate enemy of that Emperor, the only one whom he could not conquer, though he had vanquished áll Germany, and led the Elector of Saxony and the Landa grave of Heffe in triumph as his captives. There are several curious anecdotes in this work, which are well authenticated. : X. Delectus Dissertationum medicarum Argentoratensium, &c. i.e. A Select Collection of Medical Dissertations, &c. formed and published by Ph. Lewis WHITTWER, M.D. Vol. I. Nuremberg. 1777. The eight differtations, contained in this volume, treat-of the saline principle of the best nourishment for a newborn infant-of the volatile sale of cantharides—of the gutritive principle of certain vegetables- of glasswort, and a peculiar salt that may be obtained from it-of the effects of internal preparations of mercury on the blood.-The history and vindication of cardamom,-experiments, relative to the nature of bile.--It is to the learned labours of Mr. SPIELMAN that we are indebted for the firft, fecond, fixth, seventh, and eighth of these dissertations; the Authors of the third, fourch, and fifth, are Messrs. Probst, Resselmaer and Imlin.
XVII. Repertorium für Biblische und Morgenländische Litteratur, &c. i. e. A Collection of Pieces, which throw new Light on several Paljages of the Bible, and several Points of Oriental Litera
8vo. Part. I. Leipfic. 1777. This first Part of a work, which promises much instruction and entertainment to the lovers of sacred and oriental philology, contains the following pieces. 1. A dissertation, in which Mr. STROTH, of Quedlinburg, maintains, that Justin Martyr did not make use of any of the books of the New Testament, and that he only used the gospel of the Hebreu s.- 2. An indication of some Arabian Authors, who will enable us to correct several mistakes in the oriental library of Herbelot.-3. An extract from one of the most ancient manuscripts of the Septuagint, several of whose readings are compared with the edition of Breitinger, and are accompanied with observations, by Dr. Griesbach.-4. Professor Eichhorn's remarks upon the difference between the Hebrew text and the Septuagint version, with respect to the remarkable transposition in the fifty-first chapter of Jeremiah:
5. Various 8