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Novas, who had lately lost a near relation : the company appeared in mourning : every female, on entering the affembly, after paying her respects to the mistress of the house, went round the whole circle, took each lady by the hand, muttered some compliments, of which they have great abundance, and then sat down. When all the company was assembled, servants came in, dressed also in mourning, with glasses of iced water and sugar biscuits ; afterwards with chocolate, cakes, sweetmeats, and, to conclude, more iced water. These refrefcos are the chief entertainment of the natives, for the pleasures of the table are scarcely known amongst them : they feldom dine or fup together, except on a marriage, the birth of a first son, or some other festive occafion : the company sat and conversed together, for on these melancholy occasions, there is no card-playing, making little societies of conversation till towards eleven o'clock, when they all retired; the ladies going through the same ceremony on leaving as coming into the room. The etiquette of these affemblies, and indeed of all others through the country, are extremely tiresome; though they are polite enough to make allowances for strangers.
• These nobles have very costly equipages, gaudy, and overloaded with ornaments ; but they make their appearance only on gala or fate days, which are ftri&ly observed here, as at court. Their car. riages are drawn by mules, which come from La Mancha.
• I was carried about two miles out of town, in the Marquis of Cabrignani's carriage, to the bishop's alameda*, which is thewn as a great effort of human kill. The late bishop improved this spot of ground, which may be about a mile in extent, by planting and inclosing it. It might have been made very beautiful, as it is on the banks of the Guadalquivir, where there is a gentle declivity to the river ; but he has thewn his tafte, in making long alleys of trees, closed by high hedges; and Mutting out the water entirely, by planting and hedging closer on that side than any where else : at the extremities of the alleys, there is a small house, and near it there are a few ponds, with jets d'eau, though the river is within fifty yards of them ; a labyrinth, and some little parterres with myrtle trees cut out in various forms and shapes. On our arrival, we found thę Bihop there, to whom I was presented, when he desired I might make the house my own, as both it and the gardens were at my service: and here I must observe to you, that this is a common Spanish com. pliment; for if a Spaniard's sword, watch, ring, or any thing else belonging to him be praised, he immediately offers it with warmth, though nothing would disappoint him more than to accept of it.
• Whilst we were walking in the gardens, the Marquis took out of his pocket a little bit of tobacco, rolled up in a piece of paper, making a cegar of it; and gave it to one of his footmen to light: the servant took out his fint, fteel, and match, which every man carries about him, ftruck a light, took two or three whiffs, and then retarned it to his master : it was afterwards offered to me, and the rest of the company; I declined the favour, but the others smoaked
• Alameda is a walk planted with trees : though this place goes by the same aame, it is more properly a villa.'
about. This is a common practice with every person, in almost every place.
On our return, before we got within the gates, the poftilion took off two of the mules, as we could not drive in town with ax; no one but the Bishop baving that privilege. , * The cheatre here was but very indifferent, and the actors bad : the piece I saw was wretchedly performed. The ladies go to the boxes in the French dress; but the men oftener appear in the capa and sombrero t, as they seem to be under a great restraint in the orber; and only wear it at tertullas, and the like formal occasions. Since the insurrection at Madrid in 1766, government has endeavoured to prevent the men from wearing the flapped hat and cloak; but it will be long before it can be accomplished in the provinces, as it is a convenient dress for gallantry, and people will not readily give up wbat contributes to their favourite amusement. The women who are in the Spanish dress, are lodged by themselves in a gallery over the boxes, which is called the cazuela, where the men, during the represeoration, are not allowed to go; but they have various signs, by which they communicate with each other at a distance, for intrigue is one of the great pursuits of both sexes. At church, in the freets, and at public meetings, the fair carry the appearance of saints; bat no fooner has the sun rolled down the beamy light, than all reftraint is thrown afde, and every bird seeks its mate: no single woman can appear abroad without her duena, who is an old woman, that generally asists her in carrying on her amours.
. We have had two bull-feasts here, but they were very indifferent: the people are so paslionately fond of this diversion, that they will even dispose of their wearing apparel to get money to go to it : all the young men of fashion were dressed in the Maxo I dress, which is the sombrero, capa, and Sredecilla petit maître, with long swords under their cloaks. A gitana, or gipsey woman, fignalized herself by attacking one of the bulls; but the was thrown by him, and somewhat bruised, when the whole amphitheatre rang with applause: it is ever the custom to applaud the victor: however, to reward her resolution, the Marquis of Cabrignani called out, Viva la Louisa! and threw her a handful of hard dollars. All the fellows who were employed in fighting the bulls, attend the levees of the young men of fashion, where the modes of attack and defence are very learnedly discussed.
'There are some few gaudy and rich churches here, but without tafte. The cathedral is a great curiosity; it was anciently a mosque, said by Mariana to be built by Abderrahman king of Cordova in 786; it is imagined the columns that are in it were originally taken from the temple of Janus, and other Roman buildings : Roman sculpture is as visible in their capitals, as Moorish in the superstrucqure; they are of jasper, and various other fine marbles, placed, as I was told, for I was not at the trouble to count them, in forty-fix ranks, crossed by twenty four. The Moors had so much veneration for Geca, which was the name is bore; whence that speech of San
t' Cloak and large hat.'
$? Net for the hair.'
cho's in Don Quixote, Dexadnos de andar de Ceca en Meca ; that they used to come on pilgrimage to it from Barbary, and the other parts of Spain they inhabited, as the Turks now go to Mecca. There are twenty canons belonging to this cathedral, who have considerable revenues.
This town is famous for fine horses: the king keeps stallions, and breeds for his own use; there were between thirty and forty colts in his ftables, which were to set out for Madrid in a few days. The Barbary breed, which is peculiar to this province is still preserved by focieties of gentlemen, called Maestranza, formed into communities at Seville, Granada, Ronda, and Valencia; each society having a different uniform, which is worn on itate days, &c.
Every man of fortune has a riding-house, where he amuses him. self an hour or two every day; for the Spaniard delights much in horses.
• The Alcazar, or Moorish palace, is ftill extant: it is now made use of for the inquisition.
• This town has been famous for its leather, whence the English word cordwain from Cordovan: there is also a considerable filk manufacture carried on here.'
CITY AND COURT OF MADRID. • Madrid is situated on several little hills, at the foot of which runs the Manzanares, a poor rivulet, at this time almost dry.
. The town is surrounded with a kind of mud wall, with gates at different avenues; it is inclosed, with a view to prevent the introduction of the various articles of subsistence, &c. without paying the impoft.
. I rode round the town, at two different times, and thence conclude it to be about seven miles in circumference: it is what the French call bien percée: some of the ftreers, such as the Calle de Atoche, Carrera de San Geronimo, Calle de Alcala, &c. are spacious and handsome ; particularly the latter, the entrance of which is near two hundred feet broad ; they are kept perfectly clean, are well paved and lighted, lamps being placed at every fifteen or fixteen yards.
• The police, upon the plan of that of Paris, is well regulated : the town is divided into a number of districts, each district being again subdivided into many inferior ones ; there is a supreme magistrate to each fuperior distria, who decides and punishes all frivolous disputes and smaller crimes.
The new palace must be esteemed a magnificent building, though connoisseurs say it is heavy: it is a large, square ftone edifice, fituated on a rising ground, at the west end of the town ; in the design there are two wings, but they are not yet begun, nor, most probably, ever will: the approach to ie is very indifferent, as it is not seen till close upon it: the entrance and stair-case are handfome : the great saloon of state is a most sumptuous room, about ninety feet by thirty-fix; the cieling is painted in fresco, with figures as large as life; the walls hung with crimson velvet, embroidered elegantly with gold, adorned with large mirrours: in the apartments is a collection of paintings by the firit masters: the famous Mengs, who has painted many of the ceilings, &c. is now employed by the
King, with a great salary: the numerous noble performances here are well worthy the attention of the curious. The chapel is a most complete and elegant piece of workmanthip; in it is some of the finelt marble in the country.
• The Retiró is at the ealt end of the town, but is an indifferent palace : there are ftill some good paintings remaining in it; but the best have been removed. The gardens are spacious, a great part of which is inclosed, and kept entirely for the King's sport; there is little worth notice in them, except a fine equestrian statue of Philip IV. and a large piece of water, which being on a height, bas been brought there as a considerable expence.
The Casa del Campo, across the Manzanares, about a mile out of town, is but a hovel for a prince ; and there is nothing Atriking in the park or inclosure, which is kept for the King's sport.
'In the King's armoury are many ancient weapons of war, and fuits of armour, kept in great order. In his library, every person has free access, may call for what books he pleases, and the moit profound filence is kept, to preserve the attention of the readers.
* Notwithstanding the amazing fortunes of some of the nobility, there are few houses that have a splendid external appearance. The Duke of Medina Cæli has a most extensive palace; but there is neither magnificence without, or elegance within; the apartments are low, badly decorated, and Gothicly furnished ; indeed, there are some very handsome mirrours from the King's fabric at San Ilde. phonfo: he has an armoury, in which are many valuable pieces of ancient armour, and antique bufts: he has also a public library, which is open for a certain number of hours every day.
• The houses here are chiefly brick; those of the nobility are plaiftered and painted on the outlide : the vestiges of jealousy are itill to be seen ; rejas, or large iron grates, are placed at every window. Some of the houses are very lofty, five, fix, or seven stories, particularly in the plaza major, which is a large square, where the 'roval bull-feats are held; at other times, the green market, &c. The middling people live on separate foors, as at Edinburgh, which renders the one common entrance to many families very dirty and diragreeable : the portals are the receptacles for every kind of filth ; and as the Spaniard has more mauvaise honte than Madame de Rambouillet, he performs the like offices of nature concealed behind the gate of the portal, that the openly did in the fields: this is a ftrong remnant of Moorish manners. When a house is built, the firit Hoor belongs to the King, but for which the owner generally compounds.
• The custom-house and post-office are new and handsome buildings.
* The churches here, as in every other part of the country, are tawdry, and overloaded with ornament; besides, there are strong remains of Moorish taste throughout ; little spires and diminutive domes disfigure all their temples. The Capuchins, though a beg. garly race, are building a molt enormous church, chat has, and will, coft an immense fum. The clergy by sop, and the prince by form, pillage and plunder the whole commonaley. The convent of the Salezas has a neat little chapel; the altars of fine marble, and eie
gant sculpture. There are about thirty-fix convents of men, and as many of women here.
• There are two churches in this town, that are asyloms for sogues, thieves, and murderers: this was a point the clergy carried, when the same privileges were taken from every other church.
Though the clergy must have considerable power in this, as well as every other country, yet it has been much reduced of late years. The edict to prevent the admission of noviciates into the different convents, without special permission, has, and will reduce the monastic orders. Ii is computed, there are now 54,000 friars, 34,000 nuns, and 20,aco secular clergy in the kingdom.
• The environs of Madrid are not very agreeable: there are no villas or country houses ; no places of recreation around it: the Padro, a public walk, planted with trees, at the east end of the town, is the chief summer evening's amusement; a great deal of company assemble there every afternoon, both in carriages and on foot.
• I was several times at court, during its residence here : all the royal family dine publickly in separate rooms; and it is the etiquette to visit each apartment whilst they are at dinner; a mof tiresome employ for those who are obliged to be there, and it would be thought particular, if the foreign ambassadors were not conftantly to attend : Don Luis, the King's brother, who is the lowest in rank is first visited; he is the ftrangest looking mortal that ever appeared, and his dress is not more peculiar than his person ; ever since he was à cardinal, he has detested any thing that comes near his neck, fo his taylor has been particularly careful, to bring that part, which Mould be the collar of his coat, no higher than half way up his brealt; this prince is of a most humane disposition, and is univerfally eltecmed. The next in turn, is the Infanta Dona Maria, who seemed to be a very inoffensive little woman. Then to the two lo• fantes, Don Gabriel and Don Antonio : at the King's library, I saw an edition of Sallust, in Spanish, said to be translated by the former; the type, in imitation of manuscript, and the engravings very fine. Thence to the Prince and Princess of Asturias, the latter is of the house of Parma, and seems to be very affable: the Prince looks like an honest, plain man ; it is said, he has an utter averlion to every person and thing. Italian or French; but the Princess having conirary sentiments, it is most likely, in the end, the will prevail on him to change his mind: as an initance of his dislike ; che French ambassador exclaimed loudly, that the Prince conversed with him in Spanith; it coming to the Prince's knowledge, he asked the Frenchmaa, in what language the Dauphin spoke to the Spanish ambassador at the court of Versailles ? On being cold, in French, he continoed, without taking any further notice, to converse with the ambassador, as before, in his own tongue. The last visit is to the King, who has a very add appearance in person and dress; he is of diminutive ftature, with a complexion of the colour of mahogany; he has not been measured for a coat these thirty years, so that it fits upon him like a fack; his waistcoat and breeches are generally leather, with a pair of cloth spatcerdashes on his legs. At dinner, pages bring in the different dishes, and prelenting them to one of the lords in waiting, he places them upon the table; another nobleman Aands on