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the different seasons of the year : to which is added the ceremon nies of marrying in the royal family, their feastings, &c.; the Emperor's manner of holding a divan and receiving his people; the honours they do him; and his method of employing his time. These, with a variety of other curious particulars, form the two first parts. The third part contains a full account of the Gentoo religion, their books, and the subjects of them, the several fects, and the points in which they differ; with the particulars of their worship, purifications, eating, drinking, marrying, &c.

The utility of this performance will be fufficiently apparent from the above recital of its contents. But it comes farther recommended by the encomium bestowed upon it by Mr. Jones, in his Persian Grammar. That learned and ingenious writer hath inserted it in his catalogue of the most valuable books in the Perfic language : and he observes, that a tranflation of it would be extremely useful to the European companies that trade in India.

These circumstances have engaged Mr. Gladwin, a gentleman in the service of the East India Company at Bengal, to undertake such a translation. What is here published by him is only a specimen of the work, including the subah or viceroyalty of Bengal. Mr. Gladwin accompanies his translation with explanatory notes, from the accounts of other writers, joined to what may have occurred within the compass of his particular knowledge and observation. He hath made a very considerable progress in the execution of his design, and is forming a collection of drawings of the most remarkable men, animals, cities, fruits, and flowers, as well as representations of the principal ceremonies described in the Ayin Akbary, in order to illustrate the work as much as poffible.

The completion of this undertaking will be so evidently serviceable in a political, commercial, and literary view, that we hope it will meet with proper encouragement.

To the present publication, Mr. Gladwin hath subjoined a specimen of an Asiatic Vocabulary, intended to be printed by lubscription, in three volumes, quarto. The first part, containing the words of the Arabic, Perfic, and Hindoftany, or Moor's languages, is to be comprized in two volumes. The contents of the second part, which will include the Shanscrit, Bengàly, and Nagry, are to be engraven on plates. The languages are arranged in such order as to lhew how the Arabic is incorporated with the Persic, and the Persic with the Hindoftany, or Moorish; as well as to discover some traces of the Shanscrit language, both in the last-named tongue and also that of Bengal. The whole is to be printed in the characters proper to each language, except the Moorish; which, being of most general

use,

ufe, will be added in Roman characters, for the benefit of those who are unacquainted with the Persian.

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IN

Art. VII. Dr. WILLIAMS's History of the Noribera Governments,

concluded : See lait Month's Review. N our Numbers for the two preceding months, we gave a brief

character of this performance ; with a sketch of the plan ; and short extracts from the Author's account of, I. The Trade and Commerce of Holland. II. The great Revolution, in the, Government of Denmark, in the year 1660. III. The extraordinary Story of the late unfortunate Queen-confort of Denmark, Sister to the present King of Great Britain ; including the wretched Catastrophe of the Counts Struensee and Brandt: we shall now conclude with the Writer's remarks on the causes of the various revolutions in Poland.

When we reflect, says our Author, on the history of the rise and progress of this government, ' it will clearly appear that it was originally founded upon the most just and equitable principles, like all the rest of the ancient Gothic governments, and was well calculated for those days when mankind dealt honestly at least with their fellow-subjects, and united to support each other against their enemies. That wicked and ambitious clergy, who under prétence of propagating and supporting the jutt, benevolent, merciful, and humane doctrines of Jesus Christ, endeayoured to enllave, oppress, and impoverish their fellowcreatures, did not then disquiet this country; joint-tenants of the fame. soil, the Poles knew no master but him whom they bad elected to be their prince and their general, and submitted to no laws but those which they made themselves ; animated by the love of liberty and of his country, every member of the community was ready to sacrifice his life in the service of the ftate, and his most ardent wishes were to fight for and fall in her defence. But when the Roman Catholic clergy gained a footing in this kingdom, the face of things was immediately changed; instead of preaching the religion of Jesus Chrift, founded upon the principles of charity, humanity, and brotherly love, they joined with those who called themselves nobles, to oppress and gain an ascendancy over the bulk of the people, not only by depriving them of their property by intrigues and artifices, and afterwards excluding them from their right of voting in all public affairs, but, as soon as these poor people were denied the enjoyment of their juft and legal rights, they concurred with the nobles in pafling laws to reduce them to a state of flavery, as they haye done to the Dissidents in our days ; however, fearing that this martial people, thus humbled and oppressed, should resist their measures, they not only threatened

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public excommunication and all the thunders of the Vatican to those who disobeyed them, and took every measure to keep the bulk of the people in a state of ignorance, but they refused absolution to those who came to confess their faults, and thewed the least inclination or desire to regain their liberties or privileges. Finding themselves oppreffed on every side, and seeing no means whereby they could redress themfelves, the common people, from being bold, active, and enterprizing, -fell into a state of idleness and despair, their country was no longer dear to them; they regarded their fellow-subjects as tyrants, and themselves as the most wretched of all the human race. But although the nobility and clergy had so far gained their point, and reduced their fellow subjects to a state of poverty and distress, they were fearful lest some future king, dictated by the principles of justice and humanity, should attempt to redress the wrongs of these poor people, and restore them to their legal rights and privileges, and therefore they now directed their attacks against the authority of the crown, and before they would permit any future king to be crowned, they forced him to swear to support and to defend them in all their usurped rights and privileges, and to observe faithfully all the laws which they had unjustly made, and which they called the fundamental laws of the itate. Thus did these wicked and abandoned clergy, and these tyrannical nobles, insensibly reduce their fellow-subjects to that state of poverty and abject slavery in which they are at present, limit the power of the crown, pave the way to independency, and change : the form of government from an elective monarchy to an aristocracy without controul, the most defective and tyrannical of all governments. We must look back to this fource for the great cause of all the troubles, civil wars, and revolutions which for two or three centuries past have almost desolated this kingdom, and reduced her to the mean and wretched fituation in which she is at present. Dismembering the provinces of the kingdom, and vesting the sovereign authority of different districts in different persons, which was heretofore practised by several kings of Poland, likewise contributed greatly to weaken the power of the crown and to increase the authority and independency of the nobles and clergy. Whenever there is a number of liale independent governments, which are bordering upon sovereignties, in a state, the government of that state will be always weak and enervated, and as those little governors are generally so many, tyrants, who are jealous of each other, the state will always be agitated like a troubled fea, and exhibit a scene of confusion and oppression. This has always been the case in Poland, and will continue so to be as long as the present form of government exists in this kingdom ; for so long as confederacies are tolerated, Rev. May, 1778.

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and there are great numbers of slaves ready to obey the confederates, there will always be ambitious and ill-designing people enough to keep the government in a constant scene of confufion and discord. A state in fuch a situation will always be like a general whose army is ready to mutiny; he never will be in a condition to defend himself against an enemy, whilft his army is in this disposition, neither can a kingdom subsist whose government is undermining itself. Poland has experienced this great truth; her own divisions and a viciousness of a part of her inhabitants, who would trample under foot the just rights and privileges of the others, have rendered her the prey of her ambitious enemies. In the year 1648, when this state appeared to be very formidable in Europe, her government would have been totally destroyed by the Cosacks and Tartars, if those robbers had not quarrelled about their plunder. Charles Gustavus and Charles the Twelfth of Sweden conquered this kingdom with great facility with a handful of troops, and if they had taken prudent measures might have established what government they thought proper, notwithstanding the boasted forces of the nobility; and we have lately seen a small body of Ruffian troops disperse all the idle parade of their associations. Though they have always been surrounded with enemies, the nobility and clergy would never suffer any regular military forces to be maintained and properly disciplined in the kingdom, fearing that they should be a check upon their illegal measures and tyranny : these sons of infamy and rapine would rather fee their country destroyed by the Tartars, Turks, or by any other foreign state, than do justice to their injured fellow-creatures and subjects : notwithstanding the brave Sobieski so often faved them when they were at the brink of destruction, and again placed them upon a respectable footing among the other European states, to such a degree of degeneracy and corruption were they then arrived, and so great were their divisions and animofities against each other, that they refused the crown to his son in order to give it to a stranger with whom they were almost totally unacquainted; and when Auguftus, from a principle of generosity, attempted to restore the state to its ancient fplendor, they joined his enemies to dethrone him, after he had thewn his benevolent disposition towards them in the government of the state, and spent several millions to save both them and their country from plunder and devastation.

• This is an exact portrait of the Polish nobility and clergy, to whom we may justly apply the words of the Holy Evangelift, " that a kingdom divided against itself can never stand.”

.Thefe reflections may ferve to prove the Author's zealous and laudable attachment to the cause of civil and religious liberty ;

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a circumstance which is, indeed, strongly marked in all parts of the work; and which, no doubt, will greatly recommend it to many readers in this, as yet, FREE country:

E. Art. VIII. Disquisitions relating to Matter and Spirit. To which is

added, the History of the Philosophical Doctrine concerning the Origin of the Soul, and the Nature of Marter ; with its influence on Christianily, especially with rep.a to the Doctrine of the Pre-existence of Christ. By Joseph Priettley, LL.D. F. R. S. 8vo. 45. Johnson.

1777: O in

N republishing Dr. Hartley's Theory of the Human Mind, fixed to that performance, expressed fome doubts of the truth of the common hypothesis, according to which man is faid to possess a foul, or a supposed immaterial substance, distinct from his body; or to consist of two separate, independent, and heterogeneous principles, intimately connected together, in some unknown and incomprehensible manner. Though these doubts, he observes, were expresled with the utmost hesitation and diffidence; a great alarm was taken, and he was represented as an unbeliever, and a favourer of atheism.

*The odium, he adds, which I had thus unexpectedly drawn upon myself, served to engage my more particular actention to the subject of it; aud this at length terminated in a full conviction, that the doubt I had expressed was well founded. Continuing to reflect upon the subject, I became satisfied that, if we suffer ourselves to be guided in our inquiries by the universally acknowledged rules of philofophizing, we fall find ourselves intirely unauthorized to admit any thing in man besides that body which is the object of our senses; and my own observations, and my own collection of opinions on the subject, presently swelled to the bulk that is now before the public.

The doctrine proposed in the passage which we have above alluded to, is thus expressed in different terms, in the present treatise. After having observed that the Scriptures uniformly suppose the fyftem of materialism, which is clogged with none of the difficulties attending the common opinion, he adds • Man, according to this system, is no more than what we now fee of him. His being commences at the time of his conception, or perhaps at an earlier period. The corporeal and mental faculties, inhering in the same substance, grow, ripen, and decay together; and whenever the system is diffolved, it continues in a state of diffolu:jon, till it hall pleafe that Almighty Being, who called it into existence, to restore it to life again.

The Author commences these disquisitions by an inquiry into the nature and essential properties of matter; and endeavours to prove that the folidity or impenetrability, and consequently the A a 2.

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