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the King's fide, to hand him his wine and water, which he tastes, and presents on his knee; the primate is there to say grace; the inquisitor-general also attends at a distance, on one side, and the captain, who has the guard, on the other; the ambassadors are in a circle near him, with whom he converses for a short time, when they retire into a room behind his chair ; the rest of the court form in a second circle, without the ambassadors, at the end of the room ; when he rises from table, all who are to be introduced to him are presented ; and the governor of Madrid, having received the parole, he enters the room to the ambassadors : he goes out a sporting every day of the year, rain or blow, whilft at Madrid, once a day, in the afternoon; but in the country, at the fitics, morning and evening : he often drives fix or even leagues out, and back again, as hard as the horses can go; it is a mof fatiguing life for his attendants, and it is co uncommon thing to bear of the Guardia de Corps getting dislocated shoulders, broken arms, legs, &c. by falls from their horses : the country all around his palaces is enclosed for his sport.'

The Author has added a defcription of the Escorial; but we cannot have the pleasure of accompanying him every where.

CITY AND UNIVERSITY OF SALAMANCA.

STATE OF EDUCATION IN Spain. • Salamanca is a large city, in the kingdom of Leon, situated on the Tormes, over which there is a ftone bridge; this river empties itself into the Dacro, on the frontiers of Portugal.

-- This town is famous for its university, which was founded by Don Alonzo, Count of Castille, in Placencia, in the year 1209, and thence translated to this city, in the year 1239, by Don Fernando el Santo.

• This is the first university in the kingdom ; but it has not a moft flourishing aspect ; most of the colleges appear as if they had been lately waited and ruined by a ravaging army; in some, I found only the head of the house, with one or two students; and in many, not above fix or seven.

• The colleges of Santa Cruz, at Villadolid ; San Idelphonfo, at Alcala ; with Oviedo, Cuenca, Viejo, and Obispo here, having had fome disputes amongst themselves about their internal government; the King interfered, and issued an edict, that Itudents fould not be admitted into any of them, till their fundamental inftitutions were examined, and new regulations made: this produced warm, and repeated, remonftrances to the court, on the part of the colleges ; when, at length, about a twelvemonth ago, the heads of houses were admitted to an audience with his Majesty, at Aranjeusi; where, representing their case rather too freely, they were ordered into baa nilhment, and a fresh edi&t was issued, confirming the former. These colleges were appropriated chiefly to the ftudy of the law, and were usually filled by people of fortune, who, born to independance, and possessed of liberal minds; who finding by their ftudies, that the uforpation of the Sovereign is contrary to the ancient conftitution of the kingdom ; when they came to act, would not at all times say, Amen to the Prince's creed; the minister, therefore, to crush such independent spirits, has fallen upon this method, by tyrannic manRiv. Jan. 1778.

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dates, to discourage, or rather prevent, the progress of learning, thereby to eradicate every germe of liberty; so that, in the course of time, it will be forgotten, that there ever was a standard of jur. tice, but the will of ihe Prince ; and none but the ignorant and servile will be found to act under him, when he will govern his slaves , without controul.

Such is i he ltate of corruption in this country, that, should any gentleman propose to have a school on his estate, for the instruction of his tenants' children, it could not be establithed without paying for the privilege ; though it were to be founded and supported at his own expence.

Amongst the monastic orders, there are schools where education is carried no farıher than to write, read, and to say mass; though not to underland Larin. The pupils are instructed to study the lives of the saints, and such other trumpery; and thus, though a n:oft ignorant and illiterate fet, they become the heavenly paftors of mankind.

The nobility educate their sons at home, under the tuition of some pedantic or artful priest, who, wishing rather to please than instruct, employs his pupil's time in agreeable trifles.

• The women have no other education but what they receive from their parenis. Whilst the nobility have the honour of their families so much at heart, and the clergy retain their power, public education cannot take place in this country; for every marriage, after thirteen years of age, becoming valid, both boys and girls are kept close under their parents' eyes, for fear they should degrade themfelves by an improper alliance; and private education of men, without the attention of fagacious parents, does not fit them to act in life conspicuously. But of what advantage is learning here? It can only tend to amusement; it can never shine forth to the advantage of any one in a subordinate sphe:e: titles and honours are sufficient to render the nobles conspicuous; and as for the inferior classes, they have no hopes or expectations, from having more knowledge than their superiors : public employments are acquired, either by the finifter means of artful knaves, or by the caprice of the great. Don Jorge Juan, an officer of the navy, and most able mathemati. cian, had his heart broken by the minifter; because his superior abilities led him to point out absurdities which were approved of by the other; he therefore took every opportunity to create a disguit in the King against him. Not long ago, an officer came from Ame. rica, with plans of fortification against the incursions of the natives, strongly recommended to the minister for his capacity, and the utility of his scheme ; after having presented them, he was no further noticed; but, conscious of his own abilities, and not brooking the fight he met with, he became importunate, when he was dismissed with this remarkable exprefíion, Quiere U. M. componer el mundo ? Do you wish to reform the world 7 The only satisfaction for his merit and expence!

• Jog on in the path of ignorance, ye unfortunate Caftillians; the road to learning leads only to the knowledge of those misfortunes, for which you dare not cven think of a remedy !

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• The course of philosophy taught in this university, is that of Gaudin, a French Dominican Friar; and they have three profefiors of the faculty: they have a chair of moral philofophy, and are now etablihing a chair of experimental philosophy.

• In divinity, they nudy Melchor Cano's Sum of Controversy the first year, and for the four following years, they study St. Thomas's Course of Divinity, commonly called, Summa Divi Thome Equinatis ; for this purpose there are eight profesors to give lectures, morning and evening : there is a professor to explain the Scripture, and another of moral divinity.

There are several profeffors of the canon law, who explain Corpus Juris Canonici, Clementinas Decretales, &c.

• There are likewise many eminent profesors of the civil law : they explain the laws of Juslinianus and the laws of the nation: the chairs are called Inflituta codicis, Disefii veteris, Voluminis inftitutionum imperialium, &c.

There are professors of medicine, that have chairs called Proge nofticorum, Methodi, Simplicium, Anatomie, Chirurgia, &c.

· There are professors of Greek, Hebrew, Latin, rhetoric, algebra, and mufic.

• At present, mathematical science is at a low ftate.

• Every audent of divinity, is obliged to read Hebrew, and every Audent of the law, Greek, a twelve month before he attends the lectures. This mould be the regular course, but the discipline of this universiły is very relaxed; nay, it were of little use that it hould be otherwise; for amongst the learned faculties, the lawyers need only study corruption and the ediêts of their King,- for here, the will of the Prince has attained che place of law; the clergy, hypocrisy and how to retain their power. Indeed it would be advantageous, that the study of physic had made a greater progress ; for if one may judge by the wretched fiate of those people, who are afflicted with one disorder, in particular, that is very prevalent in this country, and who linger out a miserable life, expiring under it at lall, for want of proper aid (not to mention the absurd' manner with which almost every other coinplaint is created) we may venture to pronounce the profeflors an ignorant body.

· The royal academy dictionary, grammar, and o:hography, are masterly performances ; but literature, in general, is at a stand. In the preface to the academy di&tionary, it is said, the language is to copious, that there are found in it, amongst many others of great ingenuity, five novels, of sufficient merit, composed wish such ari, that all the words contained in each of them are collected so as to leave out one of the vowels.

• This town, like most of other Spanish towns, has a gloomy ap. pearance; narrow and irregular streets, with very antique houses. The Plaza Mayor is a handsome square, though built much in the Moorith caite.

• The college, that did belong to the Jesuits, is a molt extenfive building ; it is to large, that toco French were lodged in it on their march to Portugal she last war; at present, the Irish students, trans. lated from the colleges of Seville and St. Jago, poffefs a part of it; there are about twenty-seven of them, poorly endowed, and little

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noticed : a miserable company! They were extremely civil to me, and I most sincerely commiserated their unhappy fituation.'

L I s s ở N. • Lisbon is situated on several little hills, near the embouchure of the Tagus, extending itself beautifully for about three miles on the northern banks of the river ; the broadeft part of the town may be rather more than a mile. · The devaslation of the earthquake in 1755

is still recent; whole ftreets lying in a demolished fate; however, some good will be derived from that misfortune, for a handsome city is rising out of the suins of one that was most deformed; a sample of which is still to be seen in many paris that escaped demolition Mariana describes the streets of Lisbon to be nearly the same at the time the town was taken from the Moors, by Alphonso Henriquez in the twelfth century, as they are at present in that quarter of the town called the Mororia : they are very irregular, and so narrow, that the projections of the upper stories of the houses, on the opposite fides, almost meet; thereby excluding both fun and air.

• The habitations of every country depend upon a variety of circumstances to render them more or less magnificent,

• In the feudal states, the castles of the Barons, dispersed throughout the country, were the courts of those little princes, as well as their fortresses; and were constructed according to the wealth and confideration of the possessor: thus we find in all these old palaces, a suite of apartments for the state of the chief, and handsome commodations for his servants and followers. In the capital stood the castle or palace of the monarch; habitations for his dependants, and the officers of justice ; likewise, for merchants, tradesmen, me. chanics, &c, who existing by their industry, and obliged to have a fixed abode, searched more for convenience than splendour; the mobility made it only their temporary place of residence, when their business or dury in government called them to it; but in those countries, where the independent power of the nobles hath ceased ; and they have been obliged, from the despotism of a prince, or in. duced from the progress of luxury, to quit the ruder pleasures of the country, for the more gay and brilliant amusements of the capital ; magnificent and elegant buildings have arisen in it, proportionably to the degree of splendour in the court, wealth, and resnement in the state.

• Here the court is little elegant; the King and royal family live in a barrack, where there is not much taite or magnificence; and as few of the first rank are wealthy, there cannot be any private buildings of great consideration. I was told, that the Duke de Cadaval has an estate of about 80,000 crusades a year, equal to about 9000 l. sterling; and one or two more of the nobiity have from fifiy to sixty thousand crusades; when the rest dwindle into inconsiderable fortunes. The Marquis of Pombal, the minilter, has accu. mulared much wealth from a very small beginning; but, except by himself, it is not known to what ic amounts.

• The Arsenal here is a large and handsome building; but its contents do not pronounce a very formidable fate.

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. The famous aqueduct of Alcantara is a moft noble work; as it is composed of two different kind of arches, the beauty of uniformity, which should prevail, is destroyed ; the Gothic arches should have been Roman, or the Roman Gothic; at present it appears a building of different artists, or as if constructed at different periods. I could not ascertain the height of the principal arch, which is Gothic; but the width of it, as near as I could judge from pacing it, may be about ninety feet.

After the earthquake, a ftupor ensued for several years, when, at length, the New Town was begun, which has made a great progrefs; though it was against the inclination of the inhabitants, either to build, or reside on that part where its shocking effects were most apparent. In the New City, there is great attention to uniformity ; and the houses, being built of white stone, have a beautiful appearance; though they are certainly too lofty for a place where earthquakes are till frequent, being four or five stories. The ftreets are flagged for foot passengers, and raised above the carriage way; but are unnecessarily loaded with stones, placed perpendicularly, like the posts formerly in London. The great square in the center of the town, where the India house, Exchange, &c. are building; and where a most remarkable bronze statue of the King is to be placed, will be magnificent. The streets are not lighted, and those of the Old Town are remarkably dirty ; every kind of filth being thrown into them.

• The fish and corn markets are worth notice; in the latter, to prevent impofition, the price of every kind of grain is regulated, and fixed up at each stand.

• There is a paltry kind of public walk lately made, by no means in stile with the town, where, by particular ediet, no one is allowed to go in a cloak : the same rule of exemption extends to some of the coffee-houses: the policy of this government, is to have the French dress universally introduced.

• I muft také notice to you of a prejudice both in this country and Spain, which is fomewhat fingular : having had the finest moonlight evenings imaginable, I have constantly noticed the women hold their fans, in such a manner, as to prevent the moon from shining upon their faces, as they conceive it will spoil their complexions. At Madrid the same prejudice not only prevailed amongst the women, but extended even to the men : I was walking one evening with the great O'Reilly in his garden ; having my hat under my arm, he desired, I might be covered, as the moon in that climate, he said, was more dangerous than the fun. Such feminine ideas, I think, are only worthy of the sex ; I did not imagine they could in, Huence a great monarch's favourite.

The harbour is a good one, but not sheltered from easterly winds, though they feldom prevail very strongly: it is by no means defended from the hostile attempts of a naval force ; for, from Fort St. Julian to the fort on the opposite shore, it is at least two miles; and there is no other defence of any consequence, after palling those forts.

• The military knowledge of the Moors is obvious here, in the ruins of the fortifications of those people; there are the remains of a

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