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-Art. 63. A defcriptive Account of the Islands lately discovered in the
This detail is very fcanty and unfatisfactory; nor is it void of
Confiits, chiefly, of letters originally published in the Daily Ga. zetteer. This controverfy broke out in the parish of St. Martin, Westminster. Several of the inhabitants objected to the payment of Eater offerings to the clergyman, whofe claim upon them they apprehended to be illegal; but the clergyman, and his friends, being of a different opinion, recourfe was had to compulsion. The matter came to a hearing before Sir John Fielding, and fome were prevailed on to comply with the demand; while others, more refractory, and, perhaps, better informed, perfilled in their refufal of payment. The affair growing more ferious, an appeal was made to the Public; and both parties figured in the news-papers; but the clergyman's adherents feem to have come off second best. farther particulars we refer to the pamphlet, the subject of which merits, in particular, the attention of the inhabitants of London, Wellminster, and all other cities or corporations, where tythes, ob
+ Vide Hawkesworth, Cook, &c.
lations, &c. are fettled by act of parliament, and to which the ftatute of William III. does not extend.
Art. 65. Three Effays, on the following Subjects; a Defence of the Women; Church Mufic; a Comparison between ancient and modern Mufic; tranflated from the Spanish of Feyjoo. By a Gentleman. 8vo. 3. fewed. Becket. 1778.
Having already expreffed our general fentiments concerning this Writer (in our Review for September, page 241) we have only to remark concerning thefe Effays, that the firft, though written in a more grave, and, confequently, lefs entertaining manner, than might be expected from the nature of the fubject, contains fome curious facts, and many good obfervations; and that the two latter (the chief intention of which feems to be, to correct the falle tafte which has appeared in modern church mufic) difcover an acquaintance with the history and the principles of the art, which will render them very acceptable to thofe who ftudy as well as practife mufic. Art. 66. The Man of Experience, or the Adventures of Honorius. By Mr. Thistlethwait. 2 vols. 6s. Booley. 1778. An unmeaning, unnatural, and ill written fa.ire on mankind. L A W.
Art. 67. A Digeft of the Laws of England. Being a Continua-
Of Lord C B. Comyns's digeft, in five vols. folio, we gave fufi-
Art. 68. Principles of English Grammar. By William Scott,
The chief merit of this Grammar feems to be, that it gives the fundamental principles of the English language in a concife form, without mixing with them fuperfluous rules, or obfervations of fecondary importance. This is a circumstance which will render this publication ufeful to those who are employed in teaching English grammar.
1. The Neceffity and Truth of the THREE PRINCIPAL REVELA TIONS Demonftrated from the Gradations of Science, and the Progrefs of the Mental Faculties, in a Sermon, preached before the University of Cambridge on Commencement Sunday, June 29, 1777. By Samuel Cooper, D. D. formerly Fellow of Magdalen College, now Rector of Morley and Yelverton in Norfolk, and
Chaplain to the King's own Regiment of Dragoons. 4to. 1 S. 1777. Cambridge. Woodyer and Merril; and fold by Becket,
Though the leading pofitions maintained in this difcourfe will admit of much debate, the original as well as the liberal turn of thought which prevails in it, entitles it to particular attention.
Dr. Cooper confiders the progreis of knowledge through the fucceffive ages of the world, as analogous to its gradations in individuals. In both, he conceives the progreffion to be firit from fenfation and perception to imagination and memory; and afterwards from the vigorous exertions of thefe faculties, to the cool and cautious opera tions of reafon. From hence he infers that the fcience of mind, or metaphyfics, is placed on the fummit of human knowledge. To this gradual developement and advance of the human faculties, he judges that infinite wifdom has fuited the fucceffive periods and progreffive discoveries of divine revelations. In the first, thadowing forth himself, who is pure intellect, to our first parents, under visible appearances, the fole objects of their faculties, and giving them the knowledge of the qualities and powers of fenfible objects by a fupernatural communication. In the fecond, adapting himself to the capacities of men, at a period when reafon, yet unroufed by intellect, instead of rifing to the contemplation of one fupreme caufe, was lethargized in polytheifm; and by addreffing himself to their fenfes, imagination and memory, making known his omnifcience, omniprefence, and omnipotence.In the third, at the time when reafon had formed fome notion of a divine mind, of goodness, of wisdom, and of power, difcovering himself to the human understanding as an intellectual object, or pure fpirit, and enjoining as the worthip due from man to his creator, an adoration in fpirit and in truth. The Chriftian religion, according to this view of the fubject, our Author diftinguishes by the appellation of, the Religion of Intellc&t; and remarks, that as both its nature and genius are peculiarly adapted to that faculty, it is evident that till reafon had been employed upon the objects of intellect, the appearance of this revelation, would have been unfuitable to the ftate of man's knowledge, or the progrefs of fcience. In explaining the Chriftian fyftem upon this theory, he fays:
The intellectual fyftem of morals revealed in the gospel admits no habit or action into the roll of virtues which has not for its object the univerfal welfare of mankind, independent of, and even contrary to, all the partial attachments to individuals, which are formed from the ties of blood, neighbourhood, friendship, opinion and country; and which is not likewife divelled of all the averfions which flow from enmity, and every contrariety of fentiment, interest and paffion. So likewife, it refufes to dignify with the name of virtue any action or habit, however unlimited as to its object, which has not for its motive the hope of that happiness which revelation promifes us hereafter; in oppofition to the gratification of all those defires (though within certain bounds innocent in themfelves) which arife from the conftitution of our nature, fuch as interelt, ambition, pleasure or fame. Though feme actions therefore, whatever their motives or their objects may be, are univerfally called moral, because
they are useful to mankind, from heathen fyftems alone they can af fert a right to that title. For Chriftian ethics difclaim them, unless they are generated from the proper motive, future happiness, and directed to the proper end, univerfal good.-A scheme of ethics which however, even the multitude of the learned are not perhaps yet fitted to receive in its utmost purity: because no fyftem fo perfect, was ever before offered to the human heart, nor could be fuggefted by the human intellect, amidst all the various fuggeftions which have floated upon the waves of doubtful difputation.'
Those who are not yet fitted to receive this fyftem, will probably be inclined to queftion its perfection, and confequently to doubt whether it be the fyflem of Christianity. They will apprehend, that it has too much of the appearance of refinement to fuit the fimplicity of the gospel. And they will perhaps be of opinion, that a fyftem which thould banish all the partial attachments of domeftic life, of friendship and of patriotifm from the train of virtues, and enjoin the facrifice of thefe to the fuperior principle of univerfal benevolence, would require from men that which their prefent conftitution renders impracticable, and would rob them of fome of the most lovely qualities of their nature, and fome of the fweetest pleasures of life. They will alfo probably be difpofed to afk, why thofe actions which are performed from a regard to future happiness fhould be dignified with the name of virtue, while this appellation is refufed to those actions which are performed with the view of gratifying the natural defires of intereft, ambition, pleasure or fame, fince the object in both is the fame, namely, perfonal enjoyment.
The difficulties which unavoidably attend thofe sciences which immediately respect mind, will lead many to think that Dr. Cooper has
placed metaphyfics in a rank of importance and dignity to which E,
II. Caution recommended in the Use and Application of Scripture Language. Preached July 15, 1777, in the Cathedral Church of Carlisle, at the Vilitation of the Right Reverend Edmund, Lord Bishop of Carlisle. By William Paley, M. A. late Fellow of Chrift College, Cambridge, and Vicar of Dalton and St. Lawrence in Appleby. 4to. 6d. White.
An ingenious and fenfible difcourfe; but the queftion may reafonably be asked, whether it doesnot prove too much? and, farther, whether, according to Mr. P.'s method of arguing, the greater part of the New Testament may not be fuppofed to have no relation to the prefent times; from whence it may not be very difficult to perfuade ourselves that we have in truth no concern with revelation. It cannot well be doubted that in fome inftances the expreffions of fcripture relate to the ftate of things at that time when they were written; but if the firft Chriftians were chofen, elect, adopted, &c. fo furely are thofe of this or any age, called by divine mercy from heathenish ignorance, idolatry, and vice to the knowledge of God, the promises of pardon, the hope of future happiness, &c. which benefit and honour they may or may not improve. If the first Chriftians were an boly priesthood, does not the fame denomination belong to thofe of this and every age; the gospel obliterating the diftinction of any particular order of men under the character of priests, by con
ferring it on every private Chriftian, who is to prefent fpiritual of ferings by the one and the only High Prieft, Jefus Chrift? Such refections have arifen in our minds on perufing this fermon; which, though of a liberal calt, may poffibly have fome dangerous tendency. Should we be mistaken, it may not be amifs to propofe these hints; which we do with real deference to the abilities of the author. H. III. The Dying Chriftian's Triumph in a Living Redeemer,
Afhfield, Nottinghamshire, on the Death of Matthew Butcher,
A ferious and well written difcourfe on mortality; in which is
This fermon, now published at the requeft of a friend of Dr. Pel-
Dr. Gerard is very warm, with respect to the Americans.-On their part, all is undutiful and criminal; on ours, all is fair and juft.— Whether things will appear exactly in the fame light in HEAVEN and in SCOTLAND,-what weight either caufe will have in the scale of DIVINE PROVIDENCE,-and how far (fetting reafon and argument, and paffion and prejudice afide) we are, hereafter, to form any judgement from events,-the prefent fafhionable mode of judging,-we muft not now prefume to determine. Time, and that at no great diftance, will, probably, clear up the mifts in which our understandings feem, at prefent, bewildered. Mean while, we are forry that there should be any occafion for our recommending moderation and candor, and a more intimate acquaintance with the true principles
This is not meant in reference to the peculiar claims of America, but to thofe general principles which are inherent in the Eng