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temporaneous mixture, a very small portion of the fixed air can have had time to enter that Auid: accordingly, in his experiment, the fixed air is chiefly expelled immediately from the alcaline falt; and may be said rather to pass through the water than to be actually expelled from it. In the experiments above mentioned the Author employed half a drachm of salt of tartar dissolved in two ounces of water; and he found that the fixed air expelled from the liquor occupied a space equal to more than three ounce
megfures. Had he used double or quadruple that quantity of Valcaline salt, he might posibly have collected fix or twelve ounce
measures of fixed air from these two ounces of water: but this large quantity of fixed air, though expelled from the water, cannot with propriety be said to have been before imbibed by, or combined with, this small quantity of that Auid. A proper combination, in any considerable degree, can only take place, we apprehend, when the process is conducted in the manner long ago proposed and executed by M. Venel*; who was the first, we believe, who actually compounded an artificial acidulous or spirituous water, like that of Seltzer or Pyrmont; though he was ignorant of the real nature of the ingredient to which it owed these qualities; and which he erroneously supposed to be common air.
On this head we shall observe that, when the alcaline salt and acidulated water have been justly proportioned, and properly mixed, and instantly drank, we have found this extemporaneous compound to exceed both the artificial and * natural Pyrmont water in pungency and gratefulness: and we entertain no doubt but that it may be employed with good effect on many occasions, both as a medicine and as a grateful -beverage, especially in distant countries, and particularly in the navy; where not only water, but vinous and other potable liquors which have become vapid, may, as the Author observes, be corrected or meliorated by this process. We are inclined however to think that, in many cases, the usual mode of impregnating water with fixed air may be more beneficial to the patient: as the fixed air, thus intimately united with the water,
* See Memoire de Sçavans Etrangers, tom. ii. The reader will likewise meet with an account of M. Venel's experiments in Ms. Henry's translation of M. Lavoisier's Esays Physical and Chemical, p. 33. In M. Venel's process, which we have frequently repeated, The fixed air difodged from the alcaline salt, in a vial nearly full cand closely corked, being confined, suffers a degree of compression that greatly promotes its combination with the water :- and yet we have some reason to doubt whether, even in this way, more fixed air can be a&ually combined with water, than in the common process with the glass apparatus.
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seems to us to have a much better chance, in confequence of such intimate combination, of being conveyed into the circuJating Auids, or the bladder, than when exhibited in an effervefcing fluid ; with whose particles it has fo fight a connection, that a very considerable part of it evidently escapes into the cavity of the mouth and fauces, in the very act of drinking it. In fact it is to that circumstance that this mixture, as well as the natural Pyrmont water, and bottled fermented liquors, owe their pungency or brisk and acidulous taste.
ART, IX, Principles of Beauty relative to the Human Head. By
HIS new and philosophical performance was published Majesty: The number, as well as the reputation of many of the names which are seen in the list of encouragers to this work, seem to indicate that the Author is placed in a respecte able rank, by the lovers of the polite arts.
It is acknowledged that Mr. Cozens poflefles an uncommon share of original genius : his landscapes are all his own : his rocks, ruins, trees, lakes, and cataracts, are the offspring of his own fancy. Objects perpetually occur to furnish him with the most sublime images: an evening sky, or a decayed poft, fuggeft to a susceptible mind the most delightful representations : The ideas of this artist expand at every hint; and a genius like his has little occafion to travel through the trackless wilds of Abyllīnia, to copy nature in her most rude and unsociable state.
This ingenious Visionary has, in the work before us, Itrayed into a new path: he has left the uncultivated scenes of the wilderness, to study the beauties of nature, in the gentlest emotions of the mind, as delineated in the human face. The idea of beauty, in general, is wild and indefinite, and muft continue in the same undetermined state, as long as men decide upon the ex parte evidence of their own particular feelings. A lascivious leer, or an impudent ftare, will, with fome, excite a violent sensibility in their behalf, while others will be charmed into an invincible partiality in favour of a languishing look; and in the depravity of taste, even adventitious beauty will find admirers ! for notwithstanding beauty is an interesting cause, it is to the passions, and not to the judgment, that we perpetually appeal.
Mr. Cozens has no intention, as he can have no hope, to invite the whims and caprices of mankind to any standard he may erect; he only means to deferibe fcientifically those discoveries which he has 'made, as an amusement to the lover of the arts; and to ground young practitioners in the principles
of simple and compound beauty, by explaining systematically
The LANGUID or DELICATE
Notwithstanding Mr. Cozens labours to keep clear of the passions, we cannot help thinking but the Spirited, the Haughty, and perhaps the Artful, must be heightened with a little tincture of passion to give a necessary force to the expression.
Our Author, on considering the subject, fubmits the following ingenious observations to the Public :
Simple beauty of the human face, is one and the same, at all times, and in all places ; and is void of any predominant mental character. It proceeds from certain properties in the object, peculiarly adapted to raise that idea, the investigation of which I do not undertake. Thus, were all womankind of the simple beauty, they would resemble each other.
Simple beauty may be compared to pure, elemental water, and character is to beauty, as flavour, scent, and colour are to water; which, by the addition of these several infusions, wilt be termed sweet, or four, or scented, or red, yellow, &c. viz. fpecies, or forts of water. For the addition of character to beauty gives the latter a distinguishing quality, producing all the different kinds of charactered beauties, each equally pleasing as to the effect upon the different tastes of mankind, but inferior to the first or simple beauty, in regard to purity of beauty. Thus, as I suppose that there is such a thing as elemental water, fo I presume that there is elemental beauty, independent of tafte or prepoffeffion, but capable of being blended with other qualities. As water may be mixt with wine, milk, &c. in the fame glass ; so beauty with the expreffion of Majesty, or beauty with fenfi, &c. may be combined in the same facé : the intufion gives favour or expression to the insipid element; and it may be observed, that some characters will unite more intimately with beauty than others, as it is easy to conceive that the steady, the artful, &c. accord less with beauty than the modeft, the good natured, &c. Hence it should fecm that limple
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beauty is pure, because it has no character, and charactered beauty is in some degree impure, if it may be so expresled, because its beauty is not simple and unmixed !!
Mr. Cozens might have proceeded, mixing his ingredients, until by an encreased impurity, the olject became intoxicating; this is the regular way of making approaches, and laying fiege to the passions : and it accounts for the irresistible impetuolity lo observable in mankind under the influence of violent and im. pure desires. The modest deportment of fimple beauty aims at no more than to engage the honest and incorrupted affection of the mind.
In contemplating the human face, Mr. Cozens has observed a faint degree of the mental characters combined in each distinct beauty, which he endeavours to explain, by an arrangement of the different characters, with their component parts-For example,
In the Timid-may be seen, the sensible, tender, modest, penetrating.'
We have chosen the Timid because we cannot agree with our Author, that, the penetrating, can form any part of that affection. The timid Hrinks from every object: the penetrating obtrudes itself, to pry into and be intimate with every thing that is presented to the senses.—They seem to be diametrically opposite to each other.
Mr. Cozens concludes with this modest and sensible address to the Public:
I am conscious much more may be said upon the subject of the beauty of the human face, but I have presumed only to give an hint of a new practical scheme to the Public, referring the ultimate decision of the principles to the feelings and experience of mankind; and I shall rest extremely pleased, if this undertaking shall promote a discussion of the subject among the curious. I beg leave to add, that, upon the whole, I have endeavoured to produce the following effects in all the examples, that is, beauty, expression, and dignity, and all of them in the ftate of tranquillity; for I conceive that the whole set may be performed or composed in such a manner as to be accompanied with more or less of the above properties, and yet sufficiently varied in the individuals by the proper distinction of character.'
The better to explain his theory of beauty, Mr. Cozens has illustrated this work with nineteen copper-plates, engraved by Bartolozzi, which shew the gradation of character, from the outline of a feature, to the outline of the face; and to each face is applied an head dress, in the style of the antique. These head dresses are truly becoming, and we sincerely wilh, for the honour of the sex, that our country-women would study them,
and remove the present enormous encumbrances from their
To accomodate foreigners, the Author has given a French
St. Jude concerning the Angels that forned, and who keps not their first
cation is founded, are the following:
Sodom and Gomorrah into afbes condemned them with an overthrow,
Ep. St. Jude, ver. 6, 7. And the angels, which kept not their
Even as Sodom and Gomorrah, and the cities about them; in like manner giving themselves over to fornication, and going after ftrange fies, are set forth for an example, suffering the vengeance of eternal fire.
Bishop Sherlock, with other learned men, have supposed that -the accounts given in the above verses, and other parts of these chapters, are extracted from some ancient writer of the Jewith nation, which may be a reason of the great difference of style between the second and the other chapters of this second epistie of St. Peter. Vitringa seems to have thought that as what is here faid of the angels is connected with facts that are expressly mentioned in the Old Testament, this relation also has the same records in view, but he does not cite any texts to which he could suppose it might refer : “ Nor do I know, lays Dr. Lardner, that those texts ever came in his way afterwards: I wish they had. For I am also inclined to believe that in all these places the apostles referred to passages of the Old Testament.” Mr. Henley is of the same opinion, and attempts, in this' pamphlet, to supply what the former of these learned critics omitted, and the latter wished for. • We have, he observes, in the Mosaic history an account given of the first apoftacy and rebellion on earth ; which was carried on by the sons of Chus, under their imperious leader Nimrod; and to this rebellion, and to this people, I imagine that the apostles allude. The history is of great consequence in the annals of the world, and confifts of many interesting circumstances, each of which is significant; and will be found to have been compleated in the perfors of