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temporaneous mixture, a very small portion of the fixed air can have had time to enter that fluid: accordingly, in his experiment, the fixed air is chiefly expelled immediately from the alcaline falt; and may be faid rather to pass through the water than to be actually expelled from it. In the experiments above mentioned the Author employed half a drachm of falt of tartar diffolved in two ounces of water; and he found that the fixed air expelled from the liquor occupied a fpace equal to more than three ounce meafures. Had he ufed double or quadruple that quantity of alcaline falt, he might poffibly have collected fix or twelve ounce measures of fixed air from thefe two ounces of water: but this large quantity of fixed air, though expelled from the water, cannot with propriety be faid to have been before imbibed by, or combined with, this fmall quantity of that fluid. A proper combination, in any confiderable degree, can only take place, we apprehend, when the procefs is conducted in the manner long ago propofed and executed by M. Venel*; who was the firft, we believe, who actually compounded an artificial acidulous or fpirituous water, like that of Seltzer or Pyrmont; though he was ignorant of the real nature of the ingredient to which it owed thefe qualities; and which he erroneoufly fuppofed to be common air.

On this head we fhall obferve that, when the alcaline falt and acidulated water have been juftly proportioned, and properly mixed, and inftantly drank, we have found this extemporaneous compound to exceed both the artificial and natural Pyrmont water in pungency and gratefulness and we entertain no doubt but that it may be employed with good effect on many occafions, both as a medicine and as a grateful beverage, efpecially in diftant countries, and particularly in the navy; where not only water, but vinous and other potable liquors which have become vapid, may, as the Author obferves, be corrected or meliorated by this procefs. We are inclined however to think that, in many cafes, the ufual mode of impregnating water with fixed air may be more beneficial to the patient: as the fixed air, thus intimately united with the water,

*See Memoire de Sçavans Etrangers, tom. ii. The reader will likewife meet with an account of M. Venel's experiments in Mr. Henry's tranflation of M. Lavoifier's Effays Phyfical and Chemical, P. 33. In M. Venel's procefs, which we have frequently repeated. the fixed air diflodged from the alcaline falt, in a vial nearly full and closely corked, being confined, fuffers a degree of compreffion that greatly promotes its combination with the water:-and yet we have fome reason to doubt whether, even in this way, more fixed air can be actually combined with water, than in the common procefs with the glass apparatus.,


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feems to us to have a much better chance, in confequence of fuch intimate combination, of being conveyed into the circulating fluids, or the bladder, than when exhibited in an effervefcing fluid; with whofe particles it has fo flight a connection, that a very confiderable part of it evidently escapes into the cavity of the mouth and fauces, in the very act of drinking it. In fact it is to that circumftance that this mixture, as well as the natural Pyrmont water, and bottled fermented liquors, owe their pungency or brisk and acidulous taste.


ART. IX. Principles of Beauty relative to the Human Head. By Alexander Cozens. Fol. Imp. Paper. 11. 5's. DodЛley. 1778.


HIS new and philofophical performance was published by fubfcription, and is, with permiffion, infcribed to his Majefty. The number, as well as the reputation of many of the names which are feen in the lift of encouragers to this work, feem to indicate that the Author is placed in a refpectable rank, by the lovers of the polite arts.

It is acknowledged that Mr. Cozens poffeffes an uncommon fhare of original genius: his landscapes are all his own: his rocks, rains, trees, lakes, and cataracts, are the offspring of his own fancy. Objects perpetually occur to furnish him with the most fublime images: an evening fky, or a decayed poft, fuggeft to a fufceptible mind the moft delightful representations: The ideas of this artist expand at every hint; and a genius like his has little occafion to travel through the tracklefs wilds of Abyffinia, to copy nature in her most rude and unfociable state.

This ingenious Vifionary has, in the work before us, ftrayed into a new path: he has left the uncultivated fcenes of the wilderness, to study the beauties of nature, in the gentlest emotions of the mind, as delineated in the human face. The idea of beauty, in general, is wild and indefinite, and must continue in the fame undetermined ftate, as long as men decide upon the ex parte evidence of their own particular feelings. A lafcivious leer, or an impudent ftare, will, with fome, excite a violent fenfibility in their behalf, while others will be charmed into an invincible partiality in favour of a languishing look; and in the depravity of tafte, even adventitious beauty will find admirers! for notwithstanding beauty is an interefting cause, it is to the paffions, and not to the judgment, that we perpetually appeal.

Mr. Cozens has no intention, as he can have no hope, to invite the whims and caprices of mankind to any standard he may erect; he only means to deferibe fcientifically thofe difcoveries which he has made, as an amusement to the lover of the arts; and to ground young practitioners in the principles


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of fimple and compound beauty, by explaining fyftematically
the abftrufe parts which conftitute the following characters:









Thefe, I prefume, fays he, are all the claffes which come under the definition and limitation of charactered beauty, independent of paffion; for I must repeat, that the paffions are by no means under my contemplation at present.'

Notwithstanding Mr. Cozens labours to keep clear of the paffions, we cannot help thinking but the Spirited, the Haughty, and perhaps the Artful, must be heightened with a little tincture of paffion to give a neceffary force to the expreffion.

Our Author, on confidering the fubject, fubmits the following ingenious obfervations to the Public:

Simple beauty of the human face, is one and the fame, at all times, and in all places; and is void of any predominant mental character. It proceeds from certain properties in the object, peculiarly adapted to raise that idea, the investigation of which I do not undertake. Thus, were all womankind of the fimple beauty, they would refemble each other.

Simple beauty may be compared to pure, elemental water, and character is to beauty, as flavour, fcent, and colour are to water; which, by the addition of thefe feveral infufions, will be termed sweet, or four, or fcented, or red, yellow, &c. viz. fpecies, or forts of water. For the addition of character to beauty gives the latter a distinguishing quality, producing all the different kinds of charactered beauties, each equally pleafing as to the effect upon the different tastes of mankind, but inferior to the firft or fimple beauty, in regard to purity of beauty. Thus, as I fuppofe that there is fuch a thing as elemental water, fo I prefume that there is elemental beauty, independent of tafte or prepoffeffion, but capable of being blended with other qualities. As water may be mixt with wine, milk, &c. in the fame glafs; fo beauty with the expreffion of Majefty, or beauty with fenfe, &c. may be combined in the fame face: the infufion gives flavour or expreffion to the infipid element; and it may be obferved, that fome characters will unite more intimately with beauty than others, as it is easy to conceive that the fteady, the artful, &c. accord lefs with beauty than the modeft, the good-natured, &c.. Hence it fhould feem that fimple

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beauty is pure, because it has no character, and charactered beauty is in fome degree impure, if it may be fo expreffed, becaufe its beauty is not fimple and unmixed !'

Mr. Cozens might have proceeded, mixing his ingredients, until by an encreafed impurity, the object became intoxicating; this is the regular way of making approaches, and laying fiege to the paffions and it accounts for the irresistible impetuofity fo obfervable in mankind under the influence of violent and impure defires. The modeft deportment of fimple beauty aims at no more than to engage the honest and incorrupted affection of the mind.

In contemplating the human face, Mr. Cozens has obferved a faint degree of the mental characters combined in each diftinct beauty, which he endeavours to explain, by an arrangement of the different characters, with their component parts-For example,

In the Timid-may be feen, the fenfible, tender, modeft, penetrating?

We have chofen the Timid because we cannot agree with our Author, that, the penetrating, can form any part of that affection. The timid fhrinks from every object: the penetrating obtrudes itself, to pry into and be intimate with every thing that is prefented to the fenfes.-They seem to be diametrically oppofite to each other.

Mr. Cozens concludes with this modest and sensible addrefs to the Public:

• I am conscious much more may be faid upon the subject of the beauty of the human face, but I have prefumed only to give. an hint of a new practical fcheme to the Public, referring the ultimate decifion of the principles to the feelings and experience of mankind; and I fhall reft extremely pleased, if this undertaking fhall promote a difcuffion of the fubject among the curious. I beg leave to add, that, upon the whole, I have endeavoured to produce the following effects in all the examples, that is, beauty, expreffion, and dignity, and all of them in the ftate of tranquillity; for I conceive that the whole fet may be performed or composed in such a manner as to be accompanied with more or lefs of the above properties, and yet fufficiently varied in the individuals by the proper diftinction of character.'

The better to explain his theory of beauty, Mr. Cozens has illuftrated this work with nineteen copper-plates, engraved by Bartolozzi, which fhew the gradation of character, from the outline of a feature, to the outline of the face; and to each face is applied an head drefs, in the ftyle of the antique. Thefe head dreffes are truly becoming, and we fincerely wish, for the honour of the fex, that our country-women would study them,


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and remove the prefent enormous encumbrances from their heads, to make way for a dress which, in more elegant times, adorned the heads of the Grecian ladies.

To accomodate foreigners, the Author has given a French tranflation of his ingenious treatife, printed in diftinct pages.


ART. X. A Differtation on the controverted Paffages in St. Peter and
St. Jude concerning the Angels that firned, and who kept not their firft
Eftate. By Samuel Henley, Curate of Northall in Middlelex.
Svo. 2 S. Johnfon. 1778.


HE paffages of fcripture, on which this ingenious publi-
cation is founded, are the following:

2 Ep. St. Peter ii, 4, 6. For if God fpared not the angels that -finned, but caft them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be referved unto judgment;-And turning the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah into afhes condemned them with an overthrow, making them an example unto those that after fhould live ungodly;

Ep. St. Jude, ver. 6, 7. And the angels, which kept not their firft eftate, but left their own habitation, he hath referved in everlafting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day. Even as Sodom and Gomorrah, and the cities about them; in like manner giving themselves over to fornication, and going after firange flesh, are fet forth for an example, fuffering the vengeance of eternal fire.

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Bifhop Sherlock, with other learned men, have fuppofed that
-the accounts given in the above verfes, and other parts of thefe
chapters, are extracted from fome ancient writer of the Jewish
nation, which may be a reason of the great difference of ftyle
between the second and the other chapters of this fecond epistle
of St. Peter. Vitringa feems to have thought that as what is
here faid of the angels is connected with facts that are expressly
mentioned in the Old Teftament, this relation alfo has the fame
records in view, but he does not cite any texts to which he
could fuppofe it might refer: "Nor do I know, fays Dr. Lard-
ner, that those texts ever came in his way afterwards: I wish
they had.
For I am also inclined to believe that in all these
places the apostles referred to paffages of the Old Teftament.”
Mr. Henley is of the fame opinion, and attempts, in this'
pamphlet, to fupply what the former of thefe learned critics
omitted, and the latter wished for. We have, he obferves,
in the Mofaic history an account given of the first apoftacy and
rebellion on earth; which was carried on by the fons of Chus,
under their imperious leader Nimrod; and to this rebellion, and
to this people, I imagine that the apoftles allude. The hiftory
is of great confequence in the annals of the world, and confifts
of many interesting circumftances, each of which is fignificant;
and will be found to have been compleated in the perfons of

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