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whom I treat. They assumed to themselves divine titles, and were esteemed by their posterity as a superior order of beingsa They did not preserve their eftate; nor regard the rule and government under which they were placed, but révolted, and for. fook their habitation. On this account they were represented as condemned to Tartarus; and there reserved in chains and darkness.

• Such, says this Writer, is the history of the first apoftate and his associates; every circumstance of which we shall find authenticated in the accounts of Gentile writers. It is obfervable, he adds, that St. Peter takes notice of three great apofiacies in the church of God: that which happened in the antediluvian world, when all fiefh had corrupted its way on the earth : that of the persons ftiled angels, which succeeded, and, LAly, that of Antichrist, which he saw was approaching. The falling away of those called angels being introduced first, bas -made many

think that this event was first in order, and prior to the creation, and that the persons mentioned were celeftial beings. But it will be found that they were really men, and the same that I have pointed out.'

This is a brief view of Mr. Henley's scheme, which we have given in his own words. He makes great use of the celebrated analysis of ancient mythology, part of an extract from whence, as he has selected it from the original, we shall here insert.

“ The place where mankind first resided, was undoubtedly the region of the Minya, at the bottom of Mount Baris or Ararat.-During their residence in these parts, we may presume, that there was a season of great happiness. They for a long time lived under the mild rule of the great Patriarch, before laws were enacted, or penalties known. When they multiplied, and were become very numerous, it pleased God to allot to the various families different regions, to which they were to retire; and they accordingly in the days of Peleg did remove, and be take them felves to their different departments. But the sons of Chus would not obey. They went off under the conduct of the arch-rebel Nimrod; and seem to have been for a long time in a roving ftate: but at last they arrived at the plains of Shinar. These they found occupied by Assur and his sons : for he had been placed there by divine appointment. But they ejected him; and seized on his dominions; which they fortified with cities; and laid the foundation of a great monarchy. Their leader is often mentioned by the Gentile writers, who call him Belus : and he is universally spoken of, as the builder of the Tower, called the Tower of Babel. He was affifted in the building of it by his associates; and it is expressly said that they erected it to prevent their being scattered abroad. According to the Gentile accounts a large body of them were driven west



ward, as far as Mauritania, to the extremities of the earth, and the suppofed confines of Tartarus. Here they settled under the names of Titanians and Atlantians. Opposite to them another body of them was said to have taken up their residence at Tartessus, under the conduct of Gyges; who was also a Titanian from Chaldea. Of these later histories many traces may be found in the Tacred writers.”

To add ftrength to the above account, and illustrate at the same time the words of the apostles, our Author produces a paffage from a treatise of Philo, who, he says, relates that the descendants of Cush broke through the fubordination in which they bad been placed, and deserted their own estate, that they took up arms and wagid open and determined war, against those who were in amity with them; and that Nimrod, to whose name the appellation of The REVOLTER from hence became synonimous, was the inAigator of this insurrection *.

• Thus we find,' it is added, from the concurrent atteftation of different writers, that these original apoftates went off in a body, deferring that habitation where they had been first placed ; which the apostle describes under the terms- und Inproautas T20 (QUTWv apXnu-and consequently declining that to which they were affigned-αλλα απολιποντας το ιδιον οικητηριον. Had they acted as they were bound by every tie of duty and allegiance, they would have waited for the general migration, which they seem to have anticipated ; and they would, according to the divine appointment, have departed to those regions, which were occupied by the Mizraïm, Lubim, and other of the sons of Ham. But they refused to submit to the divine decree, and neglected, το ιδιων οικητηριου, the place to which they had been dettined.'

Our Author produces a number of quotations to prove that the title Angels does by no means disagree with the history of Nimrod and his associates : but there, together with other authorities and remarks that are introduced to illustrate and support his subject, it is not in our power to lay before our Readers. We shall, however, take a licile notice of what is observed con. cerning the difperfion of this people. In the Mosaic account nothing more is said, than that it pleased God to confound their lip : but other writers, both sacred and profane, mention, that there was an uncommon display of God's wrath; and that their flight was attended with fearful judgments. The apostle seems to allude to this in the word taptapwous : wherein is im, plied that force and violence, by which they were hurled down to the regions of darkness. In this manner were they dilipated to the north, and to the south: to the east and to the west :

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* Pbilo de Gigantibus, apud Opera, vol, I. p. 272.


and the severing of this formidable body was alluded to by the Gentile writers under the emblem of Bacchus being dismembered, and having his limbs. scattered abroad : of which a memorial was kept up in the sacred rites of the Greeks, and other nations. The like also was commemorated by the Egyptians in the rites of Ofiris ; who was supposed to have been cut to pieces, and to have had his limbs scattered abroad by Typhon. We have the history of this people pointed out in the accounts given us of the Titans, who warred against Jove, and of the giants, who raised mountains upon mountains in order to assail beaven. Allo of the gods who fled for shelter to Egypt and other places. - They are described as being at last overpowered with storms and whirlwinds; and blafted with lightning: and at the clore it is said, that they were driven to Tartarus, and there kept in chains of darkness.

But we shall only farther observe, that the attempt of this Writer is very laudable; he appears to have employed great care and assiduity in his enquiries concerning these passages of scripture; he manifests an acquaintance with subjects of learning, andgives an explication which carries with it an air of probability; though, it must be owned, pollibilities and probabilities sometimes afford but little satisfaction in the interpretation of the scriptures.

Hi. Arr. XI. PhiloSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS of the Royal Society of London. Vol. LXVII. For the Year 1777.

410. 10 €. 6 d. Davis. 1778.

PNEUMATOLOGICAL and BAROMETRICAL Obfervations. Article 32. An Account of fome Experiments made with an Air

Pump on Mr. Smeaton's Principle; together with some Experiments with a common Pump. By Mr. Edward Nairne, F.Å. S. N this paper a very considerable degree of light is thrown on

the air-pump, and on the nature of exhaustion, by an extensive series of accurate and well imagined experiments; to which the Author was led by observing, and particularly attending to, the very remarkable differences, with respect to the degree of exhaustion as indicated by the common barometer gage, and the pear gage invented by Mr. Smeaton, for the purpose of measuring the very great degrees of rarefaction which he ascribed to the air pump as improved by him.

For the particular description of this last mentioned gage, we must refer our readers to the 47th volume of the Philosophical Transactions, page 420. It will, however, be proper here to observe that it consists of a glass tube, of a small bore, sealed at its upper end, and terminating towards its lower extremity, which is open, in a hollow bulb or sphere. During the time of exhaustion, this inftrument is kept suspended over a bason of


Part 2.

mercury within the receiver. When the exhaustion is completed, its lower end is dipped in the mercury; and on letting air into the receiver, the mercury rises into the bulb and the tube, till the air remaining within it becomes of the fame denfity, nearly, with the atmosphere or external air. The ratio between the space occupied by this remaining air, and the space in the rest of the tube and the bulb which is occupied by the quicksilver, is considered as furnishing a measure of the degree to which the air has been rarefied within the receiver.

If no other elastic fluid than atmospherical or permanent air were contained within an exhausted receiver, we can see no reason why this and the common barometer gage should not pretty nearly agree in their testimonies with respect to the de. gree

of rarefaction. Mr. Nairne however repeatedly found the most enormous differences in their indications. When the mercury in the barometer gage, for instance, was brought down only to about one tenth of an inch of the surface of the marcury in the cistern, and accordingly indicated that the air had been rarefied only about 300 times; Mr. Smcaton's, or the pear gage above mentioned, on letting the air enter into the receiver, nad the whole of its cavity, except a fix thousandth part, filled by the quicksilver; and accordingly indicated a degree of exhaustion equal to fix thousand times.-In other experiments, as will foon be fhewn, the differences in the indications of theic iwo gages were still more enormous.

On repeating some of these experiments in the presence of the honourable Henry Cavendish, Mr. Smeaton, and several other gentlemen of the Royal Society, in April 1776, when the two gages thus violently contradicted ca h other; Mr. Cavena dith endeavoured to account for these differences, by reterring to some observations made by his father, Lord Charles Cavendilh. From these it appeared that water, 6. moisture, contained within a receiver, is converted into an elastic uil, whenever the air in the receiver is rarefied to a certain iegree, or ceases to press it with a certain degree of force *; and that this elastic vapour is condensed, or reduced to water again, whenever the pressure of the air is restored.

Thus, in the instance above given, where the pear gage in. dicated a degree of exhaustion equal to 6000, it is supposed,


• This vapour

is said to be generated from wat r, when the tem; perature is 72 degrees of Fahrheit's scale, as soon as the preffure is no greater than that of three quarters of an inch of quicktilver, or about one fortieth of the usual p ffure of ine atmosphere but in the cooler temperature of 45 degrees, the preffure mui be reduced to that of a quarter of an inch of q. icksilver, or abo1, a one hundred and twentieth of the usual pressure, before the water will surn into vapour.

according according to this theory, that only a 60ooth part of real or permanent air had been left in the receiver, or that the true air contained in it had been actually rarefied 6000 times; the aforesaid elastic vapour (proceeding from the leather on which the receiver was placed) having been successively mixed with the true air remaining in the receiver, and having, by its elafticity, promoted its extraction from thence. Accordingly, when the air is admitted into the receiver, the void space at the top of the pear gage is supposed to give the true measure of the real air that remained in the receiver previous to the admiffion of the external air into it: the elastic vapour not affecting the observation made with this inftrument; as it is now destroyed or reduced to the state of water.

But the case is very different with respect to the barometer gage ; as its indications are very materially affected by this vapour. Before the air was admitted into the receiver, the mercury in this gage was observed to ftand so high as 1-10th of an inch above that in the cistern, and it accordingly indicated a rarefaction only of 360. Here the mercury is supposed to be fuftained at this height principally by the elastic force of the vapour above mentioned ; which prevents the quicksilver from deicending so low as it would have done, had no other fluid except real air prefied on the mercury in the cistern. This gage, accordingly, only ascertains the remaining quantity of air and vapour mixed, or, in other words, the quantity of elastic fluid

be its nature what it may-contained within the receiver.

The greater part of the numerous experiments contained in this article were made with a view to inquire into the truth of this hypothesis ; or, in other words, to settle the functions and characters of these two discordant inftruments. We thall give the substance of such of them as may be related in the fewest words, or which appear to us the moft fimple and conclufive.

If the difference in the testimony given by the two gages were caused by an elastic vapour generated from moisture, the Author concluded that the two inftruments would agree, if moisture were carefully excluded from every part of the apparatus. Having therefore made every member belonging to the pump as clean and dry as poslible, inftead of placing the receiver on leather dressed in allum and soaked in oil and tallow, as ulu.], he put it on the bare pump platę, and made it air-tight by means of a cement applied round its edge. The pump, in this as well as all the following experiments, was worked ten minutes. At the end of that time, the barometer gage indicated a degree of exhaustion nearly equal to 600; and, on letting the air into the receiver, the pear gage agreed with it in indicating a rarefaction of 6oo likewise.

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