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Article 35

doubt that the expansions of air do not keep pace with the dia. tations of quicksilver; and, in particular, that from about the 57th degree of Fahrenheit, the condensations of air downwards, and its expansions upwards, follow a diminishing progression, "compared with the condensations and dilatations of quicksilver.

In the third section are contained a great number of barometrical observations made in different parts of Britain, on heights determined likewife geometrically with great care, and compared with some others of the fame kind made in distant countries.

ASTRONOMY and MATHEMATICS. Article 30. An Account of the Bramin's Observatory at Banares.

By Sir Robert Barker, Knt. F.R.S. Sir Robert Barker having, in the year 1772, visited Banares, one of the principal seminaries of the Bramins, was there thewn feveral astronomical instruments, or rather immense structures built of stone; some of them quadrants of twenty feet radius, in the greatest preservation, and as accurately graduated as if they had been executed by a modern artist. Another of these instruments is an equinoctial sun-dial, the whole extent of which is above 37 feet, and the length of the gnomon above 38 feet. The different parts of these singular monuments of the Eastern astronomy are here well represented in three large plates.

Account of a new Micrometer and Megameter. By

the Abbé Boscovich, &c. Article 36. Account of a new Instrument for measuring small

Angles, called the Prismatic Micrometer. By the Rev. Neville Maskelyne, D. D. F. R. S. &c.

The Abbé Boscovich having heard that the Abbé Rochon had exhibited a kind of micrometer, which, by means of a prism of rock crystal, the angles of which could be varied, gave two images of the same object; and which changed their distances by the circular motion of one of the two parts that composed it; he suggefted some improvements of this inftrument, his account of which forms the subje&t of the first of these articles.--In the second, the Astronomer Royal describes at length both the conftruction and rationale of a prismatic micrometer invented by him, and not greatly differing from the preceding. To this description he adds the attestations of Mr. Dollond and Mr. Aubert, to prove that he communicated this invention to the former, and had it executed by him; and that he also shewed the instrument itself, so executed, to the latter, above a twelvemonth before the communication of the Abbé Boscovich's paper.

The remaining papers of this class are - Article 23, intitled 'The General Mathematical Laws which regulate and extend Proportion universally; or a Method of comparing Magnitudes of any Kind together, in all the possible Degrees of Increase and Decreale.

By James Glenie, A. M., &c.;' and Article 26. in which Dr. John Stedman endeavours to ascertain the Degrees and Quantities of Winds requisite to move the heavier Kinds of Wind Machines.'

PAPERS relating to MEDICINE. Article 24. The Case of Ann Davenport. By Mr. Fielding Best

Fynney, Surgeon, &c. This article contains the history of the extraction of a foreign substance from an abscess in the groin occasioned by it. This substance was a peg of crabtree wood, used in the filk manufactory, and which the patient must have swallowed fixteen years before, when she was only five years old ; from which period to that of the extraction, she had been constantly tormented by violent fits resembling those of the colic. 'The substance had been finally lodged in the appendix vermiformis of the cæcum. Its extraction was followed by the discharge of some iron filings, which she had formerly taken in a large quantity, on account of an obftinate obftruétion of the catamenia. Article 27. Description of the Jesuit's Bark Tree of Jamaica,

and the Caribbees. By William Wright, M. D. Member of the Philosophical Society of America, &c.

The species of Jesuits bark here described grows in two parishes in the island of Jamaica. It is there called the SeaSide Beech, and rises only to twenty feet. The flowers are of a duskish yellow colour, and the pods black: when ripe they split in two, and are, with their fat brown feeds, in every respect fimilar to those of the Cinchona Officinalis, as depicted in a plate sent out by Mr. Banks.'—The Author has had many opportunities of irying the effects of this bark, especially in the frequently fatal remittents peculiar to the clime where it grows ; and declares that it fpeedily conquered the disease. A drawing, and botanical description, of the tree are given, under the title of Cinchona Jamaicensis, feu Caribbeana. Article 28. Description and Use of the Cabbage-Bark Tree of

Jamaica. By William Wright, of Jamaica, M. D. &c. The first notice which the medical faculty appear to have received of the virtues of this vegetable, as an anthelmintic, was given in the Edinburgh Physical and Literary Ejays, vol. ii. p. 264. In the present article Dr. Wright particularly de. scribes it, and the best modes of administering it. He confiders it as a most valuable remedy, and expresses his hopes that it will be added to our Materia Medica.

In Article 31, is given a short account of Dr. Mary's last ille ness, and of the morbid appearances in the dead body, which was examined on the day after decease, by Dr, Hunter and Ms. Watson.


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MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES. Article 25. An Account of the Kingdom of THIBET. · In a Lets

ter from John Stewart, Esq; F. R. Š. to Sir John Pringle, Bart. P. R. S. The whole of this Memoir is highly interesting, on account of the curious and authentic intelligence which it contains reJating to the country of Thibet, and that fingular politico-religious institution, or rather kind of heathen theocracy there eltablished, in the person of the Grand Lama of Tartary. This information has been acquired in consequence of certain late military operations of our countrymen in the East Indies; where the forces of the Company affifted one of the Indian powers in the interior parts of Indoitan, while the oppofite party had called down, from their mountains, the Boutaners (or certain Tartars feudatory to the Grand Lama) to their affiftance. At the attack of a particular town, our troops and these Boutaners first met; and nothing, says Mr. Stewart, could exceed their mutual surprize in the rencounter. The Boutaners, who had never met in the plains any other than the timid Hindsas flying naked before them, law, for the firft time, a body of men, uniformly clothed and accoutred, moving in regular order, and led on by men of complexion, dress, and features, such as they had never beheld before.-On the other hand, our people found themselves on a sudden engaged with a race of men unlike all their former opponents in India, uncouth in their appearance, and fierce in their affault, wrapped up in furs, and arined with bows and arrows and other weapons peculiar to them.'

Our troops having been, as usual, victorious, the fame of their exploits reached the court of Thibet, and awakened the attention of the Tayshoo Lama, or regent, who was then at the head of the state ; as the Delai Lama, or Grand Lama was a minor, The Lama fent a person of rank to Bengal, to solicit a peace for his vallal, which Mr. Hastings, the governor, did not hesitate immediately to grant on his mediation. The governor, in return, sent Mr. Bogle on an embafly to the Lama; who with diffi'uliy penetrated to the center of Thibet, and refided several months at his court. The Author expects that Mr. Bogle will one day give the world a relation of this interefting journey. The particulars contained in this article are such onl as he was enabled to recollect from the perutal of Mr. Bugle's letters and papers.

The Lama, says Mr. Stewart, whose empire is founded on the furelt grounds, perfonal affection, and religious reverence, governs everything internally with unbounded authority.

Every body knows the Delai Lama is the great object of ado



ration for the various tribes of heathen Tartars, who roam through the vast tract of continent which stretches from the banks of the Volga to Correa on the sea of Japan, the most extensive religious dominion, perhaps, on the face of the globe. He is not only the fovereign pontiff, the vicegerent of the Deity on earth; but, as fuperftition is ever the strongeft_where it is most removed from its object, the more remote Tartars absolutely regard bim as the Deity himself. They believe him immortal, and endowed with all knowledge and virtue. Every year they come up from different parts, to worship and make rich offerings at his fhrine.'

With respect to the unfavoury presents which, according to -former travellers, the Tartar chiefs are said to receive from the Lama, and to treasure up with great reverence, in gold boxes, to be added occasionally to their ragouts ; Mr. Bogle denies the fact, but says that he often distributes little balls of consecrated four, like the Pain Benit of the Roman CathoJics, which the fuperftition and blind credulity of his Tartar votaries may afterwards convert into what they please. The orthodox opinion is, that when the Grand Lama seems to die, either of old age or infirmity, his foul in fact only quits an actual crazy habitation to look for another, younger or better ; and it is discovered again in the body of some child, by certain tokens known only to the Lamas or priests, in which order 'he always appears. The prefent Delai Lama is an infant, and was discovered only a few years ago by the Tayfhoo Lama, who in authority, and sanctity of character is next to him, and confequently, during the other's minority, acts as chief.'

A very singular kind of polygamy, and very repugnant to European, and even Afiatic ideas, in general, exists in Thibet. It is here usual for all the brothers in a family to possess one wife in common, with whom they live in mutual harmony and comfort. Nevertheless little diffentions sometimes arise in .this as well as in our European matrimonial establishments. One could searce however have suspected that among the domestic uneasinesses attending this plurality of husbands, the following fhould be found in the catalogue. The case is that of

a modest and virtuous lady, the wife of half a dozen of the Tayfhoo Lama's nephews, who complained to the uncle that the two youngest of her husbands', [-Fye upon them!-] 'did not furnish that share of love and benevolence to the common Stock, which duty and religion required of them. In short, adds Mr. Stewart, however ftrange this cuftom may appear to us, it is an undoubted fact that it prevails in Thibet in the manner I have described.'

The residence of the Delai Lama is at Pateli, a vast palace on a mountain. The Tayfhao Lama, or present regent, has several


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palaces or castles, in one of which Mr. Bogle lived with him five months. - He represents the Lama' as one of the most amiable as well as intelligent men he ever knew; maintaining his rank with the utmost mildness of authority, and living in the greatest purity of manners, without ftarchness or affectation. Every thing within the gates breathed peace, order, and dignified elegance. The castle is of stone or brick, with many courts, lofty halls, terraces, and porticos; and the apartments are in general roomy, and highly finilhed in the Chinese style, with gilding, painting, and varnith.'

The Lama was exceedingly inquisitive about Europe, its government, arts and sciences, politics, laws, &c. The Russian empire was the only state in it that was known to him. He entertained a high idea of the riches and strength of that empire; and had heard of its wars and success against the empire of Rome; for so they here call the Turkish state. The Czar(we are not cold which Czar: the Author probably means Peter the Great) had at various times sent letters and presents to Tbičet. Mr. Bogle faw many European articles in the Lama's posfeffion, which were chieÁy of English manufacture; particularly a Graham's repeating watch, which had been dead, as they said, for some time.

The chief trade from the capital of this country to Pekin is carried on by caravans, that employ full two years in the jour. ney thither and back again. The distance is said to be not less chan 2000 English miles; and yet so excellent is the Chinese police, that an express paffes from one of these cities to the other in three weeks.

Among the principal articles of commerce in the kingdom of Thibet, the Author mentions that delicate manufacture, the Shaul, or rather the material from which it is fabricated. Va. rious discordant conjectures have been formed with respect to the nature of this material; as that it was the hair of a particular kind of goat, or the fine under hair on a camel's breaft, &c. We here find that it is the produce of a Thibet sheep, the fleece of which, in fincness, length, and beauty, exceeds all others in the world. The Cassemirians, it seems, from whom all the fhauls are procured, engross the whole of this wool, by means of factors whom they have established in every part of Thibet, for that purpose.

We are sorry we have not room to transcribe, as a literary curiosity, the whole of the translation here given of a letter written by the Lama and sent to the Governor. The following passages will give the Reader very favourable ideas of the philanthropy as well as style and manner of a character so little known in this Western world.

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