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“ Having been informed, by travellers from your quarter, of your exalted fame and reputation, my heart, like the blossom of spring, abounds with satisfaction, gladness, and joy. Praise God that the star of your fortune is in its ascension. Praise him, that happiness and ease are the surrounding attendants of myself and family. Neither to moleft or persecute is my aim : it is even the characteristic of our sect to deprive ourselves of the necefJary refreshment of peep, jould an injury be done to a single indi , widual; but in justice and humanity, I am informed, you for furpass us *

á By your favour I am the Rajah and Lama of this country, and rule over a number of subjects.- I have been repeatedly informed, that you have been engaged in hoftilities againit the Dah Terria, to which it is faid the Dah's own criminal conduct, in committing ravages and other outrages on your frontiers, gave rise.-From a regard to our religion and customs, I request you will cease all hoftilities against him; and in doing this you will confer the greatest favour and friendship upon me. I have reprimanded the Dah for his past conduct; and I have admonished him to defift from his evil practices in future, and to be submissive to you in all things.

As to my part, I am but a Faquier t; and it is the custom of my feet, with the rosary in our hands, to pray for the welfare of mankind, and for the peace and happiness of the inhabitants of this country; and I do now, with my head uncovered, intreat that you may cease all hostilities against the Dab in future.

- In this country, worship of the Almighty is the profession of all. We poor creatures are in nothing equal to you ; having, however, a few things in hand, I send them to you by way of remembrance, and hope for your acceptance of them."

The remaining papers of this volume are-Article 20, in which an account is given of a volcanic hill near Inverness; by Thomas West, Esg; and Article 21, in which Mr. Tiberius Cavallo relates fome experiments made with Mr. Volta's Electrophorus, and the effects of electric discharges lent over the lurfaces of painted cards. He describes likewise an improvement of Mr. Canton's Electrometer. In Article 33, William Baftard, Esq; describes a method of raising pine apples in water. The plant contained in a pot of earth is placed in a pan, which is always kept full of water, and which stands on a shelf near the highest, and consequently the most heated, part of the back wall of the hot house, so that the pine plants and as near as por

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* We have already informed the Reader that the good Lama knows very little of ibe world, and conseguen:ly of his new European acquaintance. + This word bere means a religious person in general.


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fible to the glass without absolutely touching it. The fruit reared in this manner is said to be always much larger, as well as better flavoured, than when it is ripened in a bark bed.—In the 37th and laft Article is given the report of a committee appointed by the Royal Society, to consider of the best method of adjuiting the fixed, that is, the freezing and the boiling points of therinometers; and of the precautions necessary to be used in making experiments with these instruments.




Art. XII. A Differtation on the Value of Life Annuities, deduced from

general Principles, clearly demonstrated, and particularly applied to ine Schemes of the Laudable and Amicable Societies of Annuitants for the Benefit of Age; with Tables adapted to their several Rates and Modes of Admision; shewing, at Sight, the real Value that ought to be given by Persons of any Age for the Annuities promised by those Societies : And also the Annuity that each Member ought to be entitled to, according to his respective Payments. To which are added, all the Tables necessary for Calculations of this kind. By W. Backhouse, 8vo. 2 s. Richardson and Urquhart. 1778. HE Author of this performance fets forth in his preface

that it has ever been an opinion among the generality of mankind, that no conclusions, drawn from so precarious a principle as the duration of life, can merit regard, and that even to attempt things of this nature has been looked on as pretending to fathom the depths of infinite wisdom; but, as he justly enough observes, it is not the business of these computations to asign, or fix bounds, to any particular life, which alone can be liable to these objections, but only to align the prebability of its duration ; and this is gathered from the mean of a great number of observations made on the yearly bills of mortality, kept at places which are nearly under the same circumftances, in respect to every thing which may affect the health of its inhabitants, with that to which the computations are to be applied.

He begins his work with some definitions and problems relating to the doctrine of chances, on which all calculations concerning annuities on lives primarily depend; and which the Author has, through inadvertence we suppose, forgot to tell us are taken chiefly from Simpson and other writers on that fubject. He then proceeds to examine the equity of certain terms on which persons are admitted into the Laudable and Amicable Societies of Annuitants, establithed in London some time since. In the course of this inquiry he gives tables, exhibiting the values of the several annuities proposed to be given by these Societies, both in present money, yearly payinents of a given fum each, and allo partly in yearly payments, and partly in ready money, according to the leveral plans of these Societies ; 9





money being supposed at four, and also at three per cent. and he concludes that, on a supposition of an exact number of members being admitted of every age from 5 to 55, and according to the present terms of admission, the Laudable Society may undertake to pay no greater annuity to each claimant than about 231. money being at 4 per cent. or 181. if money be supposed worth only 3 per cent.

And that the Amicable Society may afford to pay to each claimant, according to one of their modes of admiilion, an annuity of about 121. if money be supposed worth 4 per cent. or of about 101. if the interest of money be at 3 per cent. and by the other mode of admission the respec tive annuities to be paid by this Society will be about 11 and 9 pounds per ann.

Hence Mr. B. infers that the terms on which the Amicable Society now admit their members are very disadvantageous to the members fo admitted ; and that some of them pay near three times the value of the annuity which they have to expect : alfo that this muft arise, from many of their members being admitted on much lower terms than are now specified on their abstract. He next shews at what age, and after which mode of admiffion, 'held forth by thofe Societies, members are admitted on the most advantageous, and also on the most disadvantageous terms to themfelves, considered as individuals ; and he fubjoins a collection of tables, from different authors, necessary in calculations of annuities on lives.

We cannot conclude this Article without taking notice that the most fcrupulous attention seems necessary to be paid to the choice of the tables from whence computations of this nature are drawn; and that they be deduced, either from the bills of mortality which have been kept at the very place where the people live to whom the calculations are to be applied, or that the circumftances, with respect to health and longevity, be nearly the same at both places. For there is so great a difference between the results drawn from the bills kept at different places, that we think very little dependance can be placed in computations which are founded on the bills of mortality kept at one place, when they are applied to people living at another, as will be abundantly evident to any one who will take the trouble of comparing the London bills with those of Northampton, Norwich, Manchester, and other great towns, in different parts of the kingdom; and yet more fo, if the London bills, or even those of Northampton, Norwich, &c. be compared with the bills of mortality kept in country parishes.

** See Dr. Price's curious remarks on this subject, vol. Ixv. p. 424 of the Philos. Transact, for 1775. 1 Wales.

ART. First arb.

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Art. XIII Sketches of the Lives and Writings of the Ladies of France.

Addrelled to Mrs Elizabeth Carter. By Aon Thicknesse. Vol. I.
2 s. 6 d. sewed. Brown. 1778.
THE language of these Sketches is not every where correct;

but they abound with traits of history and entertaining anecdotes, intended to illuftrate the characters of the principal authors; who appear in general full as conspicuous for their gallantry as their literary talents. The story of the Butcher and Two Cordeliers, intended as a specimen of the genius of Margaret Valois Queen of Navarre, may at the same time shew the wit of the age, and give some entertainment to our Readers.

"We must not quit the Queen of Navarre, without giving another little specimen of the fertility of that lady's genius, especially as there is something pleasant in the conceit. Two cordeliers, arriving late one evening at a little village, were obliged to lodge at a butcher's, and the chamber where they lay was only separated by a few boards from that where the butcher and his wife slept. Curiosity led the cordeliers to hearken what the man and woman were conversing about. The husband began talking of his domestic concerns, and said, “I must get up, my dear, to-morrow betimes, and give a look at our cordeliers; one of them is, I think, in pretty good order, but we will ķill both, and salt them down, which will turn well to our account.”-Although the butcher spoke only of his pigs, which he jocosely called cordeliers, the poor friars were so horribly frightened, that they were ready to expire with fear, and refolved to save themselves by jumping out of the window. The thinnest of the two fell lightly on the ground, and ran as far as the town without waiting for his companion: the other fol. Jowed his example; but being very fat, fell fo heavily, that he broke his leg, and with much difficulty crawled to a little thed which he found not far off, and which proved to be precisely the place where the pigs (his brother cordeliers) usually lay: Early the next morning the butcher got ready his knife, and went straight to the stye :-", Come, come, my cordeliers (faid he), come out, come out, for to-day. I am resolved to eat some of your puddings." The cordelier cried out for mercy; and the butcher, who concluded that St. François had metamorprosed one of his pigs into a friar, on purpose to punish him for having sported with the name of a religious order of men, was overcome with fear ; but the matter being soon explained, the good fathers, in gratitude for their hospitable reception, and fortunate release from their fears, very peaceably parted with their hoft, and very kindly comforted them with their benediction.'

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As these memoirs and anecdotes chiefly abound with amorous stories and incidents, a few indelicacies have found their

way into the work,—which will be deemed the more worthy of remark, as the book is dedicated to the excellent ELIZABETH CARTER. Several trifling articles, relating to persons of whom liccle is said, and who merit ftill less, are inserted ; and certain Gallicisms appear, which will puzzle the mere English reader. Who, for instance, unacquainted with the strange liberties which the French make with some of the moft venerable names of antiquity, will know who are meant by Mufæ, Line, and Alicée? They may, indeed be guessed at, by being found in company with Orpheus, Homer, Sappho, &c.

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For JUNE, 1778.

Art. 14. A Treatise on the Medicinal Virtues of the Mineral Wa..

ters of the German Spa, &c. &c. To which is prefixed, by Way
of Introduction, a chemical Analysis of the Water of each parti.
cular Source, from Experiments made upon the Spot. By J.
Williams, M. D. * 8vo. 3 s. Becket.
VROM fome unaccountable accident this treatise was overlookod.

by us at the time of publication, in 1773; an omiffion for which we cannot better apologize, as well to the Public as to the ingenious Author, than by now, late as it is, attempting to realify it.

Dr. Williams follows the fame general plan in this work, as in his treatise on the waters of Aix-la-Chapelle and Borser, which we recommended to our Readers in the Review for December 1772. He begins with a Mort account of the history and situation of the several medicinal springs in the vicinity of the Spa. He then proceeds to a chemical examination of the properties of each, conducted, as appears to us, in a very judicious and scientific manner. From this part we Mall feled the several results, as likely to afford useful information to our Readers. Of the Poubun, the principal and most famous of these celebrated springs, he says, that every pint of the wa. ter, in its natural ftate, contains, along with the common element, firit

, a subtile acid fpirit, which flies off with the elastic air, leaving the water more or less vapid; and escapes che sooner, as the atmosphere is more light and full of vapour. Secondly, something more than one grain of iron, diffolved in the water by means of this subtile fpirit. Thirdly, somewhat more than cwo grains of other solid conrents, of which nearly one half is a mineral alkali, and the rest earth, consisting of about three parts absorbent earth, and one selenites. The water of the Geronfterre spring is impregnated with the same kind of ingredients as that of the Pouhun, but in different propor. rions'; and also with the principles of sulphur, that is, vitriolic acid and phlogiston; not with fulphur in fubstance as some have ima. • Author of the Hiftory of the Northern Kingdoms, &c.

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