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ration and decline, that this learned Academician enlarges : he fixes his attention only upon the drofs of the metal, upon the ruins of the edifice. He fhews firft, the utility of the vulgar Greek, not only to travellers and merchants, but also to theological philologifts and critics. He afterwards takes notice of the remote antiquity of the vulgar Greek, of the three kinds of Greek spoken at this day by the learned in that country, even the literal, which is ufed in celebrating mafs, and in divine worhip, the ecclefiaftical which is employed in fermons, homilies, and the letters of the patriarchs, which refembles the literal, but is inferior to it in purity, and the vulgar, which is divided into feventy-two dialects,-the confideration of which is reserved for a fubfequent volume.

Memoir concerning the Superftition of different Nations with refped" to Dreams. By M. DE BURIGNY.

Critical Obfervations on the miffive Letters of the Ancients. By the fame. There are more words than wisdom in these two Memoirs.

Obfervations on the History and Remains of the City of Cæfarea in Mauritania,-Theffalonica-and Pergamus. Thefe three cities, whofe history and remains are contained in three distinct Differtations, gave the late learned Abbé Belley occafion to regale the antiquaries with three prodigious Fercula of erudition. This laborious Academician is no longer an inhabitant of the prefent world.

Memoir concerning Appion-Memoir relating to Demetrius the Cynic.-Thefe two by the fame.

Obfervations concerning the Hiftory and fome Medals of DRUSUS CESAR, Son of the Emperor Tiberius,-defigned as a Defence of feveral Writers of Roman History. Here we have the last acade mical words of the Abbé BELLEY.

Memoir relating to the Caufes, which abolished Slavery in France, and to the Origin of Municipal Government. By M. DUPUY.

These pieces are followed by the Eulogies of eight Members of the Academy, who died between 1770 and 1772 inclufive; viz, the Prefident Henault, and Meff. Bonamy, Schoepfiin, Gibert, Vatry, Mignot, Belley, and Mazocchi.


Memoir XII. XIII. XIV. XV. and XVI. Concerning the Phenicians. In these Memoirs the Phenician worship, and the religious ceremonies of that people, as alfo the conftitution of their civil government, and the various revolutions it underwent, are difcuffed with a great profufion of learning, unaccountable repetitions, and a palpable neglect of precifion and order. But a good deal of inftruction, though not always of the fresheft kind, may be picked up here and there from thefe papers, which, indeed, contain as circumftantial an account of the religious prac

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535tices of the Egyptians and other ancient nations, as of thofe of the Phenicians. Our Academician fhews the tranfition from facrifices of milk and vegetables; to bloody oblationis and human victims among the Phenicians; defcribes the places of their worship, the nature of their temples, and obferves among other things, that their chufing the mountains and high places for their worship, may have been occafioned by two reafons, that ́ of the high places having been naturally the firft habitation of fuch as had escaped from the general flood, and confequently. the firft fcene of their religious oblations, which muft have made a deep and lasting impreffion on their minds; and alfo the folitude and filence that render thefe places fit for the exercises of devotion. His account of the portable temples of the Phenicians is curious, and is well compiled from Diodorus, Plutarch, Euftathius, and Apuleius; and the imitation of the fymbolic reprefentations of the Deity, contained in these temples, by the Kings of Judah, is well inveftigated: but there is nothing very new in all this. What he fays of the priefts and myfteries of the Phenicians, is replete with facts, but the Critical and Philofophical spirit of combination, is greatly defective in these narrations; we may fay the fame thing of his accounts of divination and circumcifion.

The political part of thefe Memoirs is a collection (or rather' a rude indigefted heap) of all the facts and fables that enter into the Phenician Hiftory.-But the Author of these Papers is lately dead: De mortuis nil nifi bonum:

A Memoir, in which it is proved that the Books, called ZENDA, which were depofited in the (French) King's Library, the 15th of March 1762, are the Works of Zoroafter, or, at leaft, are as ancient as that Lawgiver. By M. ANQUETIL DU PERRON. First Part. This Paper was published in 1769 in the Journal des Savans (for May and June): but as the Zendavefla has appeared fince that time, together with fome Memoirs of M. DU PERRON, relative to that Work, it is republifhed here with the additions and corrections which became neceffary on that account. The learned Academician, endeavours to prove in this Memoir, that Zoroafter's writings are ftill extant,-that they neither belong to the productions of the Gnoftics nor to those of the Helleniftical Jews; that they are comprehended in the Zend, and' carry undoubted marks of authenticity; and that the arguments of Brucker, and other learned men in favour of a contrary hypothefis, are entirely inconclufive. This Memoir, which is a prodigious pile of erudition, contains 200 pages, including a curious lift of xxi Nofks or portions of the AVESTA.

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An Hiftorical Effay concerning the Study of Philofophy among the ancient Inhabitants of China. By M. DE GUIGNES. We have not, as yet, found out the cradle of Philofophy, to which fo


many nations pretend, nor the precife time, when this precious child of wisdom was firft rocked by the fages of antiquity. The Chinese, as is well known, bear very high their pretenfions in this matter, and carry fo far back the date of their Philofophical knowledge in the records of an History so obfcure and uncertain, that, what they fay on this head ought not to be admitted without examination, and will not perhaps ftand the test of it. M. DE GUIGNES thinks, that the Miffionaries have given us very little information on this point, having almost entirely confined their accounts of the Chinese Philofophy to Confucius and his doctrines; he therefore propofes, in this Effay, to collect every thing that he has met with, in his refearches, relative to the Philofophers, who preceded that Sage, and to give a circumftantial account of Lao-tfe, of whom the Miffionaries have only mentioned the name, and with refpect to whose time the learned, among the Chinese, are far from being agreed, though the writers above mentioned reprefent him as the cotemporary of Confucius. The refearches of our Academician into the Hiftory of the first Chinese Philofophers are comprehended in two Memoirs. In the first he treats concerning The School of the Learned, which the Chinese call Ju-kia; and in the fecond, of the School of Lao-tfe, which they call Tao-kia: Tao and Lao-tfe being the fame perfon.


The Chinese Literati, in all the periods of that monarchy, have applied themselves lefs to the study of Nature and to the refearches of Natural Philofophy, than to moral inquiries, the practical science of life and internal polity and manners. And as the number of their Philofophers was too great to render a uniformity of opinion poffible, fo China, like Greece, faw a variety of schools arifing from time to time, of which the oppofite fentiments were (as is ufual) accompanied with a spirit of perfecution and this spirit acquired a peculiar degree of afperity from this circumftance, that fome of thefe fchools, whofe original object was only Philofophy, affumed gradually, in process of time, the afpect of religious fects.

The Ju-kia or School of the Learned (which is the fubject of this Memoir), maintains ftill its high credit: the religion of the empire makes a part of its doctrine; which our Author proves (by a long ftring of authorities with hard names) to be the fame religion, that took place from the very origin of the monarchy. This fchool, however, in the lapfe of time, was fubjected to various revolutions.-It fuffered an almoft total eclipfe during the wars that distracted the empire, fome ages after the reign of Vou-vang; it was restored to its luftre in the 6th century before the Chriftian æra, by Confucius; it fuffered again under the emperor Chi-hoang-ti, whofe zeal for the School of Lav-tse, in

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which the Books King (which are the Gofpel of the School of the Learned), are not held as facred, engaged him to order all these books to be burnt, and all thofe, who attempted to conceal or preserve them to be put to death.-The first Princes of the Dynafty of Han, who fucceeded this incendiary, made diligent search after all the copies of the King, which efcaped this conflagration, and the ftudy of morality was again revived. But natural knowledge ftill remained uncultivated; and it was not before the Dynafty of the Song, in the tenth and eleventh centuries after Chrift, that the Chinese Philofophers formed hypothefes concerning the natural fyftem of the Universe, and entered into difcuffions of a fcholaftic kind, in confequence, perhaps, of the intercourfe they had long kept up with the Arabians, who ftudied, with ardor, the works of Ariftotle.

It is not, however, the defign of our Academician to treat of the state of natural philofophy, morals and religion, in the modern periods of the Chinese hiftory: he confines himself to the ancient literati, who lived before Confucius, or were the Contemporaries of that great man, and to the writings which were. composed by his firft difciples. He gives a large lift of the literary productions of thefe fages, which we pafs over in filence; as alfo his accounts of the life and doctrines of Confucius, which are well known. He dwells with complacence upon fome, ancient remains of the School of the learned, which feem to contain the doctrines of the Pythagorean philofophy, and thus lend a prop to his favourite hypothefis of the derivation of the Chinese from the Egyptians, from whom Pythagoras is faid to have taken his philofophical fyftem. A chapter of the Chou-king, entitled Hong-fan, or the Sublime Rule, of which the miffionaries speak with a certain degree of contempt, on account of its fuppofed obfcurity, is alleged by M. DE GUIGNES as a demonftration of the conformity between the doctrine of the ancient Chinese, and that of the Egyptians and the fchool of Pythagoras. The conformity is, indeed, ftriking: the chapter in queftion mentions the Chinese table or chart, in which the whole fyftem of the universe, and the harmony fubfifting between the natural and moral world, were illuftrated by a certain arrangement of numbers. These are learnedly explained in the Memoir before us, and the fympathy of mufic and numbers with the different parts of the univerfe is circumftantially unfolded. We refer the Reader to the Memoir for farther information with refpect to this cabaliftical difcuffion, in which all the elements and powers of nature are expreffed by numbers; in which the tones of mufic correfpond with the seasons, and months, with the duties of morality, and the different and refpective ceremonies that the ancient Chinese used in the worship of heaven, earth, their ancestors, the fpirits, &c. and in which mufic is the bafis of all the fciences, and more efpecially of the sciences APP. Rev. Vol. lviii. NA


of morals and politics. We admire the labour that M. de Guignes has employed in compofing and digesting this Memoir, and we learn from hence, that in the wide fields of literature there is food for every kind of appetite, natural and artificial.

It appears evident, by the refearches of this learned Academician, that, in the hiftory of the two first Chinese Dinafties, there are no remains or traces of philofophy, and that it is only in the third, which commenced about the year 1122 before the Christian Æra, that we begin to difcover the first marks of fomething like philofophical fcience.


The fubject of this fecond Memoir is the fchool of Tae, or Lao-tje., The School of the learned beheld with pity the corruptions of human nature, and endeavoured, by their examples and difcourfes, to recal men from their deviations to the practice of virtue; on the contrary, the fchool of Tao or Lao-tfe, perfuaded that mankind were not only corrupt, but incorrigible, fed from fociety, lived fequeftered from the world, and, confining all their views to themfelves, fought for their happiness in a auftere and frugal life. The time when the head of this fchool lived, has been debated among the learned even in China; the accounts which M. de Guignes gives us, of the Chinese philofophers before Tao, are treated by himself as fabulous, yet they take up many pages, and have not even the merit of fables, which are more or less interefting to the imagination. It is impoffible to imagine any thing more abfurd, obfcure, and trivial, than the maxims and tenets that are here fcraped together, incoherently enough.-With refpect to Tao or Lao-tfe, our Author (after confulting one hiftorian, who affirms that he was conceived by a ftar, and another, who relates that he was seventy years in his mother's womb) fuppofes that he lived in the seventh or eighth century before Chrift. The principal work of this philofopher is the Tao-te-king, i. e. the Book of the Power of Tas; it is univerfally confidered by the Chinese as the production of this pretended fage; and as M. DE GUIGNES deems it the most important of all the writings of Tao, and as containing the ancient doctrine of his fchool, he gives us here ample extracts from it, which are, in general, fuch effufions of nonfenfe as furpafs perhaps the most extravagant ravings that ever were heard in the cells of Bedlam. There are, however, among the eighty-one paragraphs, that compofe this book, fome ftrokes, that discover a glimpse of the fublime amidst their obfcurity, like a feeble flash from a cloud, and others that resemble the maxims of Stoicifm.-What is here faid of the Tao, the only divinity mentioned in the book, is the only one of the feveral paragraphs quoted by our Academician, that conveys any thing like meaning. "The Tao (fays Lao-tfe, and the Reader muit excuse the bull) has no name, and it is impoffible to know him:


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