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fectly with the experience of the inhabitants. On afcending the mountains near Pifa, he found each ftratum of air was purer, in proportion to its height: but making fimilar experiments on Mount Vefuvius, he obferved that, as he afcended, and approached the lava, and the mouth of the volcano, the eudiometer fhewed that the air became fenfibly more vitiated than below.

In the fifth article, Signor Volta briefly relates the discoveries he has made (an account of which he lately published +) relating to inflammable air; particularly that which he has difcovered to arife from pools, and in marfhy fituations; and which he confiders as the ufual product of the putrefaction and decompofition of vegetable fubftances in water. This ingenious philofopher has lately, as we have been informed, conftructed a piftol, which he loads with a mixture of inflammable, and common, or dephlogifticated air, and which he fires even with the flight electric fpark furnished from one of his own small electrophori.


In the fixth article, Mr. Hey, F. R. S. gives an explanation of the experiments which he had communicated in the Appendix to the Author's first volume, relative to the acidity of fixed air; in his account of which he was liable to be misunderstood, as meaning to deny that quality.

The prefent volume is terminated by two letters from Mr. Bewly; in the firft of which, he fhews, by experiments, from whence, and in what manner, the alcaline bafis of nitre acquires, during its deflagration with charcoal, (and the confequent expulfion of the nitrous acid before combined with it) that large portion of fixed air with which it is found to be impregnated, at the end of the procefs.-In the fecond letter he propofes a new theory with refped to the fpontaneous accenfion of Homberg's Pyrophorus, on its expofure to atmospherical air; after having first fhewn the infufficiency of M. du Suvigny's hypothesis to account for that fingular phenomenon; and which is founded on the fuppofed agency of a difengaged vitriolic acid, which may be contained in it.-Mr. Bewly's idea, in fhort, is, that the pyrophorus is a peculiar combination of phlogifton and alcali, or earth; and that it decompounds the air, and is fet on fire, as many other inflammable fubftances are known to be, by the nitrous acid; which, according to Dr. Priestley's ingenious theory, is the principal, or, at leaft, a conftituent part of atmospherical air.

In a work intitled, Lettre Sull' Aria Inflammabile Nativa delle Paludi. 8vo. Milan. 1777.


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ART. XII. The Hiftory of Glasgow, from the earliest Accounts to the prefent Time. With an Account of the Rife, Progress, and prefent State of the different Branches of Commerce and Manufactures now carried on in the City of Glafgow. By Jofeph Gibfon, Merchant in Glasgow. 8vo. 5 s. Glasgow printed, and fold by A. Donaldfon in London. 1777.


HIS volume gives us a view of the ancient and prefent. ftate of the city of Glafgow, in a great number of particulars. The Author's account of his method is as follows; In compiling of this work I have proceeded in this manner: the lives of the bishops I have extracted chiefly from Mr. Keith's catalogue of Scots bifhops, whofe accuracy, as far as I know, has never been called in queftion. In the hiftory of the city I have endeavoured to fix the æras, and to afcertain the caules, from which the rife, progrefs, and prefent ftate of the city have flowed, and I have narrated fuch public transactions as the community has been engaged in. In the defcription of the prefent ftate of Glasgow I have related things impartially as they are. In the account of commerce, I have made choice of the year 1771, as this was the last year in which the exports were confiderable. In treating of the manufactures I have made choice of the year 1771 alfo, in order that the Reader might have it in his power to fee, at one view, both the commerce and manufactures of the city of Glafgow: though I am conscious, that, if I had made choice of the manufactures of 1776, they would have exceeded in value thofe of 1771.' One inftance he gives of this, viz. value of printed linens made in 1771, 30,000l.; in 1776, upwards of 100,cool. fterling. There feems fomewhat of an inconfiftency there, that the exports fhould have fo greatly failed fince the year 1771, owing to the unhappy contest with America, and yet that the value of the manufactures fhould have fo much increased. It may be afked, of what benefit is the increase of manufactures, if they cannot be difpofed of? He does indeed afterwards add, that, by fhutting of the American market, neceffity has led the manufacturers to make trial of others; and they now find that markets can be procured which will make them returns in fix months, fo that three times the quantity of business may be done on the fame capital as formerly, the American returns not being made in lefs than eighteen months.' Since this is the cafe it appears furprising that the exports should not now be confiderable, unless he means that the manufactures have found a greatly increafed home confumption.

This writer complains of the management of the Scotch in regard to fome articles of commerce: among other things he remarks that Fafhion operates powerfully on every species of manufactures; that manufacturing in Scotland is deprived of F 3


the advantage refulting from fashion; that we feem not to have fufficient fpirit to dare to have a fashion of our own; that while the induftrious inhabitants of Glafgow and Paisley were lately exerting themselves to improve, bring to perfection, and extend the manufactures of cambric and lawn, the greater part of the women in Scotland were wearing muflin, a fabric of the Indies: nay, adds he, fo great is the influence of fashion, that the very wives and daughters of thefe men were wearing this exotic themselves!'



In another place, fpeaking of commerce, he fays, It is not an e.fy matter to afcertain the value of the goods exported from Glafgow; it is certainly very great. I fhall only obferve, that about one-fourth part of them are of the manufacture of Scotland; and that therefore the effect which the commerce of Glasgow has on the wealth of South Britain, in comparison with what it has on the wealth of North Britain, (owing to our inattention to manufactures) is nearly in the direct ratio of three to one. The fhipping of Clyde at this time is about 60,000 tons.'

He concludes with faying, Could a fubfcription for fo fmall a fum as four thousand pounds per annum be brought about in North Britain, to continue for fiteen or twenty years, and was the application of this money to be entrusted to a fet of men verfed in manufacturies, for the purpofe of introducing woollen and other manufactures, I am convinced that in a course of thirty or forty years, we fhould not only rival, but excel England, in a very great number of different manufactures; our people would be prevented from, emigrating to Ameriça, for they would then be able to earn their bread at home, and we would foon become a rich and a happy people.'

This Merchant mentions fome of the difcouragements to commerce which prevail in North Britain, and in his zeal to remove that which arifes from fashion, he proposes a public breakfast three times in year, to fettle thefe matters in fuch a manner as might be beneficial to the home manufactory.

Mr. Gibion appears to be a plain fenfible man, who underftands trade, and wishes to advance the profperity of the city of Glafgow. He apologizes for the imperfections of his work, which he fays he does not expect will be read by the learned. His ftyle, though void of all ornament, however, has not any thing materially faulty, except the frequent Scotticifms, which, to an English ear, are uncouth and difpleafing; but he feems to have intended his performance more for North than South Britain. In the appendix are feveral original papers; some of them necellary to atcertain particular facts; others are merely matters of curiofity. Those which were written in the Latin language are tranflated.



ART. XIII. Six Difcourfes: To which is prefixed an Introduction; containing a View of the genuine ancient philofophy; of the natural and effectual Tendency of that Philofophy, and of Chriftian Morality, to all true Profperity in this World; and fome Obfervations on a Book lately published, intitled, A View of the internal Evidence of the Chriftian Religion. By Percival Stockdale. 8vo. 3 s. 6d. Conant. 1777.



HIS volume merits nearly the fame account which was given of three difcourfes published by this author a few years ago. Mr. Stockdale difcovers both fenfe and learning, but there is fomewhat turgid and affected in his ftyle; and while he pleads, at times, for a bluntnefs in his manner, it feems to become afluming, and to intimate fome difappointed expectations which have raifed his chagrin. At the fame time we must add that his fermons contain, amidst a number of exceptionable paffages, much excellent and pious advice; and that they bear the appearance of the preacher's real defire to be ferviceable to his hearers. Most of them were preached before naval audiences. He dedicates his performance to Dr. Shipley, bishop of St. Afaph, expreffing his pleasure that he can yet find one bishop, whom he can praise without flattery.' He takes fome other opportunities, we obferve, to convey a hint to his fuperiors in the church; If, fays he, a bishop can be fuppofed so far to forget his duty, which is to exhibit in his life, as confpicuoufly as the infirmities of human nature will admit, a model of his mild, humane, and humble master-if he can fo far forget his duty, as hardly to deign to speak to a worthy and exemplary, but thread-bare country curate, because his station in the church is low, and because he is poor; and when he does vouchsafe to speak to him, if he addresses him in such a tone, and with fuch a look as a Nebuchadnezzar would use to one of his difgraced courtiers ;-if he can thus treat a virtuous brother, whom he fhould make his companion and friend, whofe wants he fhould relieve, whose heart he should cause to fing for joy ;-if in that meek, open, and generous clafs of men, fuch a monftrous individual can be found; he is a proud, unchriftian prelate, and deferves as much to be excommunicated as the most notorious profligate.'

The above paffage is introduced, among others, to illustrate the nature of pride.

In the clofe of his laft difcourfe we find him again complimenting the rulers of the church; To maintain, he fays, the rights of the church, as established by law, to promote the diffufion of the chriftian religion; to urge, whenever occafion offers, the cause of humanity; and to prevent the wanton effufion of human

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Stockdale's Difcourfes.

blood; for thefe falutary purpofes alone, according to my hume
ble view of policy, they poffefs, with propriety, a fhare in the
legiflature. And I ardently with, that in the hour of trial,
they may not as meanly defert the first of thefe great objects,
as they have lately fhrunk from the laft.'

But while our preacher in this manner arraigns the dignified
clergy, he, at the fame time, appears himfelf as a ftrenuous ad-
vocate for forms and conftitutions and to this, if it is done
with modefty and candour, we could not much object; but
was it neceffary, for this end, that he fhould condemn, and
that with a degree of feverity and virulence, the members of
other churches, who have certainly an equal right with him,
or with any bishop, er prince, to judge for themfelves in mat-
ters of confcience and religion? I think, fays he, that few
Englishmen, of a liberal mind, will in any way diffent from
the church of England, provided their judgment is acute and
vigorous, and provided they give to our eftablifhed worship,
and to the pretenfions of the iectaries, a fair examination and
comparifon After this notable remark, we find him, in a
note, excepting the reverend Theophilus Lindfey, whom he
tells us he once heard with pleafure at Eflex-houfe, and of
whom he speaks in refpectable terms. Not fo, however, of
Mr. Lindfey's friend, Dr. Prieftley, whom he once heard at
the fame place. Among his ungenerous obfervations on the
diffenters, he fingles out Dr. Prieftley, and beftows near two
pages upon him, concluding with this charitable reflection,

that if it had been Dr. Prieftley's fortune to be a pope (for it might have been his fortune, not his crime), he would have been as great a tyrant as a Sixtus or an Alexander.'

We fhall finish this article with one more extract which difcovers the fpirit of our confident declaimer ;-I carneftly with, fays he, for the peace and profperity of the church and ftate, that a temperate and judicious exertion of fome of our penal laws, against which a virulent and ungrateful clamour hath of late been raifed, becaufe they were dormant, might oblige the prefbyterians to defift from their obftinate and arrogant claims, which they call petitions; and the methodifts, to relinquish the mechanical operation of the fpirit, for the mechanical operation. of their trades' How edifying all this, and more to the fame purpofe, to a number of failors and marines!

After the above declaration, who can lay any firefs on his affertions, that he fhould hate himfelf if he had a particle of the inquifitorial foirit, and that if he had the power of an emperor he would not hurt a hair of a man's head who diflented from him in matters of religion.' Aftonishing! that a man of common fenfe fhould be fo blind as to pronounce with anger that Dr. Priefticy would be a tyant, was it in his power, and


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