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tion the examples daily exhibited by those who have converted cruelty into a privilege. The training of bulls, bears, horses, and other animals, for the purpose of baiting them with dogs, was certainly practised by the jugglers; and we have elsewhere shown that royal personages, and even queens and ladies of the court, did not scruple to countenance by their presence these barbarous pastimes. Fitz Stephen, who lived in the reign of Henry II., tells us that in the forenoon of every holyday during the winter season, the young Londoners were amused with boars opposed to each other in battle, or with bulls and full grown bears baited by dogs. Stow, who records this fact, makes no mention of norses; and it is believed that the baiting of this noble animal, though known to have been occasionally performed, was never a general practice. Asses, also, were treated with the same inhumanity, but probably the poor beasts did not afford sufficient sport in the tormenting, and therefore were seldom brought forward as the objects of this ruthless diversion.
There were several places in the vicinity of the metropolis set apart for the baiting of beasts, and especially the district of St. Saviour's parish in Southwark, called Paris Garden, which contained two bear-gardens, said to have been the first that were made near London. In these, ac cording to Stow, were scaffolds for the spectators to stand upon, an indulgence for which they paid in the following manner : “ Those who go to Paris Garden, the Bell Savage, or Theatre, to behold bear-baiting, enterludes, or fence-play, must not account of any pleasant spectacle, unless they first pay one penny at the gate, another at the entrie of the scaffold, and a third for quiet standing." One Sunday afternoon, in the year 1582, the scaffold, being overcharged with spectators, fell down during the performance, and a great number of persons were killed or maimed by the accident, which the puritans of the time failed not to attribute to a Divine judgment.
Erasmus, who visited England in the time of Henry VIII., says, there were many herds of bears maintained in the court for the purpose of baiting. When Queen Mary visited her sister the Princess Elizabeth, during her confinement at Hatfield House, the next morning, after mass, a grand exhibition of bear-baiting was made for their amusement,
with which, it is said, “ their highnesses were right well content.” Queen Elizabeth, on the 25th of May, 1559, soon after her accession to the throne, gave a splendid dinner to the French ambassadors, who afterward were entertained with the baiting of bulls and bears, the queen herself standing, with the ambassadors to look at the pastime till six at night. The day following, the same ambassadors went by water to Paris Garden, where they saw another báiting of bulls, and bears ; and again, twenty-seven years afterward, Queen Elizabeth received the Danish ambassador at Greenwich, who was treated with the sight of a bear and bull-baiting, tempered, says Hollinshead, with other merry disports; and for the diversion of the populace there was a horse with an ape upon his back, which highly pleased them, so that they expressed their inward conceived joy and delight with shrill shouts and variety of gestures.".
Laneham, speaking of a bear-baiting cxhibited before Queen Elizabeth in 1575, says that thirteen bears were provided for the occasion, and that they were baited with a great sort of bandogs. In the foregoing relations we find no mention made of a ring put into the nose of the bear when he was baited, which certainly was the more modern practice; hence the expression by the Duke of Newcastle in the Humorous Lovers, printed in 1617, “ I fear the wedlock ring more than the bear does the ring in his nose."
When a bear-baiting was about to take place, it was publicly made known, and the bearward previously paraded the streets with his animal, to excite the curiosity of the populace, and induce them to become spectators of the sport. On these occasions the bear, who was usually preceded by a minstrel or two, carried a monkey or baboon upon his back. In the Humorous Lovers, the play just now quoted, “ Tom of Lincoln” is mentioned as the name of a famous bear; and one of the characters, pretending to personate a hearward, says, “ I'll set up my bills, that the gamesters of London, Horsly-duwn, Southwark, and Newmarket may come in and bait him here before the ladies ; but first, boy, go fetch me a bagpipe ; we will walk the streets in triumph, and give the people notice of our sport."
The two following advertisements, which were published in the reign of Queen Anne, may serve as a specimen of the elegant manner in which these pastimes were announced
to the public. “At the bear-garden in Hockley-in-the-hole, near Clerkenwell Green, this present Monday, there is a great match to be fought, by two dogs of Smithfield Bars against two dogs of Hampstead, at the Reading Bull, for one guinea to be spent : five let-goes out of hand; which goes fairest and furthest in wins all. The famous bull of fireworks, which pleased the gentry to admiration. Likewise there are two bear-dogs to jump three jumps apiece at the bear, which jumps highest, for ten shillings to be spent. Also variety of bull-baiting and bear-baiting; it being a day of general sport by all the old gamesters; and a bulldog to be drawn up with fireworks. Beginning at three o'clock."
“ At William Well's bear-garden, in Tuttle Fields, Westminster, this present Monday, there will be a green bull baited, and twenty dogs to fight for a collar; and the dog that runs furthest and fairest wins the collar: with other diversions of bull and bear-baiting. Beginning at two of the clock."
The time usually chosen for the exhibition of those national babarisms, which were sufficiently, disgraceful without this additional reproach, was the afterpart of the Sabbath-day. “ It were well,” says Strutt, " if these were the only vulnerable parts of the character of our ancestors ; but it must be confessed that there are other pastimes which equally attracted their attention, and manifested a degree of barbarism which will admit of no just defence.” Sir Richard Steele, reprobating the inhumanity of throwing at cocks, makes these pertinent observations; “Some French writers have represented this diversion of the common people much to our disadvantage, and imputed it to a natural fierceness and cruelty of temper, as they do some other entertainments peculiar to our nation : I mean those elegant diversions of bull-baiting and prize-fighting, with the like ingenious recreations of the bear-garden. I wish I knew how to answer this reproach which is cast upon us, and excuse the death of so many innocent cocks, bulls, dogs, and bears, as have been set together by the ears, or died an untimely death only to make us sport.
There is another barbarous diversion, somewhat different from bull-baiting, and much less humane, which seems to have been only practised at Stamford, in Lincolnshire, and
at Tutbury, in Staffordshire. The traditionary origin of the bull-running at Stamford, and the manner in which it was performed in the seventeenth century, are given by Butcher, in his survey of that town; and this account I shall lay before my readers in the author's own words. “The bullrunning is a sport of no pleasure, except to such as take a pleasure in beastliness and mischief: it is performed just the day six weeks before Christmas. The butchers of the town, at their own charge, against the time provide the wildest bull they can get. This bull over night is had into some stable or barn belonging to the alderman. The next morning, proclamation is made by the common bellman of the town, round about the same, that each one shut up their shop-doors and gates, and that none, upon pain of imprisonment, offer to do any violence to strangers; for the preventing whereof, the town being a great thoroughfare, and then being term-time, a guard is appointed for the passing of travellers through the same, without hurt; that none have any iron upon their bull-clubs, or other staff which they pursue the bull with. Which proclamation made, and the gatos all shut up, the bull is turned out of the alderman's house ; and then hivie-skivy, tag and rag, men, women, and children, of all sorts and sizes, with all the dogs in the town promiscuously running after him with their bull-clubs, spattering dirt in each other's faces, that one would think them to be so many furies started out of hell for the punishment of Cerberus, &c. And, which is the greater shame, I have seen persons of rank and family, of both sexes,* following this bulling business. I can say no more of it, but only to set forth the antiquity thereof as tradition goes. William, Earl of Warren, the first lord of this town, in the time of King John, standing upon his castle-walls in Stamford, saw two bulls fighting for a cow in a meadow under the
A butcher of the town, owner of one of the bulls, set a great mastiff dog apon his own bull, who forced him ap into the town ; when all the butchers' dogs, great and small, followed in pursuit of the bull, which, by this time made stark mad with the noise of the people and the fierceness of the dogs, ran over man, woman, and child that stood in his way. This caused all the butchers and others in the
* This passage he has Latinized in these words : “Senatores majorum gentium et matronæ de eodem gradu.”
town to rise up, as it were, in a kind of tumult.” The sport so highly diverted the earl, who it seems was a spectator, that " he gave all those meadows in which the two bulls had been fighting perpetually as a common to the butchers of the town, after the first grass is eaten, to keep their cattle in till the time of slaughter, upon the condition, that on the anniversary of that day they should yearly find, at their own expense, a mad bull for the continuance of the sport."
The company of minstrels belonging to the manor of Tutbury had several peculiar privileges granted to them by a charter from John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. In this charter it is required of the minstrels to perform their respective services, upon the day of the assumption of our Lady (the 15th of August), at the steward's court, held for the honour of Tutbury, according to ancient custom. They had also, it seems, a privilege, exclusive of the charter, to claim upon that day a bull from the prior of Tutbury. In the seventeenth century these services were performed the day after the assumption; and the bull was given by the Duke of Devonshire, as the prior's representative.
The historian of Staffordshire informs us, that a dinner was provided for the minstrels upon this occasion, which being finished, they went anciently to the abbey-gate, but of late years to “ a little barn by the town side, in expectance of the bull to be turned forth to them.” The animal provided forth is purpose had his horns sawed off, his ears cropped, his tail cut short, his body smeared over with soap, and his nose blown full of beaten pepper, in order to make him as mad as it was possible for him to be. Whence, “after solemn proclamation first being made by the steward, that all manner of persons should give way to the bull, and not come near him by forty feet, nor by any means to hinder the minstrels, but to attend to his or their own safeties, every one at his peril ; he was then put forth, to be caught by the minstrels, and none other, within the county of Stafford, between the time of his being turned out to them and the setting of the sun, on the same day; which if they cannot doe, but the bull escapes from them untaken, and gets over the river into Derbyshire, he continues to be Lord Devonshire's property ; on the other hand, if the minstrels can take him, and hold him so long as to cut off some small matter of his hair, and bring the same to the market-cross, in token that