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ing and frivolous in the glitter of Stranger ! however great,

With lowly reverence bow; rings, ribbons, necklaces, and brace

There's one in that

poor

shedlets, the pomp of a wicked world,

One by that paltry bedand the vanity of vain ambition.

Greater than thou." Thus does Mr Ward, with much strength of manner, point a moral, It will scarcely be right to close and paint a picture of keen Hogarth this article on the London art-season character. The subject, however, without bestowing some commenis un embarras de richesses, and the dation on the important additions work is consequently somewhat dis- and improvements effected in the tracted and scattered in its profu- National Gallery of old masters. sion of detail and incident, all em- Increased space has been gained ; phasised with equal force through- and the pictures, arranged with out.

singular taste and judgment by Mr We reserve for the last, the most Wornum, now constitute a gallery impressive picture of the year, Mr which will stand comparison with Faed's cottage deathbed—“From the famed museums of the contiDawn to Sunset," "so runs the round nent,-a gallery which, by judicious of life from hour to hour.” It is a purchases, is each day growing more little remarkable that the two lead- worthy of this great country, more ing paintings of the Exhibition fitted to instruct our artists in the should take deathbeds as their sub- history and development of ancient jects—the death of a king and the art, and to teach, by the force of death of a peasant; and that, by illustrious examples, those princieach painter alike, the death - agony ples on the observance of which true should be withdrawn from public excellence must ever depend. The gaze; in each picture death telling public opening of the present magits dread tragedy by a single soli- nificent assembly of pictures was tary hand thrust among the living— a triumph for the management of the hand taking the glass to the our National Museum, and served dying king, and the hand of the indeed as a final refutation of those dying woman seen on the coverlit. ignorant charges and virulent atHere, however, the analogies end tacks which at one time bore sway and the contrasts begin. The king in the public journals and before breathes his last amid frivolous the House of Commons. The old pageantry—the cottager dies in the masters and the English modern quiet of a simple cabin. The hum- pictures are at this moment once bler picture is more impressive, more close neighbours; and the pasbecause everything is in keeping; sage from the National Gallery to all in solemn suspense on coming the Royal Academy is striking and death ; truthful, and therefore touch- instructive. The old masters are ing; detailed in all the circumstance dark and low in tone ; the modern of ebbing life, watched with solici- light in key and even crude. The tude, and death awaited with forti- old are often far removed from pretude. In gazing upon this great sent sympathies, belonging essenand earnest work, not unmoved, tially to the past, the modern seize we knew no better words wherewith upon the topics of the day, and an to express its desolation, and yet Academy Exhibition thus often beto portray the serenity of its hope, comes, as it were, an annual register than the lines of Mrs Southey, for the year. The old masters rewritten on a like theme

quire some previous knowledge,

perhaps even a special culture, for Tread softly-bow the head - their full appreciation : a modern

In reverent silence bow-
No passing bell doth toll -

English picture, on the other hand,
Yet an immortal soul

is generally easily understood ; its
Is passing now.

excellences lie more on the surface;

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56 the

it utters the very thoughts which made to smile, or Sheridan stung for the moment are moving in the with satire. It will then be provpopular mind. It is by such a com- ed, moreover, that our English parison as the National Gallery now artists have never been excelled affords, that we can bring our Eng- upon flood or field, when Wilson, lish school to the test of history, Gainsborough, Turner, and Stanand determine how far our English field essayed to paint our British artists work upon those enduring mountains, lakes, and rivers, and principles which have been hand- with bold sweep of hand held the ed down by ages, and come with empire of the seas. It will be the sanction of an ancient wis- found, we say, in the great Interdom. Some modern painters have national Exhibition of 1862, that presumed to scoff at the works and the British School of Painting the practices of their great fore- is, at least in these directions, runners; but we tell these men unrivalled. But then, likewise, plainly that, unless they build upon in the words of Reynolds, it will the experience of the past, unless also be discovered that they take the path trodden by the value and rank of every art is in great artists of the olden times, proportion to the mental labour their popularity will barely out- employed on it, or the mental plealive the tenure of their lives; and, sure produced by it.” Thus will be owing nought to ancestry, they demonstrated the essential littleness can expect to claim nothing of pos- of a small idea, the comparative terity.

worthlessness of those partial modes Our artists in the coming year which command but passing popuwill have to submit to another com- larity. Then it will be found that petition—not with the works of an pictures which aspire to nothing ancient period, but with the schools higher than " the furnishing apartof neighbouring nations. It will ments with elegance” must take a then be seen that our English low position in the great compepainters have never been surpassed tition of thought and civilisation. in works of pleasing pretty incident: And, before the assembled nations, scenes taken from our homes and honour will at last await those works homesteads; peasants in their hum- of study and of genius that rest on ble cots, such as Wilkie loved to truths which change not with the paint ; or groups well dressed in lapse of time, nor swerve to altered drawing-rooms, such as Goldsmith place.

a

MAD DOGS.

EVERY one knows that dogs are of this disease; and since cure is liable to a terrible disease, which impossible, prevention becomes tencan be communicated to other ani- fold more important. We propose, mals and to man: a disease fright- therefore, to treat this subject with ful in its symptoms, and fatal in its the minuteness which its importeffects. But very few persons know ance warrants. what are the signs and symptoms

1.-VULGAR ERRORS.

Under this head it will be ne- does not show itself more than once cessary to include almost every in fifty cases. “ Il est désormais single notion which is popularly acquis à la science," says the latest held about mad dogs; for it is sur authority on this subject, “ que c'est prising that on a subject of this précisément un signe de la rage, fatal interest the current ideas are lorsque la soif est trop ardente ; et not simply inaccurate : they are ut- que jamais appellation plus fausse, terly and dangerously wrong. To plus absurde, et en même temps begin with the one expressed in the plus dangeureuse, ne fut appliquée name Hydrophobia, which means à aucune maladie que celle de hyhorror at water. This is not simply drophobie à la rage du chien." * a misnomer, otherwise we should Another popular error attributes scarcely mention it, but a misde- the madness of dogs to the heat of scription of a very serious kind. the “dog-days." In July and AuThe name hydrophobia having been gust all kinds of precautions are fixed in people's minds, and the taken, which no one thinks of for idea that rabid dogs dread water a moment in November and Decemhaving become part and parcel of ber. On the Continent, a paternal the general belief, the sight of a dog police is minutely solicitous in sumeagerly lapping water, or willingly mer about the enforcement of its plunging into it, would naturally regulations. But the simple fact lead ninety-nine out of a hundred is, that the “ dog-days” have no to exclaim—“He drinks, therefore more to do with the rabies than there can't be danger.” The fact the moon has to do with lunacy. is, that a burning thirst is one of Dogs are liable to attacks in every the characteristic symptoms of rabies, month of the year; but it so hapin its early stages. True it is, and pens that July and August are prevery curious it is, that in man an cisely the months in which the indefinable dread of water, or any fewest cases occur. Against the other liquid, does characterise the loose estimate of popular opinion, later stages of the disease; and for we can place the exact records of the disease in man the name of the veterinary schools of Alfort, hydrophobia is not inappropriate. Toulouse, and Lyons, and these Of this we shall see examples pre- show that it is not in the hottest sently. But in dogs, so far from a months, but in the wettest months, dread of water being a reliable that the great majority of cases are symptom, it is a symptom which In April, November, and

seen,

* SANSON : Le Meilleur Préservatif contre la Rage: Etude de la Physiognomie des Chiens et des Chats Enragés. 1860.

December, the recorded cases are mouth, and run about snapping double and triple those in June, wildly at man and beast, or at any July, and August.

rate manifest their madness by fuThat “heat of the weather” is rious ferocity. But while healthy not the cause of rabies, is strikingly dogs often “foam at the mouth, proved by the fact that in hot coun- it is only in one stage of the disease tries the disease is rare,

and in some that the rabid dog shows any foam. even unknown. M. Du Chaillu no- And as to ferocity, most mad dogs tices that although “most of the are gentle and caressing to their West African villages are crowded masters and favourites, though they with dogs, the natives do not know, snap at other dogs. It is only the even by report, of such a disease as ferocious dog that shows great ferohydrophobia.” Dr Watson remarks city when rabid. that rabies is unknown in the Isle It is very generally believed that of Cyprus and in Egypt. “I fancy if a healthy dog should bite a man, that South America is, or was, a and at any subsequent period become stranger to it. It appears to have rabid, the man will also become been imported into Jamaica, after rabid—no matter how many months that island had enjoyed an im- or years may have elapsed. The munity for at least fifty years; and consequence of this absurd prejuDr Heineker states that curs of the dice is, that healthy dogs are fremost wretched description abound quently killed in order to prevent in the island of Madeira ; that they their becoming rabid. There was are afflicted with almost every dis- an example of this only a few weeks ease, tormented by flies, and heat, ago in London; and unhappily the and thirst, and famine, yet no rabid bitten man died a victim to the terdog was ever seen there. On the rors of hydrophobia. It was quite contrary, 1666 deaths from hydro- clear, from the symptoms, that he phobia in the human subject are was not affected by hydrophobia; stated to have occurred in Prussia and the magistrate very properly in the space of ten years.

expressed disapprobation at the folly Having attributed the disease to of destroying the dog before it was the “heat of the dog-days," men evident whether or not it was rabid. easily came to the conclusion that The rule in such a case is perfectly it was owing to intense thirst that simple. If the dog is suspected of the disease occurred. Inasmuch as being rabid, it should be kept this error has forced them to be chained up, out of the way of inmore careful in attending to the jury, until the disease declares itwants of dogs, and secured ac- self. By this plan it may very soon cess to water, it has been a bene- be shown whether the suspicion ficial error.

But, viewing the mat- was ill-founded, and whether the ter scientifically, we are forced to dog was or was not rabid. Such a say that thirst, however intense, is proof would often greatly relieve incapable of producing rabies. Dogs the minds of the bitten man and have been subjected to the cruel his family, and remove that terriexperiment of complete abstinence ble anxiety which, in spite of every from water, when chained to a wall surgical aid, must for some weeks under a burning sun. They died assail them. from thirst, but showed no symp- Finally, we may remark that it toms of rabies. Thirst will produce is by no means true, as popularly delirium in man; but delirium is supposed, that a man or animal bitnot rabies, nor in any way related ten by a mad dog will certainly to it.

take the disease. The chances are Another popular error is to sup- very great against such an event, pose that mad dogs foam at the even if no precautions be taken.

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* Watson: Principles and Practice of Physic, vol. ii. p. 619.

Of course, no sane man would run θανατος. . Man or beast, once inthe risk. But it is comforting to fected with the poison, is doomed know, after surgical aid has been to a certain and horrible end. This employed, that even without such infection may be prevented, even aid the chances are against the dis- after the bite has been given, either ease being communicated.

by surgical aid, or by a natural The errors we have just noticed indisposition of the organism to are pernicious in varying degrees, be affected by the poison; but the but mainly because they mask thé infection once established, no rereal symptoms, which might other- medy avails. The records of mewise call attention to the danger. dical experience contain numerAnd how great that danger is may ous cases of harmless bites from be expressed in a single sentence- rabid animals, but no single case of there is no remedy. The physician declared rabies having ever been that cures is Death - iatpos iatal arrested.

II.-IYDROPHOBIA IN MAN.

We have already intimated that sleep. He felt ill and drowsy on in man the disease is characterised Sunday, but drove the carriage to by a singular dread of water; and Kensington Gardens: he was obligthat this is an invariable symptom. ed, however, to hold both whip and Happily the cases are rare; and as reins in his left hand. The pain even experienced physicians seldom extended to his shoulder. He was have the opportunity of witnessing then bled. This relieved the pain. one, we shall briefly state what are But the next day he complained of the observed symptoms. Dr Wat- feeling very ill all over; and he son, in his Principles of Physic, and told his medical attendant that he Romberg, in his Diseases of the could not take his draughts because Nervous System, will furnish ex- of the spasm in his throat. That amples :

gentleman, suspecting the true naA coachman was brought to St ture of the disease, pretended that Bartholomew's Hospital on a Tues- it was the nasty taste of the physic day. It was stated that, some ten

which

gave
the
spasm,

and told him weeks before, the back of his right to drink some water. But there hand had been struck by the teeth was the same difficulty with the of a terrier, but no wound had been water. The next day he came to made, no blood drawn, nor was the the hospital. When there, water skin broken-there was merely a was placed before him in a basin, mark of the animal's teeth. On the for the alleged purpose of allowing Thursday preceding bis appearance him to wash his hands. It did not at the hospital, his hand had be- seem to disturb him, nor to excite come painful, and swelled a little.

any particular attention. Water On Friday the pain extended into was then offered to him to drink, the arm, and became more severe. which he took and carried to his His wife stated that he had been mouth, but drew his head from it in the habit of sponging his head with a convulsive shudder. After and body every morning with cold this, on the same morning, he was water, but on this morning he re- much questioned by several persons frained from doing so on account about the supposed cause of his of some feeling of spasm about the illness ; and water was again throat. His own remark on this brought to him, which agitated was, that he “couldn't think how him, and he became exceedingly he could be so silly.” On Satur- distressed and unquiet, complainday, the extent and severity of the ing of the air which blew upon pain had increased.

He got no

him. Dr Watson saw him soon

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