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able so long as man remains man; for freedom is essential to humanity. Let a circle once be described, and all the lines drawn from the center to the circumference must of necessity be equal. It is no impeachment of Omnipotence to say that it cannot make them unequal while the circle remains a circle. In like manner, when the Deity has once created a man, he must leave him free to will in accordance with his own will, or contrary to it. The possibility of the abuse of his liberty is as essential to his nature as the coequality of the radii to the nature of the circle. Omnipotence is as powerless in relation to the one as to the other.
ART. X.-RELIGIOUS INTELLIGENCE.
in strong terms. Archdeacon Denison
thinks that the teaching of the Scottish Protestantism. — THE RELATION BE- bishops is the same as the pernicious docTWEEN CHURCH AND STATE is slowly but trines of Zwinglius and Calvin, and that steadily transforming itself. The time it is a futile thing, not to say worse, to when they will be entirely separated may talk, as some High Church papers have still be far distant, but that many points done, of a Real Presence which is not the must be changed, and that the interfer- Real Presence. According to a letter of ence of the State in matters purely eccle- Dr. Pusey, this is the first time since the siastical must cease, is more and more Reformation that the doctrine of the agreed upon by all parties. The dises- Real Presence has been condemned by the tablishment of the Church of England bishops of a Church which is in communmay still be considered by many Church- ion with the Church of England. He men as a grave calamity, but they must consoles himself, however, with the conadmit that it is obviously possible. The sideration that no article or formulary bishops tell their clergy that the days of of the Church, which are the real teachdependence on the State are gone by, ers of the people, has been changed. The and that if the Church will not lose her same consideration has been adduced by influence on the masses forever, she must the High Church party of Scotland for re-establish it by her own energy. One not executing their first design, to estab of the relics of English State Churchism lish a Free Episcopal Church. Rev. Mr. which had long been obnoxious to men Poole, of St. Barnabas, Pimlico, whose of all parties, the “ State Services " for license had been withdrawn by the the anniversaries of the Gunpowder Trea- Bishop of London for grave charges son, (Nov. 5,) the martyrdom of King brought against him in connection with Charles I., (Jan. 30,) and the restoration his use of the confessional, has applied to of King Charles II., (May 29,) have at the Court of Queen's Bench for a mandalength been abandoned by a royal war- mus to compel the Archbishop of Canterrant. THE CONFLICT
HIGH bury to issue a commission of inquiry CHURCH AND Low CHURCH PARTIES loses into the alleged ground on which his nothing of its violence. Rev. Mr. Cheyne license had been withdrawn, and the having declared himself
court has given judgment in his favor, the retract those views on the Real Presence, Lord Chief Justice Campbell, and the on account of which he had been suspend- three other judges present, all expressing ed by the Bishop of Aberdeen, the Epis- their opinion that Mr. Poole was clearly copal Synod of Scotland has again con- entitled to a full investigation. Notfirmed his suspension, Bishop Forbes of withstanding the estrangement which ex. Brechin only dissenting. The leaders of ists between the two great parties, and the High Church party, in England, con- which seems to widen every year, they demn the decision of the Scottish bishops still work harmoniously together in many
FOURTH SERIES, VOL. XI.—20
societies and for many reforms in the many is likely to be considerably adChurch. Thus the SPECIAL SERVICES, vanced by the establishment of a new which in the large cities have been held for central organ, the New Evangelical Church the special benefit of the laboring classes, Gazette, which is published in Berlin since are warmly recommended by both. These January, 1859. For many years no new extra services have been everywhere a paper has appeared under the auspices of great success. The opening of St. Paul's, so many illustrious names, the prospectus London, on the first Sunday of Advent, being signed by nearly all the great theattracted from 80,000 to 100,000 people, ologians of Germany, and by a number of many of whom, being unable to gain ad- laymen, who rank among the greatest mission at St. Paul's, thronged the major- scholars of our times, such as Professor ity of the city churches. The church has Karl Ritter, the celebrated geographer, ever since been crowded, but the High Professor H. Ritter, the author of the Churchmen complain that none of their History of Philosophy, and Professor party has been selected to preach except Fichte of Tubingen, one of the most distinDr. Hook, the Vicar of Leeds, whose guished German philosophers. In Prusviews, moreover, have considerably “low- sia the government of the State Church is ered” in late years. THE SOCIETY OF at present under the control of the FRIENDS are about to abandon formally evangelical party, for the Prince Regent some of their distinctive peculiarities. has called Herr Von Bethman-Hollweg, a A conference of three hundred of the leading man in the party, to the Ministry members of the Society was held in Lon- of Worship. In the new second Chamber, don recently, at which it was agreed to however, the Rationalistic Union Party is sanction marriages between individuals of believed to have a very strong majority. In this community (although not in member the Grand Duchy of Baden a great excite ship) by allowing them to take place in ment has been created among the people its religious meetings, and that all restric- by the known intention of the Supreme tions in regard to what is called plainness Ecclesiastical Council, to introduce, in of speech, behavior, and apparel, may also accordance with a resolution of the last be discontinued, but confirming its ancient General Synod, a new liturgy, which testimony in favor of Christian modera- contains the principal parts of the Lution in these respects.
theran mass. The remonstrances and The Roman Catholic Church.- petitions of a large number of Church As the feelings of a large portion of the Councils have induced the Grand Duke Protestant population are obviously op
to order the postponement of its obligaposed to the annual support of the Ro- tory introduction until the next General man Catholic COLLEGE OF MAYNOOTH, Synod. In the Grand Duchy of Hessesuggestions have been lately made to
Darmstadt, the friends of an Evangelical substitute for the annual grant a gross
Union have held a conference at Friedesum. The Freeman's Journal, the old berg, which was largely attended by clerdaily organ of the Irish Roman Catholics,
gymen, and in which also many distinthinks that the Roman Catholic bishops guished laymen, as the Prince of Solmsmight not be altogether indisposed “to Lich, took part. In Wirtemberg, one of terminate the bitterness which sectaries
the six diocesan synods has almost unanihave extracted out of a national right to mously expressed the wish, that a Genea national exchequer for the education of ral Synod of the Evangelical State the national clergy," and suggests, at a
Church may be convoked soon, and that rough guess, that the grant might be
the Church may be placed more indeexchanged for £1,000,000 pounds sterling, pendent of the state. THE LUTHERAN reserving to the college the present
PARTY has improved its organization in building and land. The Tablet, a Catholic
the three Hessian States, (Hesse-Darmweekly, says that rumors are afloat that stadt, Hesse-Cassel, and Hesse-Homburg,) CATHOLIC LITERARY ENTERPRISES are, for
where they now hold semi-annual conferthe most part, a losing speculation; that
ences, the last of which took place at there is everywhere, more or less a decline
Marburg, and was presided over by Proin the sale of Catholic books, and a certain
fessor Vilmar, of Marburg, so well known absense of literary enthusiasm on the
for his Romanizing tendencies. In PrusCatholic public.
sia several clergymen of the State Church,
with a part of their congregations, have GERMANY.
joined the old Lutheran Church. In BaProtestantism.—THE CONSOLIDATION den the Lutheran party is now nearly OF THE EVANGELICAL Party in all Ger- extinct, as its last leaders among the
clergy have left the State Church. The of the censorship of the Church over RATIONALISTIC PARTY has made attempts all literary productions. If, nevertheless, to rally in Baden, and especially in the the Catholic Church in Austria increases Bavarian Palatinate, but it has hardly but slowly in power and influence, it is, gained any ground. It places great hopes for a great part, owing to the dissatison the change of government which has faction of a large portion of the priesttaken place in Prussia, though the free hood with both the institutions and the congregations and German Catholics have doctrines of their Church, The Catholic been again forbidden, in several places, party will be the last to deny this imto hold their regular meetings. PROTEST- portant fact, as during the past year the ANTISM IN AUSTRIA must have made some bishops, to whom Rome has committed progress in the northern provinces, for the the reformation of the monks, have met, Bishops of Bohemia have found it neces- on the part of most convents, with an sary to warn the Catholics against the obstinate resistance. These facts being Protestant propaganda. In the Tyrol generally known, a rumor that upward they have at length received the right to of five hundred priests had petitioned the purchase landed property and to bury their bishops for the abolition of celibacy, and dead according to the rites of their Church- for other reforms, was readily believed, es. But the urgent petitions of the Hunga- though no proofs have as yet been adduced rians for permission to frame a new ecclesi- for its truth, which is denied by the Cathastical constitution have not been granted,
THE CATHOLIC PARTY IX and in the Lutheran Church of the Ger- PRussia has gained, at the last elections man provinces, the preaching of missionary of the Second Chamber, a few members, sermons has been forbidden by the Prot- and its talented leader, August Reichenestant Consistory, from fear they might sperger, of Cologne, has, in consequence be considered as a demonstration against of the coalition of the Catholics with the the Jesuits.
Liberals, been again elected first vice
president of the Second Chamber. The The Roman Catholic Church. - party intends, however, to drop its forTHE CATHOLIC CHURCH OF AUSTRIA has mer name in the Parliament, in order to held provinciał synods in three of the sev- give to the Prince Regent, who has apenteen ecclesiastical provinces. Great pointed a Catholic his Prime Minister, a efforts have been made by the bishops, by proof of their confidence. THE RELATION the Catholic press, and the official papers of OF THE OTHER GERMAN STATES TO ROME the government, to awaken in the peo- has changed but little. In Wirtemberg ple an interest in these assemblies, but there still exists a great excitement on with very little success.
account of the Concordat, and it is believhowever, has availed himself of this oppor- ed that the Second Chamber will refuse tunity to assure the bishops of the eccle- to ratify it. In the Duchy of Anhaltsiastical province of Vienna, that their Dessau, the first Catholic church has endeavors to give to the development of been consecrated in the capital by the a stronger ecclesiastical life a well-con- Papal Nuncio of Munich, who has been considered, firm foundation, meet with highly gratified at the very liberal dispohis warmest sympathy. A new decree sition of the duke toward his Catholic on the Reorganization of Public Instruction subjects. A new proof of the strong provides that even every private school ATTACHMENT OF THE CATHOLIC ARISTOCRAmust have a denominational character, CY TO THEIR CHURCH has been furnished and that children of Catholic parents during the past year by the consideracannot be admitted to any non-Catholic ble increase of candidates for the priestschools ; while, on the other hand, the hood and monastic orders from their Catholic schools are permitted to admit & midst. Thus a daughter of the richest limited number of children of other de- nobleman of the Prussian Rbine provinces, nominations. Circulars have been issued the Count of Furstenberg-Stammheim, has from all the departments of the ministry, lately taken the solemn vows as & nun, by which the subaltern officers, the burgo- and on the same day a cousin of hers was masters included, are apprised of the de- received as a novite. termined will of the emperor, that all the public officers shall set an example to the The Greek Church.-As Russia does people in respecting the Church and not cease to make secret efforts for inthe clergy, Encouraged by such extra- clining the UNITED GREEK Church toordinary favors, the Catholic party has ward a separation from Rome, the Papal even dared to propose the re-establishment Nuncio at Vienna has made a tour through
Hungary and Transylvania, in order to ob- attack, and have no other cause to plead tain reliable information concerning the than that of Atheism and Materialism. real state of affairs. Catholic papers say Some towns have tried to take the public that he is fully satisfied with the result instruction out of the hands of the priestof his investigations.
hood; but the Liberals, as a party, have
not yet been able to unite on a scheme SCANDINAVIA.
for organizing a system of public instrucProtestantism.-A large portion of
tion independent of the influence of the THE LUTHERAN CLERGY of Sweden and
bishops. An ultramontane professor of the Norway continues to be strongly attach
State University of Ghent, who taught the ed to hierarchical principles, and are
temporal power of the Pope, has been opposing, to the utmost of their ability,
promptly removed, and a distinguished though without success, the efforts of the
Protestant of Germany has received a
call to the same university as Professor many dissenting denominations, which on all sides are extending their opera
of Chemistry. THE BISHOPS, at their last
meeting at Malines, have resolved that no tions. Foremost among these are still THE BAPTISTS, who spread in Sweden, in
clergyman shall teach at a school which spite of continuing persecution, with ex.
does not adhere to the principles of the traordinary rapidity. From the small
Convention of Antwerp, by which a combeginning made in 1849, when the first promise between the government and the Baptist Church was organized, they have
bishops with regard to public institutions increased to forty-five churches, sixty-two
was effected. They also recommend to pastors and colporteurs, and two thousand
the Flemish congregations the new Flemish one hundred and five members.
translation of the Holy Scriptures, made tleman who is not a Baptist, annoyed by by Professor Vraten of Louvain. THE IN the intolerance and bigotry of the teach
TEREST IN FOREIGN Missions shows itself, ers of the national schools, has offered especially with regard to the United
States of America and Scandinavia. The twenty thousand Swedish dollars for the
Louerection of a school on Baptist principles,
Ecclesiastical Seminary founded Colporteurs are at work in every province priests, has about twenty students, and
vain for supplying America with European except the eastern ones, where the preju; has already fitted out several priests for dice against all lay agency is so powerful that it shuts it out almost completely; that he can find an almost unlimited
the United States. The superior states Also in Denmark the work is onward, and
number of candidates, if the necessary promises a glorious future. The METHODISTS have been equally successful in
pecuniary ineans can be procured. For Norway. They have seventy members at
the new Vicariate Apostolic of Greenland Frederickshald, and one hundred and fifty Sweden & similar scheme of special sup
and of the northern parts of Norway and six at Sarpsburg, and small congregations have been collected in two other places.
port is under deliberation. They have also commenced operations in
Protestantism. — The last annual Denmark, and the superintendent of the report of the Sociète Evangelique Belge Scandinavian mission has taken up his states that, during the past year, besides permanent residence in Copenhagen. A the opening of evangelical worship in bill for establishing a Supreme Ecclesias- several other places of greater or less tical Council in the NATIONAL CHURCH importance, the society has founded new OF DENMARK has been defeated in the stations in Namur and Louvain, two of Lower House of the Diet by a considera- the most important towns in Belgium. ble majority, and there are no prospects All the stations have witnessed, during the for the Church to extricate herself soon past year, a great progress, especially from the disordered condition in which those of Lize-Seraing, Jumet, and Charleshe has been since 1849.
roi. A very encouraging report on the
PROGRESS OF PROTESTANTISM was likewise BELGIUM.
made by the Committee of Evangelization
of the Evangelical State Church, which The Roman Catholic Church.
held its last annual synod in August. The THE LIBERAL Party is unrelenting in its
committee supports six Protestant schools efforts to arrest the progress of ultramon
with four hundred and fifty children. tane principles. The book-market abounds in anti-Catholic books, but most of the
HOLLAND. liberal writers know not what religious
Protestantism. THE LUTHERAN belief to substitute for that which they Church, which since 1791 has been divided
into two different bodies, generally called new proof that even the emperor cannot the Evangelical Lutheran Church and the always be relied upon. The marriage of Reformed Evangelical Lutheran Church, is Prince Napoleon with the eldest daughter likely to be soon reunited, both parties of the King of Sardinia, displeases the having made some advances for this pur- Catholic party likewise ; for the King of pose. The want of interest in FOREIGN Sardinia is looked upon as the banner. Missions, with which the Protestant bearer of an anti-Catholic liberalism Churches of Holland generally have been among the European princes. On the charged for many years, is especially felt other hand, the Catholic party feels great by the sister Churches in view of the satisfaction with the progress of the great openings for Christianity in Asia French-Spanish expedition against CochinThe few persons who go out from Holland China, where an important town has as missionaries are scarcely sufficient to been taken and declared French property. meet the wants of a hundredth part of They hope that the French government the heathen and Mohammedan popula- will seize on the whole territory, and tion of Java and the surrounding islands, make it a French-Indian empire, with the
Catholic Church as the State Church.
THE MONASTIC ORDERS AND RELIGIOUS The Roman Catholic Church.
ASSOCIATIONS continue to multiply. Among The Pope, notified by THE JANSENISTS, who call themselves the unhappy and
the former, the Petites Scurs des Pauvres, disowned sons of the Catholic Church, of
(Little Sisters of the Poor,) spread with the election of a
unusual rapidity. Though founded only new Archbishop of Utrecht, has answered with a new brief
à few years, (the foundress, formerly of excommunication. The denomination
a female servant, still lives,) they have at has decreased, since the beginning of the
present fifty houses. Their object is to
establish homes for poor old men and present century, in numbers, and counts
women, and to nurse them. They have at present some five thousand members.
received calls from nearly every largo city But since the proclamation of the new dogma of the Immaculate Conception, new
of France, and a house and furniture is sympathies for it have sprung up in France, generally given them by the city councils.
Some of the orders, however, commence Italy, Spain, and Germany, and it is thought that a combination of these
again, as in former centuries, to occupy elements may lead to a new episcopalian Thus the austere Trappists have com.
themselves with very worldly pursuits. reaction against the strictly Papal sys
menced, in Algeria, to manufacture and sell tem which at present prevails in the Roman Catholic Church.
perfumes in such quantities as to injure the business of other manufacturers, who
declare themselves unable to compete with FRANCE
the Trappists, because the latter are subThe Roman Catholic Church. sidized by the government. Among the THE CATHOLIC Party has taken great associations, the new Society of St. Francis offense at the warlike demonstration of de Sales, which was founded about a year Louis Napoleon against Austria, for it is ago, and whose object is to counteract the favorite dream of the Univers and its the success of the Protestant missionaries followers, that France and Austria are among the Catholic population, has been designed by Providence to reconvert, by prominent for its zeal. A most fanatical their combined influence, and if necessa- sermon was preached at its first anniver. ry by force of arms, the whole of Europe sary, held in Paris, in November, by its to the Roman Catholic Church. Not less president, the blind Monseigneur de Segur, have their feelings been wounded by a who represented history as a warfare bereport of Prince Napoleon, the governor of tween the Lord of Creation, Jesus, his Algeria, to the emperor, on the expediency angels, saints and Christians, his Roman of having the Jewish population of the col. Catholic Church, with its visible head, ony represented in the Councils-General, in the Pope, on one side, and the first of order to manifest, by an act of government, created beings after the Holy Virgin, that the equality of creeds before the namely, Lucifer, the revolted archangel, laws of France is absolute and complete. his demons, hypocrites, infidels, heretics, Prince Napoleon has never been considered with all his emissaries, without a visible as & docile son of the Church, but the head, on the other. The annual report appointment of four Israelites as mem- furnished numerous items showing the bers of the Councils-General of Algiers, geat progress of Protestantism in all parts Oran, and Constantine, has funished a of France.