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rounded with ditches, and very well defended by two strong citadels, that lie on each side thereof, so that it is as it were, a key and doorway into the kingdom of Perfia, to which it doth also belong, as others not far from thence, viz. Orthox, Laigen, which lie on the road towards Media ; and also Goa, which lieth a league and an a half at the other side of the Tygris, and Axt, two leagues farther still, in the way to Perfia.

The next day, being the 25th of O&tober, we spent in bespeaking of camels and asses to load our goods upon, and after we were quite ready, we broke up the day following early in the morning with the whole caravan, to travel to Bagdat. In the beginning the ways were very rough, by the stones and ruins that lie still from thence dispersed. But after we were passed the castle and also the town of Daniel, the dry desarts began again, where nothing was to be seen but thorns, neither men nor beasts, neither caves nor tents, so that a man that knoweth the ways never so well, hath enough to do to find them through it, which I did often observe in our guide or Caliphi, who did several times, because there was neither way nor mark neither of men nor beasts to be found, very much doubt which way to turn himself, and so he did more than once turn fometimes toward one, than towards the other side the whole caravan. way we saw in the plain many large, ancient, high, and stately buildings, arches, and turrets standing in the land, which is very fine, and lieth close together, as you find it in the valleys, here and there, whereof many were decay'd and lay in ruins ; some to look upon were pretty entire, very strong, adorn’d with artificial works, lo that they were very well worth being more rowly look'd into. Thus they stand folitary and defolated, save only the steeple of Daniel, which is intire, built of black stones, and is inhabited still unto this day; this is in height and building something like unto our steeple of the Holy Cross church, or of St Maurice in Augsburg ; on which as it stands by itself, you may see all the ruins of the old Babylonian tower, the castle-hill, together with the stately buildings, and the whole situation of the old town very exactly.

By the



After we had travellid for twelve hours through desolate places, very hard, so that our camels and asses began to be tired under their heavy burdens, we rested and lodged ourselves near to an ascent, we and our beasts, to refresh ourselves, and fo to stay there till night, and to break up again in the middle thereof, that we might come to Bagdat before sun-rising. The mean while, when we were lodged there, I consider'd and view'd this afcent, and found that there was two behind one another, distinguish'd by a ditch, and extending themselves like unto two parallel walls a great way about, and that they were open in some places, where one might go through like gates; wherefore I believe that they were the walls of the old town, whereof Pliny says that they were two hundred foot high, and fifty broad, that went about there, and that the places where they were open, have been anciently the gates of that town, whereof there were a hundred iron ones ; and this the rather, because I saw in some places under the fand, wherewith the two ascents were almost cover'd, the old wall plainly appear. So we found ourselves to be just lodged without the walls of that formerly so famous kingly city, which now with it's magnificent and glorious buildings, is quite desolated and lieth in the dust, so that every one that paffeth through it, in regard of them, hath great reason to admire with astonishment, when he confiders, that this city, which hath been so glorious an one, and in which the greatest monarchs and kings that ever were (Nimrod, Belus, and after him King Merodach and his pofterity to Balthafar the last) have had their seats and habitations, is now reduced to such a desolation and wilderness, that the very shepherds cannot abide to fix their tent; there to inhabit it. So that here is a most terrible example to all impious and haughty tyrants, shewn in Babylon, which may be sure, that if they do not give over in time, and leave their tyranny, ceasing to persecute the innocent with war, sword, prison, and all other cruel and inhuman plagues, as these did the people of God the Israelites, that God the Almighty will also come upon them, and for their transgressions puníh them in his anger, for God is a jealous God, that at long run, will not endure the pride of tyrants,



nor leave unpunish'd the potentates that aMict his people ; wherefore be sure, he will also in them verify the prophecies which he had utter'd by the Prophet Ilaiah, in his thirteenth chapter, and Jeremiah in the Áfty first, against those insolent and haughty Babylonians.

As I passed by, I found some thorns growing in the fand, viz. the Acacia, callid Agul, whereon, chiefly in Persia, the Manna falls, whereof I have made mention before : Above all I found in great plenty fome strange kinds of Cali of Serapio, of Coloquints. When evening fell in, and the night did approach, our mockeries that drove the afles, made themselves ready again for our journey; who kept every thing together, in good order, and were so quick in loading and unloading, that they were ready in less than a quarter of an hour. By the way I saw again several antiquitics, but the night falling in I lost them ; so we went on a-pace in darkness, so that we did arrive at Bagdat, by some call’d Baldac, two hours before day. In the morning, which was the twenty seventh of Oxtober, I and one of my comrades took our lodging at an eminent Merchant's house, that belonged to Aleppo, and was lately come from the Indies ; he received us kindly, and very readily, and kept us for four days, when we took a shop in the great camp of the Turkish Bashaw, in the other town, on the other side of the Tygris, which we went into.


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Of the famous city of Bagdat, called Baldac; of its

situation, strange plants, great traffic, and Merchants of several nations that live there, together with several other things I saw and did learn at my departing


HE town Bagdat, belonging to the Turkish Emperor, is situated on the most easterly part of his dominions, on the rapid river Tygris

, and the confines of Perfia, in a large plain, almost like unto Basiel on the Rhine, it is divided into two parts, which are rather bigger than Bafiel, but nothing near so pleasant, nor so well built, for the streets thereof are pretty narrow, and many houses fo miserably built that some of them are down to the first story, and others lie quite in ruins. The case is the same with the churches, which for age look black, and are so much decay'd, that you shall hardly find a whole one; whereon are still several old Arabian, or rather Chaldean inscriptions to be seen, cut out in stone, by the means whereof many antiquities of the town might have been truly explain’d, but I could not only not read them, but could get no body that could interpret them to me.

There are fome buildings that are worth seeing, as the cmp of the Turkish Bathaw, and the great Batzar or Exchange beyond the river in the other town, and the Baths which are not to be

compared with those of Aleppo and Tripoli, for they are at the bottom and on the walls done over with pitch, which maketh them so black and dark, that even in the day time, you have but little light. There being two towns, one of them which lieth on this side is quite open, so that you may go in and out by night without any molestation ; wherefore it should rather be call’d a village great than 2 town ; but the other that lieth towards Persia on the confines of Allyria, is very well fortifieth with walls and ditches, chiefly towards the Tygris, where there are allo some towers, two whereof are within by the gates that lead towards the water fide, to guard them, and between them are the old high walls of the town, whereon on the top are stately writin-s, with golden letters, cach whereof is about a foot long, to be seen ; the true meaning thereof I would fain have learned, but for want of understanding and interpreters, I could not obtain it, but was forced to go without it. Near unto it there is a bridge made of boats, that reacheth over the Tigris into the other town, which in that place is about as broad as the Rhine is at Strasburg, and because of it's rapid stream fo dark and dull, that it is a difinal fight to look upon it, and may easily turn a man's head and make him giddy. This river runneth not much below the town into the Euphrates, and so they run mixt together into the Persian gulf, by the town Balsara, which is fix days journey distance from thence eastwards. These two towns as is faid, at the river Tygris, were many years agone built out of the ruinated city of Babylon, whereof the one on the other fide of the river is accounted to be the town of Se. leucia of Babylon, and that on this fide, which is more like unto an open village, is believed to be the town Ctefiphonta. Strabo, in bcok XV, doth testify this, when he writes thus of them : That Babla hath formerly been the metropolis of Assyria, and that after it's devastation, the town of Scleucia, situated upon the Tygris, near which was a great village, wherein the king of the Parthians did kcep his residence for the

town ; lech

Pliny maketh also mention thereof in his fixth book, and in the twenty fixth and twenty seventh chapter, viz. That the two towns of Seleucia of Bue bylon, and Ctesiphonta, were built out of the ruins of the old city, and that the river Tygris runs between them. In the town Seleucia, stands in a large place, the castle, which is without guarded neither with walls nor ditches, nor is quite finith'd within. Before it lie some pieces of ordnance in the road, which are so daubed with dirt, that they are almost quite covered. In it dwel

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