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them, yet they have abundance of bucks and goats skins blown up, hung or fixed underneath the bottom, without doubt, by reason that they may load the more upon them, and also because the river is rapid, that they may have the less fear or danger. On these floats they carry several sorts of merchandizes, but chiefly fruit, viz. Figs, Almonds, Cibebs, Nuts, Corn, Wine, Soap, &c. a great part whereof goeth farther into the Indies.

The last day of December we travelld on, and came through well tilld fields about night into the town Harpel, which is pretty large, but very pitifully built, and iniferably furrounded with walls, so that it might easily be taken without any great strength or loss; there we rested again the next day being the Sabbath, and on the fame day fell New-Years-Day. In the mean time I understood that the Turkish Sangiack did a few days ago condemn and put to execution eight great malefactors, which made it their business to rob and to commit murder up and down on the high-way, for there are a great many of these rogues in this province, chiefly on the borders of Armenia, which are very mountainous, and maketh travelling very dangerous. The relations and friends of these murderers and robbers did take this very ill, that the Sangiack should execute them, and were resolved to be revenged of him one way or other. In order thereunto they combined and agreed all together, and had every thing ready, and only staid for the word to fall upon him, which : would have been done accordingly, if he had not had good intelligence of this their intention, wherefore he went away incognito for Constantinople, to complain to the Turkish Emperor of this their unjust proceedings, and what they must expect for this, they will know in a short time. This Sangiack, when he found necessity of making his escape, and found that he wanted money, which is very feldom, he took up from an Armenian Merchant, that was very rich, and was arrived there to buy several merchandizes, chiefly Gauls, whereof grow many in these parts, 300 ducats, which


the Merchant into great danger ; for when these rebellious people came to understond it, they took it very ill of him, and threaten'd him very much, so that he was


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forced to stay some days longer for more company, that so he might go the safer.

After we had joined him, we went from thence on the fifth of January in a very handsome number, for the Merchant alone had about fifty camels and asses, which were only loaden with Gauls, with him, to carry to Carahemit, where he lived, and to send from thence to Aleppo, where they are bought by our Merchants, to be sent into our country. So we travell’d all day long and also half the night, without eating or drinking, very fast, and began to rest about midnight. After we had for the remaining part of the night hardly refreshed our beasts and ourselves with eating and drinking a little, we broke up again before day-light, to go on in our way. When we were gone a good way through fruitful and pleasant vallies, we came betimes to another river by Ptolomy callid Caprus, which although it is not very broad, yet it is very deep, fo that we had much to do to get through, which I found not without a great detriment to my plants, which I carry'd on horse-back

before me.

Soon after noon a great way off before us, appcar'd a great market-town, Carcuschey, where we arrived by night, and fix'd our camp without and pretty near to it. This is quite inhabited by Armenians, which we could presently find by the alteration of the language and their habit. They received us very willingly, and let us want for nothing. After we had staid with them till night, and refreth'd ourselves and our beasts, we broke up again immediately and travellid all night, which was so dark, that we heard several caravans that met us, but could not see them, much less know how strong they were, or from whence they came. At brcak of day we came to another much larger river, by the inhabitants calld Kling, if I do not mistake, and by Ptolomny, Licus, which hindred us very much in our day's journey ; for the river being very broad, at least a long mile, it was. very hard to hit exactly the right ford, and not without great danger, which the Curters knew very well, so that we were also in great fear of them.

But after some were found in our company that had often forded that river formerly, we ventured it, went in, and got over, thanks

be to God, very safe, only one ass which went over below us, where the stream went stronger, was drown'd, so that we arriv’d very early on the seventh of January, to the Tygris again, and went into the famous city Mosel, that lieth on this side of the river, over a bridge made of boats. This is situated in the country of the Curters, and so we were forced still to keep our interpreter. It belongeth to the Turkish Emperor, as do all the rest hereabouts. There are some very good buildings and streets in it, and it is pretty large ; but very ill provided with walls and ditches, as I did observe from the top of cur camp which extended to it. Besides this, I also saw just without the town a little hill, that was almost quite duz through, and inhabited by poor people, where I saw them several times creep in and out as pilmires in ant-hills. In this place and thereabouts stood formerly the potent town of Nineveh, built by Abur, which was the metropolis of Asyria, under the Monarch of the first monarchy, to the time of Sennacherib and his sons, and was about three days journey in length. So we read that the Prophet Jonas, when at the command of God, he preach'd repentance to them, did go into it one day's journey, which the people did hearken willingly unto, and did imend their lives, but they did not long remain penitent, but turn’d to their former iniquity again, wherefore their deftruction and ruin was prognosticated to them by the Prophets Nahum and Zephania, and also by the pious Tobias, that did live there again, which did also not long after follow. Yet was it re-built again afterwards, and did suffer very much upon changes of governments, until at length Tamerlane came and took it by storm, burnt it, and reduced it to that degree, that afterwards in the same place grew Beans and Colocasia, &c. So that at this time there is nothing of any antiquities to be seen as in old Babylon, fave only the fort that lieth upon the hill, and some few villages, which as the inhahitants say, did also belong to it in former days.. This town lieth on the confines of Armenia, in a large plain, where they fow the greatest part of their corn, on the other side of the river; for on this fide in Mesopotamia it is so fandy and dry, that you would think you were in the middle of the defarts of Arabia. Yet there is a very large deposition of merchandizes, because of the river ; wherefore several goods and fruits are brought thither from the adjacent countries, both by land and water, to ship them for Bagdat. Among the rest I saw abundance of small and great Turpentine-nuts, by the inhabitants call'd, as above-faid, Bont-quiber and Sougier ; and also another sort of Manna as big as a double fift, which is very common here, and is brought from Armenia, as they told me. It is of a brown colour, a great deal bigger and firmer, and not so sweet as that of Calabria, yet very good and pleasant to eat. Within it are several red grains, so small that one taketh no notice of them when one eats it. It looseneth the body very well, but not so much as ours, wherefore the inhabitants eat great pieces thereof in the morning, as the country-men on the mountains of Algaw eat cheese. But whether the Arabians make mention thereof, if it be not the Manna Alhagiezi, whereof Avicenna in his second book, the second treatise, and the 758th chapter maketh mention, I know not neither what it is to be reputed. The town Mossel, is as abovesaid, for the greatest part inhabited by Neftorians, which pretend to be Christians, but in reality they are worse than any other nations whatsoever, for they do almost nothing else, but rob on the high-ways, and fall upon travellers and kill them : therefore being that the roads chiefly to Zibin (to which we had five days journey, and for the most part through fandy wildernesses) are very dangerous, we staid some days longer, expecting more company that we might go the surer.

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C H A P.

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Which way we went through Mefopotamia by the

way of Zibin and Orpha, to Bir, not without a a great deal of danger ; and afterwards how we paljed the great river Euphrates, and came at last into Syria by Nisib, to the famous town of Aleppo.


FTER our journey had been deferr’d for

four days, we broke up on the eleventh of Ja

nuary several hundred strong, and went on for the whole day without eating, with all speed until the sun-set at night, when we encamp'd on an ascent near a small village, to keep our beasts and goods safe, and to refresh ourselves and them. We watch'd all night long, and went continually three and three together, round ' about our camp by turss.

The next day we proceeded on again in our journey with all speed, rather for a good fountain or spring's sake, as they do in these countries in the vast desarts, than to reach a good inn, where we arrived late at night, and encamp'd near it, to stay all night to reft. A little after when we were at supper, some of the Curters came to us into our camp, spoke to us kindly, and ask'd us whether we did want any thing that they could help us to, but we soon perceived them to be spies, that were fent by their companions, to see what strength we were of. But when they perceived that we were not pleased with them, they did not stay but went away, and we composed ourselves to reít, but kept a good guard as we li dond the night before. About midnight when we were in our first sleep, our watch-men perceived a great number of the Curters to approach, wherefore they awak'd us with a great shouting to alarm us the sooner,


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