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are something long withal, I rather judge it to be the Hafce of the Arabians, or the true Thyme of Diofc. which we call Serpillum Romanum. It hath as pleasant an acri. mony as any spice can have, wherefore the inhabitants use it very much, whole or in powder, at home and abroad, with and without their meat, chiefly for to correct an ill digestion of their stomach. This herb is never found in our Apothecaries flops, they take another in it's room, which hath lesier and greener heads, and is rather the first Satureia of Diofc. brought from Candia. There are also two sorts of Clinopodium, whereof the lesser and tenderer (considering it's long stalks, leaves and Aowers, which grow in good order, and at equal distances one over the other) may very well be taken for the true one of the Diofc. There are also llex minor, Sabina baccifera, Terebinthus, and many more.
In the town are found several strange plants; one called Musa, whereof the stalks are from nine to twelve foot high, which are smooth, and without they are inclosed in their leaves, and often quite surrounded like our reeds, of a fine shining green ; at the top thereof the leaves spread themselves out, and look like a great bush of feathers, for they are very long, and so broad, that the biggest person may lie upon them with his whole body very well. These leaves have a rib in the middle, which keepeth them up streight, and so strongly, that although the wind breaketh them at the fides in several places, yet notwithstanding they remain upright. These trees bear their fruit no more than once, wherefore they are cut down, and so the root shoots out several other stalks about a foot distant from the old one, which grow up again, and bring forth fruit, which groweth on a thick stalk in great numbers ; they are almost shaped like the Citruls, round and bended, only they are less, smooth without, invironed with a thick rind, which is first yellow, but when they are kept a few days it grows black, it is easily separated when they are new; within they are whitish, full of seeds, fweet and good to eat; but they fill mightily, and are apt to gripe: Wherefore, (as Theophrastus mentioneth in the fifth chapter of his fourth book) Alexander the Great forbid his army to eat them, when
he went into the Indies. There groweth but very little of this fruit about Tripoli, but it is brought from the neighbouring places plentifully. We also find there another tree, not unlike unto our Privett, by the Arabians called Alcana, or Henne, and by the Grecians, in their vulgar tongue Schenna, which they have from Egypt, where, but above all in Cayro, they grow in abundance. The Turks and Moors nurse these up with great care and diligence, because of their sweet-smelling flowers, and put them into earthen pots, or wooden cases or boxes, to keep them in the winter in vaults from the frost, which they cannot endure. And because they hardly begin to sprout before August, they water them with Soap-fuds, but others lay lime about the root, to make it put forth the earlier, that it may flower the fooner, because of the pleasantness of the finell of the flowers, which is somewhat like musk : They are of a pale yellow colour, and stand in spikes of the length of a span, but not very close, so that leaves appear between them; their twigs are also of the fame colour, whereof many are sent to us, to cleanse the teeth with, as it were with a brush, when they are bruised a little at the ends. They also, as I am informed, keep their leaves all winter, which leaves they powder and mix with the juice of Citrons, and stain therewith, against great holydays, the hair and nails of their children of a red colour, which colour perhaps may be seen with us on the mains and tails of Turkish horses. The powder is greenish, and so common with them, that you see in their Batzars whole bags full thereof standing before their shops, which come from Ægypt and Africa, from whence whole ship-loads are sent through Turky, as I have seen myself in this harbour several, from whence the Turkish Emperor hath yearly a great revenue. The Arabians burn their Spodium out of the root thereof, as Avicenna remarks in his seventeenth chap. This being thus, it appeareth that there is no small difference between these two, ours and theirs ; I am of opinion, that theirs (which is mentioned in the first chapter of Solomon's Song) is liker to that which Dioscor. describeth, than our Ligustrum.
Thereabouts is also found within and without the gardens a peculiar sort of mallows, by them called Chethince, which is very large, and high, and, like other trees, spreads it's woody twigs and soft boughs, that are covered with a brownish bark; amongst the rest I saw one as big as a man's middle, the leaves thereof are of a dark green, long, and at the sides towards the point crenated; it's flowers are rather bigger than other mallows, of a blew colour; their feeds I did never see. Hard by I found another outlandish Doschet Aower, which was almost decay'd, so that it had neither leaves, flowers nor seeds : It was about three foot high, the stem and twigs were hairy, hollow within as other stalks, of a green colour, inclining somewhat to yellow, which had at top many other shoots, each of them had behind like unto other tree-stems it's proper joint. This is so juicy quite through, that it drops almost with milk, which is sharper than any spurge. I made great inquiry of them about it, but could have no certain account thereof; but as it feemed to me, it is very like unto Xabra and Camarronus of Rhafis by the Arabians called Tanaghut and Sabeam, and may be taken, according to that author's description, for it.
Farther hereabouts, chiefly in the town upon the cisterns and conduits, I found Adiantum, by the Apothecaries called Capillus Veneris, and in old walls the Apollinaris. I also found in the shops in their Batzars two sorts of roots, whereof one was rounder, which may be the Bulcigeni of the Venetians, which are called Thrası at Verona, where they grow (as the learned Maltbiolus teftifieth) many of these are sent out of Egypt to Tripoli, and fold there, chiefly to eat in June, by the name of Habel, Affis and Altzis, this being true, and they being very like both in name and quality to the grains of Altzelem of the Arabians, they must be the fame, although Rhafis reckoneth these amongst the fruits. The other called by them Hakinrigi, and Hakeuribi is somewhat longer, not unlike to our Doronicum ; there is also a great many of them to be fold ; they are hard, of a sweetish taste, with a piercing bitterness, and in their bigness, and white nerves (which spread themfelves under ground in the gardens round about like unto the wild
Angelica Angelica of Tragus) fo like to the Haronigi Serapionis, and to the Durungi and Durunegi of Avicenna, according to their description, and so uniform, that they must be taken for the fame. Then I found also in their shops abundance of the seeds of Sumach, whereof they make a red powder, to excite the appetite of the stomach. These and more strange and unknown fimples I did find at Tripolis. But because it would be too tedious to describe them all, therefore I have only made mention of those that authors have describ’d.
C HA P. V.
Which way I travelld from Tripolis farther to the
two famous cities of Damant and Halepo.
polis, and had obferved that city, it's building, and pleasant situation, and moreover the manners, customs, and habits, as well of the low as high ones, I propounded' to myself to travel to Aleppo, which is almost the biggest, and the most famous trading city of Syria, which lies five or fix days journey towards the north-east of Tripolis. And when I met with fome companions, to travel with me, we stored ourselves with provisions, viz. bread, cheese, eggs, &c. for our journey, and so. set out of Tripolis the ninth of Novemb. Anno 1573:
By the way we met with a great deal of rain, which commonly begins at that time of the year, and continueth almost all the winter long; this kept us so much back, that we reached not to Damant, which is in the mid-way from Tripolis to Aleppo, before the fourth day. There we lodged in one of their great Champs, callid Carvatscharas, where we had a chamber aslign'd us, in which we found neither table nor chairs, nor bench, nor bed, only upon the floor was laid a Stromatzo, twisted of canes, which was to serve us instead of them all. There we bought in their Batzar some victuals according to our pleasure, and faid there
all night long. The town, which some take to be the old Apamia, is pretty big, and pretty well built ; it lies in a valley between hills, so that you can see nothing of it, the castle only excepted, which lieth on the hill, and guardeth it very well, before you are just come to it.
Round about it there are many orchards and kitchen-gardens, which they water out of the river Hafce, which is pretty large, and runs thro' the town, The water they lift up with wheels, fix’d in the river for that purpose, that pour it into chan. nels that carry it into the gardens, and so water them in the great heat of the sun, to refresh them. These gardens had been worth my seeing, but my fellowtravellers were in haste, and so we put on the next morning for Aleppo.
By the way we saw very good corn-fields, vineyards, and fields planted with cotton, which is brought from thence, and sold to us under the name of the place where it grew, and also filks and other goods that are bought there at the first hand. In these countries are a great many wild affes, call’d Onagri, the skins of them are very strong to wear, and as they prepare them, finely frock'd on the outside as strawberries are, or like the skin of the Sepia, or cuttle-fish, wherefore they commonly make their scabbards for their scymiters, and sheaths of their knives thereof. Their blades are water'd on both sides very subtilly ; they are made of good metal, well harden'd, and so sharp, chiefly those that are made in Damascus, that you may cut with them a very strong nail in pieces, without any hurt to the blade. They wear rather knives than daggers, which they tie to their girdles with finely wrought tapes, by their backs.
When we went on and came to the promontory of mount Libanus, we saw abundance of villages by the way, which for the most part are inhabited by Chriftians, viz. Syrians, Maronites, &c. with whom we did lodge sometimes over-night; these entertain'd us very civilly, and gave us such wine to drink as grew on the mountains, than which I hardly remember I ever drank better. Amongst the rest of the villages we came to one cald Hanal, lying high in a fruitful country,