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the other faculties above mentioned, produces the art of painting.

Beyond these lie the organs of Time and Tune, forming the foundation of all the delights of music.

Last, and highest in the scale, lies Ideality, the love of all that is great, beautiful, and perfect,—the origin of divine poesy.

The organs that have been mentioned are not only essential to the arts, but afford the basis of several of the most useful sciences.

The forms and colours of the stems, leaves, calyx, corolla, stamens, pistils, and other parts of the plant, their relative sizes, their number, and the order or physical arrangement in which they occur,-these afford the means of botanical classification, and are the foundation of the science of botany.

In chemistry, every different substance is compounded, or combines with others, in certain proportions of weight and volume, the proportions being ascertained by number.

The objects of mechanical science, including mechanics proper, hydrostatics, hydraulics, astronomy, are all included under form, and size, and weight, and time or motion, and the relations or proportions of these are all capable of being measured or calculated by number.

In the higher mathematics, signs are substituted for numbers, and the intermediate steps of the process of calculation being gone through by their means, the results may be reduced to numbers again, when this is required for practical purposes.

Above the organs appropriated to the arts, and to chemical and mechanical science, lie those of the knowing faculties. These are Individuality, which takes cognizance of objects, and Eventuality, which has regard to occurrences and events. Objects are distinguished

by their respective forms, sizes, weight, colour, for the observation of each of which there is a separate faculty. Individuality takes up the separate items of information afforded by these, and combines the whole into the perception of an individual object. Events are distinguished as they occur in time and place, in order or in number, and these particulars, or items of information, are taken up by Eventuality, and combined into the conception of an event. In both, the matter conceived or apprehended of, is a complex one, including a variety of particulars; and when these are all fully understood, we are said to comprehend them. At one time, these two faculties, or rather these organs, were termed the higher and lower Individuality,—a name which may still be retained, even though we admit the functions to be as here stated,-— the one taking cognizance of individual objects, the other of individual events; the one regarding things as they exist in space, and the other as they exist in time. The position of the two organs favours this supposition, the first resting upon and between the organs of Locality, and the latter being in contact, on each side, with the organ of Time.

The situation of the organs of these two faculties, giving the memory of facts and events, corresponds most remarkably with what metaphysicians have observed of those principles of association, by which past objects and events are brought to our recollection. The principal of those associating links which aid the memory, and assist in recalling ideas to the mind, are contiguity of time and place, resemblance and contrast, and the relation of cause and effect. Accordingly, we find these organs of Individuality and Eventuality absolutely surrounded on all sides, by those of Locality and Time; Comparison, which observes resemblance; Wit, which observes contrasts; and Causality, which takes cognizance of causes and effects.

This coincidence has long struck me as very remarkable, if not, indeed, the most remarkable that occurs in regard to the position of the organs.


The organs of the three reflecting faculties, as they have been called, lie at the top of the forehead, in the precise order that is most fit,- Comparison, which discovers relations of resemblance, as being the most important, being placed in the midst. Upon this faculty, depends the formation of abstract ideas, and the origi`nating of all terms expressive of mental qualities. On each side of this lies Causality, which discovers the relations of proportion and fitness, from which we infer cause and effect. Beyond this lie the organs of Wit, the faculty which perceives and delights in strong contrasts and violent incongruities; and beyond these, and behind them, on each side, the organs of Ideality, a faculty which takes cognizance of relations the most refined and subtle of all, giving rise to that most mysterious and undefinable of all qualities, BEAUTY.

Above, and touching upon Comparison, and on each side of the organ of Benevolence, lie the organs of Imitation, which we have mentioned to partake both of the nature of a feeling and an intellectual faculty. Its position seems well adapted to its function, the faculty which leads to imitating or forming resemblances being fitly placed beside that which gives ideas of resemblance. Next this, and adjoining to the organ of Causality, lies that of Wonder, the position of which seems no less proper. Causality leads to knowledge of those things most removed from our senses; knowledge which does not come to us directly, but by a process of reasoning, but which may, nevertheless, be perfect in its kind. But the object of Wonder is not perfect knowledge, but

* See Essay on Comparison before mentioned, also Dr Thomas. Brown's Lecture on the Feeling of Resemblance.

imperfect, or, as Lord Bacon calls it, "broken knowledge," where sense, and even reason fail us,- at once inviting and checking our curiosity, and leaving us standing as it were on the brink of a flood, of which the most perspicacious ken cannot discern the farther side.

We are thus arrived at the utmost bounds of reason, beyond which intellect cannot penetrate, and where we feel sensible of all the weakness and ignorance of our nature. But in contemplating what lies beyond, two feelings seem especially called into action,-Hope and Fear. And so it is, that the organs of these feelings lie in a line behind and adjoining that of Wonder, the first holding, as it deserves, the more eminent place. Immediately behind Wonder, lies the organ of Hope, leading us to paint the future and unknown with the gayest and most flattering colours, in which it is aided by Ideality, lying immediately below it. But as if to keep these feelings in check, and to prevent us indulging too much in dreams of bliss which may never be realized, there lies behind the organ of Caution, whose office it is to warn against possible evil, to suggest doubts and difficulties, to repress presumption, and even, when apparent danger presses closely, to inspire the most lively feelings of fear and terror.

We thus have seen, on carefully considering the grouping of the faculties, that there is no hard defined boundary between intellectual faculties and feelings, but that the former are shaded into the latter by nice and almost imperceptible gradations.

We now come to the coronal surface, where we find a group of faculties or feelings the highest of all, forming the proper distinctive character of man, and placing it at an infinite height above that of the highest of the brutes.

First, in the front, and in the medial line, as indicating

its superior nature, lies the organ of Benevolence, leading us, as we have seen, to desire the happiness of others. It is placed immediately above, and in contact with, the organs of the intellect, as intimating that the intellectual powers ought ever to be used for promoting the good of our fellow-creatures.

Adjoining to Benevolence, or the social principle, leading to the love of and a regard to the welfare of all mankind, and including a merciful disposition to the brute creation, we find, next behind it in the medial line, the organ of Veneration, inspiring deference to our superiors, subjection to our parents, loyalty to our sovereign and those in authority, and religious awe and piety towards the Supreme Being. This principle forms the groundwork of all our most sacred institutions, of all government, and of all religion. This feeling, if strong, as it is in all the highest characters, might perhaps prove too overwhelming, and lead to an undue prostration of the faculties, were it not supported behind by Firmness and Self-esteem, and on each side by Hope, the first two producing confidence in ourselves, the latter trust in our good fortune, and in the Divine goodness and mercy.

Farther back, immediately behind the organ of Hope, we find Conscientiousness, giving rise to the feelings of justice and equity, lying between Firmness and Cautiousness, which are exactly the feelings most necessary to regulate its movements. Caution is, of all others, most important to be attended to in deciding as to what is just; but after the decision is formed on proper grounds, the most inflexible firmness is necessary to carry that decision into execution.

Conscientiousness is well placed in another respect, lying as it does half way between the love of self, and the objects connected with self, — Veneration, which


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